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1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
d1d15184 11 (D) A deprecation (enabled by default).
00eb3f2b 12 (S) A severe warning (enabled by default).
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13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
75b44862 18The majority of messages from the first three classifications above
64977eb6 19(W, D & S) can be controlled using the C<warnings> pragma.
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20
21If a message can be controlled by the C<warnings> pragma, its warning
22category is included with the classification letter in the description
23below.
24
25Optional warnings are enabled by using the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-w>
26and B<-W> switches. Warnings may be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}>
27to a reference to a routine that will be called on each warning instead
28of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
29
b7eceb5b 30Severe warnings are always enabled, unless they are explicitly disabled
e476b1b5 31with the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-X> switch.
4438c4b7 32
748a9306 33Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
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34L<perlfunc/eval>. In almost all cases, warnings may be selectively
35disabled or promoted to fatal errors using the C<warnings> pragma.
36See L<warnings>.
a0d0e21e 37
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38The messages are in alphabetical order, without regard to upper or
39lower-case. Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are
40denoted with a %s or other printf-style escape. These escapes are
41ignored by the alphabetical order, as are all characters other than
42letters. To look up your message, just ignore anything that is not a
43letter.
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44
45=over 4
46
6df41af2 47=item accept() on closed socket %s
33633739 48
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49(W closed) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget
50to check the return value of your socket() call? See
51L<perlfunc/accept>.
33633739 52
de42a5a9 53=item Allocation too large: %x
a0d0e21e 54
6df41af2 55(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e 56
1109a392 57=item '%c' allowed only after types %s
ef54e1a4 58
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59(F) The modifiers '!', '<' and '>' are allowed in pack() or unpack() only
60after certain types. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
ef54e1a4 61
6df41af2 62=item Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
43192e07 63
75b44862 64(W ambiguous) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl
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65keyword, and you have used the name without qualification for calling
66one or the other. Perl decided to call the builtin because the
67subroutine is not imported.
43192e07 68
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69To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand
70before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.
71Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's
72imported with the C<use subs> pragma).
43192e07 73
6df41af2 74To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the C<CORE::> prefix
496a33f5 75on the operator (e.g. C<CORE::log($x)>) or declare the subroutine
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76to be an object method (see L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes"> or
77L<attributes>).
43192e07 78
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79=item Ambiguous range in transliteration operator
80
81(F) You wrote something like C<tr/a-z-0//> which doesn't mean anything at
82all. To include a C<-> character in a transliteration, put it either
83first or last. (In the past, C<tr/a-z-0//> was synonymous with
84C<tr/a-y//>, which was probably not what you would have expected.)
85
6df41af2 86=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
43192e07 87
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88(W ambiguous)(S) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
89you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
90a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
a0d0e21e 91
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92=item Ambiguous use of %c resolved as operator %c
93
94(W ambiguous) C<%>, C<&>, and C<*> are both infix operators (modulus,
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95bitwise and, and multiplication) I<and> initial special characters
96(denoting hashes, subroutines and typeglobs), and you said something
97like C<*foo * foo> that might be interpreted as either of them. We
98assumed you meant the infix operator, but please try to make it more
99clear -- in the example given, you might write C<*foo * foo()> if you
100really meant to multiply a glob by the result of calling a function.
d8225693 101
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102=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s} resolved to %c%s
103
104(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<@{foo}>, which might be
105asking for the variable C<@foo>, or it might be calling a function
106named foo, and dereferencing it as an array reference. If you wanted
1cecf2c0 107the variable, you can just write C<@foo>. If you wanted to call the
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108function, write C<@{foo()}> ... or you could just not have a variable
109and a function with the same name, and save yourself a lot of trouble.
110
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111=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s[...]} resolved to %c%s[...]
112
113=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s{...}} resolved to %c%s{...}
4da60377 114
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115(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<${foo[2]}> (where foo
116represents the name of a Perl keyword), which might be looking for
117element number 2 of the array named C<@foo>, in which case please write
118C<$foo[2]>, or you might have meant to pass an anonymous arrayref to
119the function named foo, and then do a scalar deref on the value it
120returns. If you meant that, write C<${foo([2])}>.
121
122In regular expressions, the C<${foo[2]}> syntax is sometimes necessary
123to disambiguate between array subscripts and character classes.
124C</$length[2345]/>, for instance, will be interpreted as C<$length>
125followed by the character class C<[2345]>. If an array subscript is what
126you want, you can avoid the warning by changing C</${length[2345]}/>
127to the unsightly C</${\$length[2345]}/>, by renaming your array to
128something that does not coincide with a built-in keyword, or by
129simply turning off warnings with C<no warnings 'ambiguous';>.
4da60377 130
bdac9d71 131=item Ambiguous use of -%s resolved as -&%s()
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132
133(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<-foo>, which might be the
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134string C<"-foo">, or a call to the function C<foo>, negated. If you meant
135the string, just write C<"-foo">. If you meant the function call,
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136write C<-foo()>.
137
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138=item Ambiguous use of 's//le...' resolved as 's// le...'; Rewrite as 's//el' if you meant 'use locale rules and evaluate rhs as an expression'. In Perl 5.16, it will be resolved the other way
139
140(W deprecated, ambiguous) You wrote a pattern match with substitution
141immediately followed by "le". In Perl 5.14 and earlier, this is
142resolved as meaning to take the result of the substitution, and see if
143it is stringwise less-than-or-equal-to what follows in the expression.
144Having the "le" immediately following a pattern is deprecated behavior,
145so in Perl 5.16, this expression will be resolved as meaning to do the
146pattern match using the rules of the current locale, and evaluate the
147rhs as an expression when doing the substitution. In 5.14, if you want
148the latter interpretation, you can simply write "el" instead.
149
6df41af2 150=item '|' and '<' may not both be specified on command line
a0d0e21e 151
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152(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
153redirection, and found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to
154redirect STDIN using '<'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
c9f97d15 155
6df41af2 156=item '|' and '>' may not both be specified on command line
1028017a 157
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158(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
159redirection, and thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and
160into a pipe to another command. You need to choose one or the other,
161though nothing's stopping you from piping into a program or Perl script
162which 'splits' output into two streams, such as
1028017a 163
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164 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
165 while (<STDIN>) {
166 print;
167 print OUT;
168 }
169 close OUT;
c9f97d15 170
6df41af2 171=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
eb6e2d6f 172
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173(W misc) The pattern match (C<//>), substitution (C<s///>), and
174transliteration (C<tr///>) operators work on scalar values. If you apply
be771a83 175one of them to an array or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to
ac036724 176a scalar value (the length of an array, or the population info of a
177hash) and then work on that scalar value. This is probably not what
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178you meant to do. See L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for
179alternatives.
eb6e2d6f 180
6df41af2 181=item Arg too short for msgsnd
76cd736e 182
6df41af2 183(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
76cd736e 184
b0fdf69e 185=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or a subroutine
a0d0e21e 186
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187(F) The argument to exists() must be a hash or array element or a
188subroutine with an ampersand, such as:
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189
190 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 191 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
cc1c2e42 192 &do_something
a0d0e21e 193
8ea97a1e 194=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice
5f05dabc 195
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196(F) The argument to delete() must be either a hash or array element,
197such as:
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198
199 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 200 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
5f05dabc 201
8ea97a1e 202or a hash or array slice, such as:
5f05dabc 203
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204 @foo[$bar, $baz, $xyzzy]
205 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
5315574d 206
6df41af2 207=item %s argument is not a subroutine name
a0d0e21e 208
6df41af2 209(F) The argument to exists() for C<exists &sub> must be a subroutine
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210name, and not a subroutine call. C<exists &sub()> will generate this
211error.
a0d0e21e 212
f86702cc 213=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
a0d0e21e 214
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215(W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator
216that expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
217will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
a0d0e21e 218
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219=item Argument list not closed for PerlIO layer "%s"
220
221(W layer) When pushing a layer with arguments onto the Perl I/O system you
222forgot the ) that closes the argument list. (Layers take care of transforming
223data between external and internal representations.) Perl stopped parsing
224the layer list at this point and did not attempt to push this layer.
225If your program didn't explicitly request the failing operation, it may be
226the result of the value of the environment variable PERLIO.
227
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228=item Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
229
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230(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some
231spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
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232
233=item assertion botched: %s
234
21b5e840 235(X) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
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236
237=item Assertion failed: file "%s"
238
21b5e840 239(X) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
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240
241=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
242
243(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
244must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
245know which context to supply to the right side.
246
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247=item A thread exited while %d threads were running
248
4447dfc1 249(W threads)(S) When using threaded Perl, a thread (not necessarily the main
96ebfdd7 250thread) exited while there were still other threads running.
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251Usually it's a good idea first to collect the return values of the
252created threads by joining them, and only then to exit from the main
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253thread. See L<threads>.
254
2393f1b9 255=item Attempt to access disallowed key '%s' in a restricted hash
1b1f1335 256
49293501 257(F) The failing code has attempted to get or set a key which is not in
2393f1b9 258the current set of allowed keys of a restricted hash.
49293501 259
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260=item Attempt to bless into a reference
261
262(F) The CLASSNAME argument to the bless() operator is expected to be
263the name of the package to bless the resulting object into. You've
264supplied instead a reference to something: perhaps you wrote
265
266 bless $self, $proto;
267
268when you intended
269
270 bless $self, ref($proto) || $proto;
271
272If you actually want to bless into the stringified version
273of the reference supplied, you need to stringify it yourself, for
274example by:
275
276 bless $self, "$proto";
277
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278=item Attempt to delete disallowed key '%s' from a restricted hash
279
280(F) The failing code attempted to delete from a restricted hash a key
281which is not in its key set.
282
283=item Attempt to delete readonly key '%s' from a restricted hash
284
285(F) The failing code attempted to delete a key whose value has been
286declared readonly from a restricted hash.
287
de42a5a9 288=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%x
a0d0e21e 289
f84fe999 290(S internal) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas
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291that will be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be
292outside any of those arenas.
a0d0e21e 293
12578ffb 294=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string '%s'%s
bbce6d69 295
f84fe999 296(S internal) Perl maintains a reference-counted internal table of
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297strings to optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other
298strings. This indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count
299of a string that can no longer be found in the table.
bbce6d69 300
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301=item Attempt to free temp prematurely
302
f84fe999 303(S debugging) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the
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304free_tmps() routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the
305SV before the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the
306free_tmps() routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does
307try to free it.
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308
309=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
310
f84fe999 311(S internal) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
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312
313=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar
314
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315(W internal) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to
316see if it would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0
317earlier, and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed.
318This could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or
319that SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was
320mortalized when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been
321corrupted.
a0d0e21e 322
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323=item Attempt to join self
324
325(F) You tried to join a thread from within itself, which is an
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326impossible task. You may be joining the wrong thread, or you may need
327to move the join() to some other thread.
dcdda58d 328
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329=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
330
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331(W pack) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
332function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
333means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
334invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
335literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
336avoid this warning.
84902520 337
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338=item Attempt to reload %s aborted.
339
340(F) You tried to load a file with C<use> or C<require> that failed to
341compile once already. Perl will not try to compile this file again
342unless you delete its entry from %INC. See L<perlfunc/require> and
343L<perlvar/%INC>.
344
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345=item Attempt to set length of freed array
346
347(W) You tried to set the length of an array which has been freed. You
348can do this by storing a reference to the scalar representing the last index
349of an array and later assigning through that reference. For example
350
351 $r = do {my @a; \$#a};
352 $$r = 503
353
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354=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
355
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356(W substr) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr()
357used as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
358dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
b7a902f4 359
c32124fe
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360=item Attribute "locked" is deprecated
361
111a855e 362(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragma to modify the "locked"
c32124fe 363attribute on a code reference. The :locked attribute is obsolete, has had no
a5547419 364effect since 5005 threads were removed, and will be removed in a future
c32124fe
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365release of Perl 5.
366
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367=item Attribute "unique" is deprecated
368
111a855e 369(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragma to modify the "unique"
b7a2910f 370attribute on an array, hash or scalar reference. The :unique attribute has
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371had no effect since Perl 5.8.8, and will be removed in a future release
372of Perl 5.
f1a3ce43 373
de42a5a9 374=item Bad arg length for %s, is %u, should be %d
a0d0e21e 375
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376(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl()
377or shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 378S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
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379S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
380
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381=item Bad evalled substitution pattern
382
496a33f5 383(F) You've used the C</e> switch to evaluate the replacement for a
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384substitution, but perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate,
385most likely an unexpected right brace '}'.
386
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387=item Bad filehandle: %s
388
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389(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the
390symbol has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an
391open(), or did it in another package.
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392
393=item Bad free() ignored
394
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395(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had never
396been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
9ea8bc6d 397setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 0.
33c8a3fe 398
9ea8bc6d 399This message can be seen quite often with DB_File on systems with "hard"
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400dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of C<Berkeley DB>
401which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving> system malloc().
a0d0e21e 402
aa689395
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403=item Bad hash
404
405(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
406
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407=item Badly placed ()'s
408
409(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
410of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
411Perl yourself.
412
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413=item Bad name after %s::
414
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415(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then
416didn't finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside
417of quotes, so
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418
419 $var = 'myvar';
420 $sym = mypack::$var;
421
422is not the same as
423
424 $var = 'myvar';
425 $sym = "mypack::$var";
426
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427=item Bad plugin affecting keyword '%s'
428
429(F) An extension using the keyword plugin mechanism violated the
430plugin API.
431
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432=item Bad realloc() ignored
433
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434(S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that had
435never been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled
4dcecea4 436by setting the environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
4ad56ec9 437
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438=item Bad symbol for array
439
440(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
441wasn't a symbol table entry.
442
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443=item Bad symbol for dirhandle
444
445(P) An internal request asked to add a dirhandle entry to something
446that wasn't a symbol table entry.
447
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448=item Bad symbol for filehandle
449
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450(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something
451that wasn't a symbol table entry.
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452
453=item Bad symbol for hash
454
455(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
456wasn't a symbol table entry.
457
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458=item Bareword found in conditional
459
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460(W bareword) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a
461conditional, which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part
462of the last argument of the previous construct, for example:
34d09196
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463
464 open FOO || die;
465
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466It may also indicate a misspelled constant that has been interpreted as
467a bareword:
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468
469 use constant TYPO => 1;
470 if (TYOP) { print "foo" }
471
472The C<strict> pragma is useful in avoiding such errors.
473
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474=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
475
476(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
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477subroutine identifier, in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>"
478symbol. Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
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479
480=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
481
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482(W bareword) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but the
483compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point. Perhaps
484you need to predeclare a package?
6df41af2 485
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486=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
487
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488(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN
489subroutine. Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is
490exited.
a0d0e21e 491
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492=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
493
494(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
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495implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had already
496occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}> could not
497be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code likely
498depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
68dc0745 499
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500=item \1 better written as $1
501
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502(W syntax) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables.
503The use of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
504substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
505because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better if
506there are more than 9 backreferences.
6df41af2 507
252aa082
JH
508=item Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable
509
e476b1b5 510(W portable) The binary number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
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JH
511(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
512L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 513
69282e91 514=item bind() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 515
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516(W closed) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to
517check the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
a0d0e21e 518
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519=item binmode() on closed filehandle %s
520
521(W unopened) You tried binmode() on a filehandle that was never opened.
4dcecea4 522Check your control flow and number of arguments.
c289d2f7 523
f866a7cd
FC
524=item "\b{" is deprecated; use "\b\{" instead
525
526=item "\B{" is deprecated; use "\B\{" instead
527
528(W deprecated, regexp) Use of an unescaped "{" immediately following a
529C<\b> or C<\B> is now deprecated so as to reserve its use for Perl
530itself in a future release.
531
c5a0f51a
JH
532=item Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
533
e476b1b5 534(W portable) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is non-portable.
c5a0f51a 535
4633a7c4
LW
536=item Bizarre copy of %s in %s
537
be771a83 538(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not
4dcecea4 539copiable.
4633a7c4 540
f675dbe5
CB
541=item Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
542
be771a83
GS
543(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. While Perl was preparing to
544iterate over %ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition
545which was too long, so it was truncated to the string shown.
f675dbe5 546
a0d0e21e
LW
547=item Callback called exit
548
4929bf7b 549(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via call_sv()
a0d0e21e
LW
550exited by calling exit.
551
6df41af2 552=item %s() called too early to check prototype
f675dbe5 553
be771a83
GS
554(W prototype) You've called a function that has a prototype before the
555parser saw a definition or declaration for it, and Perl could not check
556that the call conforms to the prototype. You need to either add an
557early prototype declaration for the subroutine in question, or move the
558subroutine definition ahead of the call to get proper prototype
559checking. Alternatively, if you are certain that you're calling the
560function correctly, you may put an ampersand before the name to avoid
561the warning. See L<perlsub>.
f675dbe5 562
49704364 563=item Cannot compress integer in pack
0258719b
NC
564
565(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was too large to compress. The BER
566compressed integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you
567attempted to compress Infinity or a very large number (> 1e308).
568See L<perlfunc/pack>.
569
49704364 570=item Cannot compress negative numbers in pack
0258719b
NC
571
572(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was negative. The BER compressed integer
573format can only be used with positive integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
574
5c1f4d79
NC
575=item Cannot convert a reference to %s to typeglob
576
577(F) You manipulated Perl's symbol table directly, stored a reference in it,
578then tried to access that symbol via conventional Perl syntax. The access
579triggers Perl to autovivify that typeglob, but it there is no legal conversion
580from that type of reference to a typeglob.
581
ba2fdce6
NC
582=item Cannot copy to %s in %s
583
584(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy a value to an internal type that cannot
4dcecea4 585be directly assigned to.
ba2fdce6 586
b5d97229
RGS
587=item Cannot find encoding "%s"
588
589(S io) You tried to apply an encoding that did not exist to a filehandle,
590either with open() or binmode().
591
96ebfdd7
RK
592=item Can only compress unsigned integers in pack
593
594(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was not an integer. The BER compressed
595integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you attempted
596to compress something else. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
597
a0d0e21e
LW
598=item Can't bless non-reference value
599
600(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
601encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
602
dc57907a
RGS
603=item Can't "break" in a loop topicalizer
604
0d863452
RH
605(F) You called C<break>, but you're in a C<foreach> block rather than
606a C<given> block. You probably meant to use C<next> or C<last>.
607
608=item Can't "break" outside a given block
dc57907a 609
0d863452
RH
610(F) You called C<break>, but you're not inside a C<given> block.
611
6df41af2
GS
612=item Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
613
614(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
615object reference or package name contains an undefined value. Something
616like this will reproduce the error:
6df41af2
GS
617
618 $BADREF = undef;
619 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
620 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
621
a0d0e21e
LW
622=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
623
54310121 624(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
be771a83
GS
625ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but you
626didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't an
627object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
628
629=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
630
631(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
632object reference or package name contains an expression that returns a
633defined value which is neither an object reference nor a package name.
72b5445b
GS
634Something like this will reproduce the error:
635
636 $BADREF = 42;
637 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
638 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
639
a0d0e21e
LW
640=item Can't chdir to %s
641
642(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but C</foo/bar> is not a directory
643that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
644
0545a864 645=item Can't check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid
104d25b7 646
be771a83
GS
647(P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for
648nosuid.
104d25b7 649
22e74366 650=item Can't coerce %s to %s in %s
a0d0e21e
LW
651
652(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 653(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
a0d0e21e
LW
654say things like:
655
656 *foo += 1;
657
658You CAN say
659
660 $foo = *foo;
661 $foo += 1;
662
663but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
664
0d863452 665=item Can't "continue" outside a when block
dc57907a 666
0d863452
RH
667(F) You called C<continue>, but you're not inside a C<when>
668or C<default> block.
669
a0d0e21e
LW
670=item Can't create pipe mailbox
671
be771a83
GS
672(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted
673quotas or other plumbing problems.
a0d0e21e 674
eb64745e
GS
675=item Can't declare %s in "%s"
676
30c282f6
NC
677(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as "my", "our" or
678"state" variables. They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
a0d0e21e 679
6df41af2
GS
680=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
681
be771a83
GS
682(S inplace) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as
683a file in /dev, or a FIFO. The file was ignored.
6df41af2 684
a0d0e21e
LW
685=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
686
be771a83
GS
687(S inplace) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated
688reason.
a0d0e21e 689
54310121 690=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
a0d0e21e 691
be771a83
GS
692(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try
693reading from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say
694C<-i.bak>, or some such.
a0d0e21e 695
10f9c03d 696=item Can't do inplace edit: %s would not be unique
a0d0e21e 697
e476b1b5 698(S inplace) Your filesystem does not support filenames longer than 14
10f9c03d
CK
699characters and Perl was unable to create a unique filename during
700inplace editing with the B<-i> switch. The file was ignored.
a0d0e21e 701
7253e4e3 702=item Can't do {n,m} with n > m in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 703
b45f050a 704(F) Minima must be less than or equal to maxima. If you really want your
7253e4e3 705regexp to match something 0 times, just put {0}. The <-- HERE shows in the
b45f050a 706regular expression about where the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 707
a0d0e21e
LW
708=item Can't do waitpid with flags
709
be771a83
GS
710(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only
711waitpid() without flags is emulated.
a0d0e21e 712
a0d0e21e
LW
713=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
714
be771a83
GS
715(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this
716point. For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #!
717line.
a0d0e21e 718
1109a392
MHM
719=item Can't %s %s-endian %ss on this platform
720
721(F) Your platform's byte-order is neither big-endian nor little-endian,
722or it has a very strange pointer size. Packing and unpacking big- or
723little-endian floating point values and pointers may not be possible.
724See L<perlfunc/pack>.
725
a0d0e21e
LW
726=item Can't exec "%s": %s
727
d1be9408 728(W exec) A system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the
be771a83
GS
729named program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the
730permissions were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in
731C<$ENV{PATH}>, the executable in question was compiled for another
732architecture, or the #! line in a script points to an interpreter that
733can't be run for similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support
734#! at all.)
a0d0e21e
LW
735
736=item Can't exec %s
737
be771a83
GS
738(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because
739that's what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may
740need to mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
a0d0e21e
LW
741
742=item Can't execute %s
743
be771a83
GS
744(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute
745found in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
2a92aaa0 746
6df41af2 747=item Can't find an opnumber for "%s"
2a92aaa0 748
be771a83
GS
749(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but there
750is no builtin with the name C<word>.
6df41af2 751
56ca2fc0
JH
752=item Can't find %s character property "%s"
753
754(F) You used C<\p{}> or C<\P{}> but the character property by that name
e1b711da
KW
755could not be found. Maybe you misspelled the name of the property?
756See L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
757for a complete list of available properties.
56ca2fc0 758
6df41af2
GS
759=item Can't find label %s
760
be771a83
GS
761(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's
762possible for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2a92aaa0
GS
763
764=item Can't find %s on PATH
765
be771a83
GS
766(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
767found in the PATH.
a0d0e21e 768
6df41af2 769=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
a0d0e21e 770
be771a83
GS
771(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
772found in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The
773script exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
a0d0e21e
LW
774
775=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
776
be771a83
GS
777(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means
778that the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count
779nesting levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
a0d0e21e 780
fb73857a
PP
781 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
782
97b3d10f 783If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have
b6b8cb97
FC
784included unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag or there
785may not be a linebreak after it. A good programmer's editor will have
786a way to help you find these characters (or lack of characters). See
787L<perlop> for the full details on here-documents.
a0d0e21e 788
660a4616
ST
789=item Can't find Unicode property definition "%s"
790
5f8ad6b6
FC
791(F) You may have tried to use C<\p> which means a Unicode
792property (for example C<\p{Lu}> matches all uppercase
793letters). If you did mean to use a Unicode property, see
e1b711da 794L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
5f8ad6b6
FC
795for a complete list of available properties. If you didn't
796mean to use a Unicode property, escape the C<\p>, either by C<\\p>
797(just the C<\p>) or by C<\Q\p> (the rest of the string, or
798until C<\E>).
660a4616 799
b3647a36 800=item Can't fork: %s
a0d0e21e 801
be771a83
GS
802(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a
803pipeline.
a0d0e21e 804
b3647a36
SR
805=item Can't fork, trying again in 5 seconds
806
c973c02e 807(W pipe) A fork in a piped open failed with EAGAIN and will be retried
b3647a36
SR
808after five seconds.
809
748a9306
LW
810=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
811
be771a83
GS
812(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference
813between access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes.
814Under VMS, access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in
815the stat buffer, so that ACLs and other protections can be taken into
816account. Unfortunately, Perl assumes that the stat buffer contains all
817the necessary information, and passes it, instead of the filespec, to
2fe2bdfd 818the access-checking routine. It will try to retrieve the filespec using
be771a83
GS
819the device name and FID present in the stat buffer, but this works only
820if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat() routine,
821because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
2fe2bdfd
FC
822appears, the name lookup failed, and the access-checking routine gave up
823and returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access-checking
be771a83
GS
824routine knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you
825shouldn't ever see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises
826only if some internal code takes stat buffers lightly.)
748a9306 827
a0d0e21e
LW
828=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
829
be771a83
GS
830(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a
831pipe, Perl can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
832
833=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
834
748a9306
LW
835(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
836mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e 837
6df41af2 838=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
a0d0e21e 839
be771a83
GS
840(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a foreach
841loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2
GS
842
843=item Can't "goto" out of a pseudo block
844
be771a83
GS
845(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look like
846a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually occurs if
847you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which is a no-no.
848See L<perlfunc/goto>.
a0d0e21e 849
9850bf21 850=item Can't goto subroutine from a sort sub (or similar callback)
cd299c6e 851
9850bf21
RH
852(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of the
853comparison sub for a sort(), or from a similar callback (such
854as the reduce() function in List::Util).
855
c74ace89 856=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-%s
b150fb22 857
be771a83 858(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval
c74ace89 859"string" or block.
b150fb22 860
6df41af2
GS
861=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
862
be771a83
GS
863(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one
864subroutine call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole
865cloth. In general you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD
866routine anyway. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2 867
0b5b802d
GS
868=item Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default
869
be771a83
GS
870(W signal) Perl has detected that it is being run with the SIGCHLD
871signal (sometimes known as SIGCLD) disabled. Since disabling this
872signal will interfere with proper determination of exit status of child
873processes, Perl has reset the signal to its default value. This
874situation typically indicates that the parent program under which Perl
875may be running (e.g. cron) is being very careless.
0b5b802d 876
e2c0f81f
DG
877=item Can't kill a non-numeric process ID
878
879(F) Process identifiers must be (signed) integers. It is a fatal error to
880attempt to kill() an undefined, empty-string or otherwise non-numeric
881process identifier.
882
6df41af2 883=item Can't "last" outside a loop block
4633a7c4 884
6df41af2 885(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
be771a83
GS
886except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a current
887block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a "loopish"
888block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or grep(). You can
889usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the
890inner curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See
891L<perlfunc/last>.
4633a7c4 892
2c7d6b9c
RGS
893=item Can't linearize anonymous symbol table
894
895(F) Perl tried to calculate the method resolution order (MRO) of a
896package, but failed because the package stash has no name.
897
b8170e59
JB
898=item Can't load '%s' for module %s
899
900(F) The module you tried to load failed to load a dynamic extension. This
901may either mean that you upgraded your version of perl to one that is
902incompatible with your old dynamic extensions (which is known to happen
903between major versions of perl), or (more likely) that your dynamic
16d98ec5 904extension was built against an older version of the library that is
b8170e59
JB
905installed on your system. You may need to rebuild your old dynamic
906extensions.
907
748a9306
LW
908=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
909
2ba9eb46 910(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
30c282f6 911lexical variable using "my" or "state". This is not allowed. If you want to
748a9306
LW
912localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with the
913package name.
914
6df41af2 915=item Can't localize through a reference
4727527e 916
6df41af2
GS
917(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
918handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
be771a83 919pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be sure
64977eb6 920that $ref will still be a reference.
4727527e 921
ea071790 922=item Can't locate %s
ec889f3a
GS
923
924(F) You said to C<do> (or C<require>, or C<use>) a file that couldn't be
925found. Perl looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in @INC,
be771a83
GS
926unless the file name included the full path to the file. Perhaps you
927need to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where
928the extra library is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name
929to @INC. Or maybe you just misspelled the name of the file. See
930L<perlfunc/require> and L<lib>.
a0d0e21e 931
6df41af2
GS
932=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
933
be771a83
GS
934(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows
935autoload, but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes
936are a misprint in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit>
937the file, say, by doing C<make install>.
6df41af2 938
b8170e59
JB
939=item Can't locate loadable object for module %s in @INC
940
941(F) The module you loaded is trying to load an external library, like
942for example, C<foo.so> or C<bar.dll>, but the L<DynaLoader> module was
943unable to locate this library. See L<DynaLoader>.
944
a0d0e21e
LW
945=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
946
947(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
948functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 949method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
950
951=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
952
be771a83
GS
953(W syntax) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that
954doesn't seem to exist.
a0d0e21e 955
2f7da168
RK
956=item Can't locate PerlIO%s
957
958(F) You tried to use in open() a PerlIO layer that does not exist,
959e.g. open(FH, ">:nosuchlayer", "somefile").
960
3e3baf6d
TB
961=item Can't make list assignment to \%ENV on this system
962
be771a83
GS
963(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably
964VMS.
3e3baf6d 965
a0d0e21e
LW
966=item Can't modify %s in %s
967
be771a83
GS
968(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try
969to change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 970
54310121 971=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
972
973(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
974a NULL.
975
6df41af2
GS
976=item Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call
977
978(F) Subroutines meant to be used in lvalue context should be declared as
2fe2bdfd 979such. See L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
6df41af2 980
5f05dabc 981=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 982
5f05dabc 983(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
984buffer.
985
6df41af2
GS
986=item Can't "next" outside a loop block
987
988(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
989there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
be771a83
GS
990count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or
991grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
992though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that loops
993once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
6df41af2 994
a0d0e21e
LW
995=item Can't open %s: %s
996
c47ff5f1 997(S inplace) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<< <> >>
08e9d68e
DD
998filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
999switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually this
be771a83
GS
1000is because you don't have read permission for a file which you named on
1001the command line.
a0d0e21e 1002
9a869a14
RGS
1003=item Can't open a reference
1004
1005(W io) You tried to open a scalar reference for reading or writing,
2fe2bdfd 1006using the 3-arg open() syntax:
9a869a14
RGS
1007
1008 open FH, '>', $ref;
1009
1010but your version of perl is compiled without perlio, and this form of
1011open is not supported.
1012
a0d0e21e
LW
1013=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
1014
be771a83
GS
1015(W pipe) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported.
1016You can try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such
1017as IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using
1018">", and then read it in under a different file handle.
a0d0e21e 1019
748a9306
LW
1020=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
1021
be771a83
GS
1022(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1023redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '2>' or '2>>' on
1024the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1025
1026=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
1027
be771a83
GS
1028(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1029redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '<' on the
1030command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
1031
1032=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
1033
be771a83
GS
1034(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1035redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '>' or '>>' on
1036the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1037
1038=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
1039
be771a83
GS
1040(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1041redirection, and couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined
1042for stdout.
748a9306 1043
2b8ca739 1044=item Can't open perl script%s
a0d0e21e
LW
1045
1046(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
1047
fa3aa65a
JC
1048If you're debugging a script that uses #!, and normally relies on the
1049shell's $PATH search, the -S option causes perl to do that search, so
1050you don't have to type the path or C<`which $scriptname`>.
1051
6df41af2
GS
1052=item Can't read CRTL environ
1053
1054(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read an element of %ENV
1055from the CRTL's internal environment array and discovered the array was
1056missing. You need to figure out where your CRTL misplaced its environ
be771a83
GS
1057or define F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that environ is not
1058searched.
6df41af2 1059
6df41af2
GS
1060=item Can't "redo" outside a loop block
1061
1062(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
1063there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
1064count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map()
1065or grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1066though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that
1067loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
1068
64977eb6 1069=item Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file
10f9c03d 1070
be771a83
GS
1071(S inplace) You requested an inplace edit without creating a backup
1072file. Perl was unable to remove the original file to replace it with
1073the modified file. The file was left unmodified.
10f9c03d 1074
a0d0e21e
LW
1075=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
1076
e476b1b5 1077(S inplace) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason,
10f9c03d 1078probably because you don't have write permission to the directory.
a0d0e21e 1079
748a9306
LW
1080=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
1081
be771a83
GS
1082(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried
1083to reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
748a9306 1084
fe13d51d 1085=item Can't resolve method "%s" overloading "%s" in package "%s"
6df41af2 1086
1fa582fa
FC
1087(F)(P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as
1088opposed to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the
1089package. If the method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
6df41af2 1090
cd06dffe
GS
1091=item Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine
1092
be771a83
GS
1093(F) Perl detected an attempt to return illegal lvalues (such as
1094temporary or readonly values) from a subroutine used as an lvalue. This
1095is not allowed.
cd06dffe 1096
96ebfdd7
RK
1097=item Can't return outside a subroutine
1098
1099(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
1100there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
1101
78f9721b
SM
1102=item Can't return %s to lvalue scalar context
1103
1104(F) You tried to return a complete array or hash from an lvalue subroutine,
1105but you called the subroutine in a way that made Perl think you meant
1106to return only one value. You probably meant to write parentheses around
1107the call to the subroutine, which tell Perl that the call should be in
1108list context.
1109
a0d0e21e
LW
1110=item Can't stat script "%s"
1111
be771a83
GS
1112(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have it
1113open already. Bizarre.
a0d0e21e 1114
a0d0e21e
LW
1115=item Can't take log of %g
1116
fb73857a
PP
1117(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
1118negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
be771a83
GS
1119standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for the
1120negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
1121
1122=item Can't take sqrt of %g
1123
1124(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a
PP
1125negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
1126with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
1127
1128=item Can't undef active subroutine
1129
1130(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
1131however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
1132redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
1133
c81225bc 1134=item Can't upgrade %s (%d) to %d
a0d0e21e 1135
be771a83
GS
1136(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making it
1137into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are so
1138specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This message
1139indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
a0d0e21e 1140
1db89ea5
BS
1141=item Can't use anonymous symbol table for method lookup
1142
e27ad1f2 1143(F) The internal routine that does method lookup was handed a symbol
1db89ea5
BS
1144table that doesn't have a name. Symbol tables can become anonymous
1145for example by undefining stashes: C<undef %Some::Package::>.
1146
96ebfdd7
RK
1147=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
1148
1149(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
1150be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
1151
6df41af2
GS
1152=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
1153
be771a83
GS
1154(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1155references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 1156
90b75b61 1157=item Can't use %! because Errno.pm is not available
1d2dff63
GS
1158
1159(F) The first time the %! hash is used, perl automatically loads the
1160Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
1161provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
1162
1109a392
MHM
1163=item Can't use both '<' and '>' after type '%c' in %s
1164
1165(F) A type cannot be forced to have both big-endian and little-endian
1166byte-order at the same time, so this combination of modifiers is not
1167allowed. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1168
6df41af2
GS
1169=item Can't use %s for loop variable
1170
be771a83
GS
1171(F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a
1172foreach.
6df41af2 1173
aab6a793 1174=item Can't use global %s in "%s"
6df41af2 1175
be771a83
GS
1176(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This
1177is not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location
1178(namely the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to
1179have variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
6df41af2
GS
1180weren't.
1181
6d3b25aa
RGS
1182=item Can't use '%c' in a group with different byte-order in %s
1183
1184(F) You attempted to force a different byte-order on a type
1185that is already inside a group with a byte-order modifier.
1186For example you cannot force little-endianness on a type that
1187is inside a big-endian group.
1188
c07a80fd
PP
1189=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
1190
1191(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
c47ff5f1 1192You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the <=> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd
PP
1193and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
1194Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
1195lexical variable.
1196
a0d0e21e
LW
1197=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
1198
1199(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
1200reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
1201test the type of the reference, if need be.
1202
748a9306 1203=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e 1204
be771a83
GS
1205(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1206references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 1207
748a9306
LW
1208=item Can't use subscript on %s
1209
1210(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
1211subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
209e7cf1 1212didn't look like a hash or array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
748a9306 1213
6df41af2
GS
1214=item Can't use \%c to mean $%c in expression
1215
75b44862
GS
1216(W syntax) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that
1217creates a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a
1218backreference to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular
be771a83
GS
1219expression pattern. Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a
1220value that prints out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form
1221instead.
6df41af2 1222
0d863452 1223=item Can't use "when" outside a topicalizer
dc57907a 1224
0d863452
RH
1225(F) You have used a when() block that is neither inside a C<foreach>
1226loop nor a C<given> block. (Note that this error is issued on exit
1227from the C<when> block, so you won't get the error if the match fails,
1228or if you use an explicit C<continue>.)
1229
810b8aa5
GS
1230=item Can't weaken a nonreference
1231
1232(F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference. Only
1233references can be weakened.
1234
5f05dabc 1235=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e 1236
be771a83
GS
1237(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value)
1238with an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
a0d0e21e
LW
1239Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
1240
4a68bf9d 1241=item Character following "\c" must be ASCII
f9d13529 1242
1fa582fa 1243(F)(W deprecated, syntax) In C<\cI<X>>, I<X> must be an ASCII character.
17a3df4c
KW
1244It is planned to make this fatal in all instances in Perl 5.16. In the
1245cases where it isn't fatal, the character this evaluates to is
1246derived by exclusive or'ing the code point of this character with 0x40.
1247
1248Note that non-alphabetic ASCII characters are discouraged here as well.
f9d13529 1249
f337b084 1250=item Character in 'C' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1251
1252(W pack) You said
1253
1254 pack("C", $x)
1255
1256where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255; the C<"C"> format is
1257only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1258and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1259
1260 pack("C", $x & 255)
1261
1262If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1263instead.
1264
f337b084
TH
1265=item Character in 'W' format wrapped in pack
1266
1267(W pack) You said
1268
1269 pack("U0W", $x)
1270
1271where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255. However, C<U0>-mode expects
1272all values to fall in the interval [0, 255], so Perl behaved as if you
1273meant:
1274
1275 pack("U0W", $x & 255)
1276
1277=item Character in 'c' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1278
1279(W pack) You said
1280
1281 pack("c", $x)
1282
1283where $x is either less than -128 or more than 127; the C<"c"> format
1284is only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1285and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1286
1287 pack("c", $x & 255);
1288
1289If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1290instead.
1291
f337b084
TH
1292=item Character in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1293
1294(W unpack) You tried something like
1295
1296 unpack("H", "\x{2a1}")
1297
1a147d38 1298where the format expects to process a byte (a character with a value
f337b084
TH
1299below 256), but a higher value was provided instead. Perl uses the value
1300modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1301
1302 unpack("H", "\x{a1}")
1303
1304=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in pack
1305
1306(W pack) You tried something like
1307
1308 pack("u", "\x{1f3}b")
1309
1a147d38
YO
1310where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
1311value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1312uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1313
1314 pack("u", "\x{f3}b")
1315
1316=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1317
1318(W unpack) You tried something like
1319
1320 unpack("s", "\x{1f3}b")
1321
1a147d38
YO
1322where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
1323value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1324uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1325
1326 unpack("s", "\x{f3}b")
1327
f866a7cd
FC
1328=item "\c{" is deprecated and is more clearly written as ";"
1329
1330(D deprecated, syntax) The C<\cI<X>> construct is intended to be a way
1331to specify non-printable characters. You used it with a "{" which
1332evaluates to ";", which is printable. It is planned to remove the
1333ability to specify a semi-colon this way in Perl 5.16. Just use a
1334semi-colon or a backslash-semi-colon without the "\c".
1335
1336=item "\c%c" is more clearly written simply as "%s"
1337
1338(W syntax) The C<\cI<X>> construct is intended to be a way to specify
1339non-printable characters. You used it for a printable one, which is better
1340written as simply itself, perhaps preceded by a backslash for non-word
1341characters.
1342
96ebfdd7
RK
1343=item close() on unopened filehandle %s
1344
1345(W unopened) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
1346
abc7ecad
SP
1347=item closedir() attempted on invalid dirhandle %s
1348
1349(W io) The dirhandle you tried to close is either closed or not really
1350a dirhandle. Check your control flow.
1351
541ed3a9
FC
1352=item Closure prototype called
1353
1354(F) If a closure has attributes, the subroutine passed to an attribute
1355handler is the prototype that is cloned when a new closure is created.
1356This subroutine cannot be called.
1357
49704364
LW
1358=item Code missing after '/'
1359
1360(F) You had a (sub-)template that ends with a '/'. There must be another
1361template code following the slash. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1362
0876b9a0
KW
1363=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, may not be portable
1364
c634fdd3 1365=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, all \p{} matches fail; all \P{} matches succeed
9ae3ac1a 1366
8457b38f 1367(W utf8, non_unicode) You had a code point above the Unicode maximum of U+10FFFF.
0876b9a0
KW
1368
1369Perl allows strings to contain a superset of Unicode code
1370points, up to the limit of what is storable in an unsigned integer on
1371your system, but these may not be accepted by other languages/systems.
1372At one time, it was legal in some standards to have code points up to
13730x7FFF_FFFF, but not higher. Code points above 0xFFFF_FFFF require
1374larger than a 32 bit word.
1375
9ae3ac1a
KW
1376None of the Unicode or Perl-defined properties will match a non-Unicode
1377code point. For example,
1378
1379 chr(0x7FF_FFFF) =~ /\p{Any}/
1380
1381will not match, because the code point is not in Unicode. But
1382
1383 chr(0x7FF_FFFF) =~ /\P{Any}/
1384
1385will match.
1386
94b42e47
KW
1387This may be counterintuitive at times, as both these fail:
1388
1389 chr(0x110000) =~ \p{ASCII_Hex_Digit=True} # Fails.
1390 chr(0x110000) =~ \p{ASCII_Hex_Digit=False} # Also fails!
1391
1392and both these succeed:
1393
1394 chr(0x110000) =~ \P{ASCII_Hex_Digit=True} # Succeeds.
1395 chr(0x110000) =~ \P{ASCII_Hex_Digit=False} # Also succeeds!
1396
6df41af2
GS
1397=item %s: Command not found
1398
be771a83
GS
1399(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1400Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2 1401
7a2e2cd6
PP
1402=item Compilation failed in require
1403
1404(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
be771a83
GS
1405Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it
1406encountered were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
7a2e2cd6 1407
c3464db5
DD
1408=item Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
1409
be771a83
GS
1410(W regexp) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex
1411situations where back-tracking is required. Recursion depth is limited
1412to 32766, or perhaps less in architectures where the stack cannot grow
1413arbitrarily. ("Simple" and "medium" situations are handled without
1414recursion and are not subject to a limit.) Try shortening the string
1415under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with C<while>) rather than
1416in the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular expression so
c2e66d9e 1417that it is simpler or backtracks less. (See L<perlfaq2> for information
be771a83 1418on I<Mastering Regular Expressions>.)
c3464db5 1419
38875929
DM
1420=item cond_broadcast() called on unlocked variable
1421
1422(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to call
1423cond_broadcast() on a variable which wasn't locked. The cond_broadcast()
a568ca76 1424function is used to wake up another thread that is waiting in a
38875929 1425cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't sent before the other thread
a568ca76
FC
1426has a chance to enter the wait, it is usual for the signaling thread
1427first to wait for a lock on variable. This lock attempt will only succeed
38875929
DM
1428after the other thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the
1429lock.
1430
38875929
DM
1431=item cond_signal() called on unlocked variable
1432
1433(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to call
1434cond_signal() on a variable which wasn't locked. The cond_signal()
a568ca76 1435function is used to wake up another thread that is waiting in a
38875929 1436cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't sent before the other thread
a568ca76
FC
1437has a chance to enter the wait, it is usual for the signaling thread
1438first to wait for a lock on variable. This lock attempt will only succeed
38875929
DM
1439after the other thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the
1440lock.
1441
69282e91 1442=item connect() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1443
be771a83
GS
1444(W closed) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget
1445to check the return value of your socket() call? See
1446L<perlfunc/connect>.
a0d0e21e 1447
41ab332f 1448=item Constant(%s)%s: %s
6df41af2 1449
be771a83
GS
1450(F) The parser found inconsistencies either while attempting to define
1451an overloaded constant, or when trying to find the character name
1452specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you forgot to load the
1453corresponding C<overload> or C<charnames> pragma? See L<charnames> and
1454L<overload>.
6df41af2 1455
fc8cd66c
YO
1456=item Constant(%s)%s: %s in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1457
1a147d38
YO
1458(F) The parser found inconsistencies while attempting to find
1459the character name specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you
1460forgot to load the corresponding C<charnames> pragma?
fc8cd66c
YO
1461See L<charnames>.
1462
779c5bc9
GS
1463=item Constant is not %s reference
1464
1465(F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the C<use constant> pragma)
be771a83
GS
1466is being dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference.
1467The message indicates the type of reference that was expected. This
1468usually indicates a syntax error in dereferencing the constant value.
779c5bc9
GS
1469See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> and L<constant>.
1470
4cee8e80
CS
1471=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
1472
aeb94125
FC
1473(W redefine)(S) You redefined a subroutine which had previously
1474been eligible for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions">
1475for commentary and workarounds.
4cee8e80 1476
9607fc9c
PP
1477=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
1478
be771a83
GS
1479(W misc) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible
1480for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1481workarounds.
9607fc9c 1482
e7ea3e70
IZ
1483=item Copy method did not return a reference
1484
64977eb6 1485(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See
13a2d996 1486L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
e7ea3e70 1487
4aaa4757
FC
1488=item &CORE::%s cannot be called directly
1489
1490(F) You tried to call a subroutine in the C<CORE::> namespace
7530120a 1491with C<&foo> syntax or through a reference. Most subroutines
4aaa4757
FC
1492in this package cannot yet be called that way, but must be
1493called as barewords. Something like this will work:
1494
1495 BEGIN { *shove = \&CORE::push; }
1496 shove @array, 1,2,3; # pushes on to @array
1497
6798c92b
GS
1498=item CORE::%s is not a keyword
1499
1500(F) The CORE:: namespace is reserved for Perl keywords.
1501
a0d0e21e
LW
1502=item corrupted regexp pointers
1503
1504(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1505expression compiler gave it.
1506
1507=item corrupted regexp program
1508
be771a83
GS
1509(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without a
1510valid magic number.
a0d0e21e 1511
de42a5a9 1512=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%x at 0x%x
6df41af2
GS
1513
1514(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
1515
49704364
LW
1516=item Count after length/code in unpack
1517
1518(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string, but
1519you have also specified an explicit size for the string. See
1520L<perlfunc/pack>.
1521
a0d0e21e
LW
1522=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
1523
be771a83
GS
1524(W recursion) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly)
1525100 times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an
1526infinite recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in
1527which case it indicates something else.
a0d0e21e 1528
aad1d01f
NC
1529This threshold can be changed from 100, by recompiling the F<perl> binary,
1530setting the C pre-processor macro C<PERL_SUB_DEPTH_WARN> to the desired value.
1531
f10b0346 1532=item defined(@array) is deprecated
69794302 1533
be771a83
GS
1534(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on arrays because it
1535checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the
64977eb6 1536array is empty, just use C<if (@array) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1537
f10b0346 1538=item defined(%hash) is deprecated
69794302 1539
f0ec9725
KR
1540(D deprecated) C<defined()> is not usually right on hashes and has been
1541discouraged since 5.004.
1542
1543Although C<defined %hash> is false on a plain not-yet-used hash, it
1544becomes true in several non-obvious circumstances, including iterators,
1545weak references, stash names, even remaining true after C<undef %hash>.
1546These things make C<defined %hash> fairly useless in practice.
1547
1548If a check for non-empty is what you wanted then just put it in boolean
1549context (see L<perldata/Scalar values>):
16546e45
KR
1550
1551 if (%hash) {
1552 # not empty
1553 }
1554
f0ec9725
KR
1555If you had C<defined %Foo::Bar::QUUX> to check whether such a package
1556variable exists then that's never really been reliable, and isn't
1557a good way to enquire about the features of a package, or whether
1558it's loaded, etc.
1559
69794302 1560
bcb95744
FC
1561=item (?(DEFINE)....) does not allow branches in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1562
1563(F) You used something like C<(?(DEFINE)...|..)> which is illegal. The
1564most likely cause of this error is that you left out a parenthesis inside
1565of the C<....> part.
1566
1567The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
1568discovered.
1569
62658f4d
PM
1570=item %s defines neither package nor VERSION--version check failed
1571
1572(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but in the Module file
1573there are neither package declarations nor a C<$VERSION>.
1574
fc36a67e
PP
1575=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1576
be771a83
GS
1577(F) In a here document construct like C<<<FOO>, the label C<FOO> is too
1578long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously twisted to write code
1579that triggers this error.
fc36a67e 1580
4a68bf9d 1581=item Deprecated character in \N{...}; marked by <-- HERE in \N{%s<-- HERE %s
cb233ae3
KW
1582
1583(D deprecated) Just about anything is legal for the C<...> in C<\N{...}>.
5fca8acb
FC
1584But starting in 5.12, non-reasonable ones that don't look like names
1585are deprecated. A reasonable name begins with an alphabetic character
1586and continues with any combination of alphanumerics, dashes, spaces,
1587parentheses or colons.
cb233ae3 1588
6d3b25aa
RGS
1589=item Deprecated use of my() in false conditional
1590
1591(D deprecated) You used a declaration similar to C<my $x if 0>.
1592There has been a long-standing bug in Perl that causes a lexical variable
1593not to be cleared at scope exit when its declaration includes a false
1594conditional. Some people have exploited this bug to achieve a kind of
1595static variable. Since we intend to fix this bug, we don't want people
1596relying on this behavior. You can achieve a similar static effect by
1597declaring the variable in a separate block outside the function, eg
36fb85f3 1598
6d3b25aa
RGS
1599 sub f { my $x if 0; return $x++ }
1600
1601becomes
1602
1603 { my $x; sub f { return $x++ } }
1604
36fb85f3
RGS
1605Beginning with perl 5.9.4, you can also use C<state> variables to
1606have lexicals that are initialized only once (see L<feature>):
1607
1608 sub f { state $x; return $x++ }
1609
500ab966
RGS
1610=item DESTROY created new reference to dead object '%s'
1611
1612(F) A DESTROY() method created a new reference to the object which is
1613just being DESTROYed. Perl is confused, and prefers to abort rather than
1614to create a dangling reference.
1615
3cdd684c
TP
1616=item Did not produce a valid header
1617
1618See Server error.
1619
6df41af2
GS
1620=item %s did not return a true value
1621
1622(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
1623it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
1624traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
1625do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
1626
cc507455 1627=item (Did you mean &%s instead?)
4633a7c4 1628
413ff9f6
FC
1629(W misc) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or
1630some such.
4633a7c4 1631
cc507455 1632=item (Did you mean "local" instead of "our"?)
33633739 1633
be771a83
GS
1634(W misc) Remember that "our" does not localize the declared global
1635variable. You have declared it again in the same lexical scope, which
1636seems superfluous.
33633739 1637
cc507455 1638=item (Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?)
a0d0e21e 1639
be771a83
GS
1640(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or
1641@hash{@keys}. On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got
1642carried away.
748a9306 1643
7e1af8bc 1644=item Died
5f05dabc
PP
1645
1646(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
075b00aa 1647you called it with no args and C<$@> was empty.
5f05dabc 1648
3cdd684c
TP
1649=item Document contains no data
1650
1651See Server error.
1652
62658f4d
PM
1653=item %s does not define %s::VERSION--version check failed
1654
1655(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but the Module did not
1656define a C<$VERSION.>
1657
49704364
LW
1658=item '/' does not take a repeat count
1659
1660(F) You cannot put a repeat count of any kind right after the '/' code.
1661See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1662
a0d0e21e
LW
1663=item Don't know how to handle magic of type '%s'
1664
1665(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
1666
1667=item do_study: out of memory
1668
1669(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
1670
6df41af2
GS
1671=item (Do you need to predeclare %s?)
1672
56da5a46
RGS
1673(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
1674"%s found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
6df41af2
GS
1675name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
1676because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
be771a83
GS
1677"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're referencing
1678something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have to define the
1679subroutine or package before the current location. You can use an empty
1680"sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward" declaration.
6df41af2 1681
ac206dc8
RGS
1682=item dump() better written as CORE::dump()
1683
1684(W misc) You used the obsolescent C<dump()> built-in function, without fully
1685qualifying it as C<CORE::dump()>. Maybe it's a typo. See L<perlfunc/dump>.
1686
84d78eb7
YO
1687=item dump is not supported
1688
1689(F) Your machine doesn't support dump/undump.
1690
a0d0e21e
LW
1691=item Duplicate free() ignored
1692
be771a83
GS
1693(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had
1694already been freed.
a0d0e21e 1695
1109a392
MHM
1696=item Duplicate modifier '%c' after '%c' in %s
1697
1698(W) You have applied the same modifier more than once after a type
1699in a pack template. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1700
4633a7c4
LW
1701=item elseif should be elsif
1702
56da5a46
RGS
1703(S syntax) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks it's
1704ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method named
be771a83 1705"elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
4633a7c4
LW
1706unlikely to be what you want.
1707
ab13f0c7
JH
1708=item Empty %s
1709
af6f566e
HS
1710(F) C<\p> and C<\P> are used to introduce a named Unicode property, as
1711described in L<perlunicode> and L<perlre>. You used C<\p> or C<\P> in
1712a regular expression without specifying the property name.
ab13f0c7 1713
85ab1d1d 1714=item entering effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1715
85ab1d1d 1716(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1717effective uids or gids failed.
1718
c038024b
RGS
1719=item %ENV is aliased to %s
1720
1721(F) You're running under taint mode, and the C<%ENV> variable has been
1722aliased to another hash, so it doesn't reflect anymore the state of the
1723program's environment. This is potentially insecure.
1724
748a9306
LW
1725=item Error converting file specification %s
1726
5f05dabc 1727(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306 1728specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
be771a83
GS
1729single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've passed
1730an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a case the
1731conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
748a9306 1732
e4d48cc9
GS
1733=item %s: Eval-group in insecure regular expression
1734
be771a83
GS
1735(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
1736expression that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which
1737is unsafe. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
e4d48cc9 1738
fc8f615e 1739=item %s: Eval-group not allowed at runtime, use re 'eval'
e4d48cc9 1740
be771a83
GS
1741(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the
1742C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the
f11307f5
FC
1743pattern contains interpolated values. Since that is a security risk,
1744it is not allowed. If you insist, you may still do this by using the
1745C<re 'eval'> pragma or by explicitly building the pattern from an
1746interpolated string at run time and using that in an eval(). See
1747L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
e4d48cc9 1748
6df41af2
GS
1749=item %s: Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval'
1750
be771a83
GS
1751(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width
1752assertion, but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'>
1753pragma is in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
6df41af2 1754
1a147d38
YO
1755=item EVAL without pos change exceeded limit in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1756
1757(F) You used a pattern that nested too many EVAL calls without consuming
1758any text. Restructure the pattern so that text is consumed.
1759
1760The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
1761discovered.
1762
fc36a67e
PP
1763=item Excessively long <> operator
1764
1765(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
1766Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
1767filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
1768variable and glob that.
1769
ed9aa3b7
SG
1770=item exec? I'm not *that* kind of operating system
1771
af8bb25a
FC
1772(F) The C<exec> function is not implemented on some systems, e.g., Symbian
1773OS. See L<perlport>.
ed9aa3b7 1774
fe13d51d 1775=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors.
a0d0e21e
LW
1776
1777(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
1778
1779=item Exiting eval via %s
1780
be771a83
GS
1781(W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as a
1782goto, or a loop control statement.
e476b1b5
GS
1783
1784=item Exiting format via %s
1785
9a2ff54b 1786(W exiting) You are exiting a format by unconventional means, such as a
be771a83 1787goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1788
0a753a76
PP
1789=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
1790
be771a83
GS
1791(W exiting) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a
1792sort block or subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a
1793loop control statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
0a753a76 1794
a0d0e21e
LW
1795=item Exiting subroutine via %s
1796
be771a83
GS
1797(W exiting) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such
1798as a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
1799
1800=item Exiting substitution via %s
1801
be771a83
GS
1802(W exiting) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such
1803as a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1804
7b8d334a
GS
1805=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
1806
be771a83
GS
1807(W misc) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
1808the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
1809usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target package,
1810e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');
7b8d334a 1811
6df41af2
GS
1812=item %s: Expression syntax
1813
be771a83
GS
1814(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1815Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2
GS
1816
1817=item %s failed--call queue aborted
1818
3c10abe3
AG
1819(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a UNITCHECK,
1820CHECK, INIT, or END subroutine. Processing of the remainder of the
1821queue of such routines has been prematurely ended.
6df41af2 1822
7253e4e3 1823=item False [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
73b437c8 1824
be771a83 1825(W regexp) A character class range must start and end at a literal
7253e4e3
RK
1826character, not another character class like C<\d> or C<[:alpha:]>. The "-"
1827in your false range is interpreted as a literal "-". Consider quoting the
1828"-", "\-". The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
1829problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
73b437c8 1830
1b1ee2ef 1831=item Fatal VMS error (status=%d) at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 1832
be771a83
GS
1833(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS
1834system service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more
1835details. The filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell
1836you which section of the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
1837
1838=item fcntl is not implemented
1839
1840(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
1841PDP-11 or something?
1842
22846ab4
AB
1843=item FETCHSIZE returned a negative value
1844
1845(F) A tied array claimed to have a negative number of elements, which
1846is not possible.
1847
f337b084
TH
1848=item Field too wide in 'u' format in pack
1849
1850(W pack) Each line in an uuencoded string start with a length indicator
1851which can't encode values above 63. So there is no point in asking for
1852a line length bigger than that. Perl will behave as if you specified
5c96f6f7 1853C<u63> as the format.
f337b084 1854
af8c498a 1855=item Filehandle %s opened only for input
a0d0e21e 1856
6c8d78fb
HS
1857(W io) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you intended
1858it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with "+<" or
1859"+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you intended only to
1860write the file, use ">" or ">>". See L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 1861
af8c498a 1862=item Filehandle %s opened only for output
a0d0e21e 1863
6c8d78fb
HS
1864(W io) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing, If
1865you intended it to be a read/write filehandle, you needed to open it
89a1bda8
FC
1866with "+<" or "+>" or "+>>" instead of with ">". If you intended only to
1867read from the file, use "<". See L<perlfunc/open>. Another possibility
1868is that you attempted to open filedescriptor 0 (also known as STDIN) for
1869output (maybe you closed STDIN earlier?).
97828cef
RGS
1870
1871=item Filehandle %s reopened as %s only for input
1872
1873(W io) You opened for reading a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
d7f8936a 1874as STDOUT or STDERR. This occurred because you closed STDOUT or STDERR
97828cef
RGS
1875previously.
1876
1877=item Filehandle STDIN reopened as %s only for output
1878
1879(W io) You opened for writing a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
d7f8936a 1880as STDIN. This occurred because you closed STDIN previously.
a0d0e21e
LW
1881
1882=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
1883
1884(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
be771a83
GS
1885a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name that
1886happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or the
1887name.
a0d0e21e 1888
56e90b21
GS
1889=item flock() on closed filehandle %s
1890
be771a83 1891(W closed) The filehandle you're attempting to flock() got itself closed
c289d2f7 1892some time before now. Check your control flow. flock() operates on
be771a83
GS
1893filehandles. Are you attempting to call flock() on a dirhandle by the
1894same name?
56e90b21 1895
6df41af2
GS
1896=item Format not terminated
1897
1898(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
1899to the end of your file without finding such a line.
1900
a0d0e21e
LW
1901=item Format %s redefined
1902
e476b1b5 1903(W redefine) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
a0d0e21e
LW
1904
1905 {
271595cc 1906 no warnings 'redefine';
a0d0e21e
LW
1907 eval "format NAME =...";
1908 }
1909
a0d0e21e
LW
1910=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
1911
e476b1b5 1912(W syntax) You said
a0d0e21e
LW
1913
1914 if ($foo = 123)
1915
1916when you meant
1917
1918 if ($foo == 123)
1919
1920(or something like that).
1921
6df41af2
GS
1922=item %s found where operator expected
1923
56da5a46
RGS
1924(S syntax) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator.
1925If it sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an
be771a83
GS
1926operator, it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an
1927operator or delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
6df41af2 1928
a0d0e21e
LW
1929=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
1930
1931(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
1932
1933=item gethostent not implemented
1934
1935(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
1936because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
1937on the Internet.
1938
69282e91 1939=item get%sname() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1940
be771a83
GS
1941(W closed) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed
1942socket. Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
a0d0e21e 1943
748a9306
LW
1944=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
1945
1946(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
1947C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
1948
6df41af2
GS
1949=item getsockopt() on closed socket %s
1950
be771a83
GS
1951(W closed) You tried to get a socket option on a closed socket. Did you
1952forget to check the return value of your socket() call? See
6df41af2
GS
1953L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
1954
1955=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
1956
a4edf47d 1957(F) You've said "use strict" or "use strict vars", which indicates
30c282f6 1958that all variables must either be lexically scoped (using "my" or "state"),
a4edf47d
GS
1959declared beforehand using "our", or explicitly qualified to say
1960which package the global variable is in (using "::").
6df41af2 1961
e476b1b5
GS
1962=item glob failed (%s)
1963
be771a83
GS
1964(W glob) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used for
1965C<glob> and C<< <*.c> >>. Usually, this means that you supplied a
1966C<glob> pattern that caused the external program to fail and exit with a
1967nonzero status. If the message indicates that the abnormal exit
1968resulted in a coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C shell) is
1969broken. If so, you should change all of the csh-related variables in
1970config.sh: If you have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as if it
1971were csh (e.g. C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them all
1972empty (except that C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will
1973think csh is missing. In either case, after editing config.sh, run
75b44862 1974C<./Configure -S> and rebuild Perl.
e476b1b5 1975
a0d0e21e
LW
1976=item Glob not terminated
1977
1978(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
be771a83
GS
1979a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and
1980not finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out
1981earlier in the line, and you really meant a "less than".
a0d0e21e 1982
bcd05b94 1983=item gmtime(%f) too large
8b56d6ff 1984
e9200be3 1985(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with a number that was larger than
fc003d4b 1986it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong
b539c2c9 1987date. This warning is also triggered with NaN (the special
fc003d4b
MS
1988not-a-number value).
1989
bcd05b94 1990=item gmtime(%f) too small
fc003d4b 1991
e9200be3 1992(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with a number that was smaller than
fc003d4b 1993it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong
b539c2c9 1994date. This warning is also triggered with NaN (the special
fc003d4b 1995not-a-number value).
8b56d6ff 1996
6df41af2 1997=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
a0d0e21e 1998
6df41af2
GS
1999(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
2000version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
a0d0e21e
LW
2001
2002=item goto must have label
2003
2004(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
2005unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2006
49704364 2007=item ()-group starts with a count
18529408 2008
bca4a986
FC
2009(F) A ()-group started with a count. A count is supposed to follow
2010something: a template character or a ()-group. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
18529408 2011
fe13d51d 2012=item %s had compilation errors.
6df41af2
GS
2013
2014(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
2015
a0d0e21e
LW
2016=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
2017
be771a83
GS
2018(S internal) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought
2019to have existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be
2020created on an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
a0d0e21e
LW
2021
2022=item Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
2023
be771a83
GS
2024(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some
2025spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
a0d0e21e 2026
6df41af2
GS
2027=item %s has too many errors
2028
2029(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
2030Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
2031
e6897b1a
KW
2032=item Having no space between pattern and following word is deprecated
2033
2034(D syntax)
2035
bd0e971a 2036You had a word that isn't a regex modifier immediately following a
b6fa137b
FC
2037pattern without an intervening space. If you are trying to use the C</le>
2038flags on a substitution, use C</el> instead. Otherwise, add white space
2039between the pattern and following word to eliminate the warning. As an
2040example of the latter, the two constructs:
e6897b1a
KW
2041
2042 $a =~ m/$foo/sand $bar
2043 $a =~ m/$foo/s and $bar
2044
21356872
FC
2045both currently mean the same thing, but it is planned to disallow the first
2046form in Perl 5.16. And,
e6897b1a
KW
2047
2048 $a =~ m/$foo/and $bar
2049
2050will be disallowed too.
2051
252aa082
JH
2052=item Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
2053
e476b1b5 2054(W portable) The hexadecimal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
2055(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
2056L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 2057
8903cb82
PP
2058=item Identifier too long
2059
2060(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e 2061about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
be771a83
GS
2062names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future versions
2063of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 2064
c3c41406 2065=item Ignoring zero length \N{} in character class
fc8cd66c 2066
ff3f963a
KW
2067(W) Named Unicode character escapes (\N{...}) may return a
2068zero length sequence. When such an escape is used in a character class
1a147d38 2069its behaviour is not well defined. Check that the correct escape has
fc8cd66c
YO
2070been used, and the correct charname handler is in scope.
2071
6df41af2 2072=item Illegal binary digit %s
f675dbe5 2073
6df41af2 2074(F) You used a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
f675dbe5 2075
6df41af2 2076=item Illegal binary digit %s ignored
a0d0e21e 2077
be771a83
GS
2078(W digit) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a
2079binary number. Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the
2080offending digit.
a0d0e21e 2081
6597eb22
FC
2082=item Illegal character after '_' in prototype for %s : %s
2083
2084(W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype declaration.
2085Legal characters in prototypes are $, @, %, *, ;, [, ], &, \, and +.
2086
78d0fecf 2087=item Illegal character \%o (carriage return)
4fdae800 2088
d5898338 2089(F) Perl normally treats carriage returns in the program text as it
be771a83
GS
2090would any other whitespace, which means you should never see this error
2091when Perl was built using standard options. For some reason, your
2092version of Perl appears to have been built without this support. Talk
2093to your Perl administrator.
4fdae800 2094
d37a9538
ST
2095=item Illegal character in prototype for %s : %s
2096
197afce1 2097(W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype declaration.
2e9cc7ef 2098Legal characters in prototypes are $, @, %, *, ;, [, ], &, \, and +.
d37a9538 2099
904d85c5
RGS
2100=item Illegal declaration of anonymous subroutine
2101
2102(F) When using the C<sub> keyword to construct an anonymous subroutine,
2103you must always specify a block of code. See L<perlsub>.
2104
8e742a20
MHM
2105=item Illegal declaration of subroutine %s
2106
2107(F) A subroutine was not declared correctly. See L<perlsub>.
2108
a0d0e21e
LW
2109=item Illegal division by zero
2110
be771a83
GS
2111(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in
2112your logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against
2113meaningless input.
a0d0e21e 2114
6df41af2
GS
2115=item Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
2116
be771a83
GS
2117(W digit) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or
2118A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal
2119number stopped before the illegal character.
6df41af2 2120
a0d0e21e
LW
2121=item Illegal modulus zero
2122
be771a83
GS
2123(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most
2124numbers don't take to this kindly.
a0d0e21e 2125
6df41af2 2126=item Illegal number of bits in vec
399388f4 2127
6df41af2
GS
2128(F) The number of bits in vec() (the third argument) must be a power of
2129two from 1 to 32 (or 64, if your platform supports that).
399388f4
GS
2130
2131=item Illegal octal digit %s
a0d0e21e 2132
d1be9408 2133(F) You used an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
a0d0e21e 2134
399388f4 2135=item Illegal octal digit %s ignored
748a9306 2136
d1be9408 2137(W digit) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
75b44862 2138Interpretation of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
748a9306 2139
fe13d51d 2140=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: -%c
6ff81951 2141
6df41af2 2142(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
646ca9b2 2143following switches: B<-[CDIMUdmtw]>.
6ff81951 2144
6df41af2 2145=item Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
81e118e0 2146
75b44862 2147(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the CRTL's
be771a83
GS
2148internal environ array, and encountered an element without the C<=>
2149delimiter used to separate keys from values. The element is ignored.
09bef843 2150
6df41af2 2151=item Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
54310121 2152
be771a83
GS
2153(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read a logical
2154name or CLI symbol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and
2155didn't see the expected delimiter between key and value, so the line was
2156ignored.
54310121 2157
6df41af2 2158=item (in cleanup) %s
9607fc9c 2159
be771a83
GS
2160(W misc) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised
2161the indicated exception. Since destructors are usually called by the
2162system at arbitrary points during execution, and often a vast number of
2163times, the warning is issued only once for any number of failures that
2164would otherwise result in the same message being repeated.
6df41af2 2165
be771a83
GS
2166Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the C<G_KEEPERR> flag could
2167also result in this warning. See L<perlcall/G_KEEPERR>.
9607fc9c 2168
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2169=item Inconsistent hierarchy during C3 merge of class '%s': merging failed on parent '%s'
2170
2171(F) The method resolution order (MRO) of the given class is not
2172C3-consistent, and you have enabled the C3 MRO for this class. See the C3
2173documentation in L<mro> for more information.
2174
979699d9
JH
2175=item In EBCDIC the v-string components cannot exceed 2147483647
2176
2177(F) An error peculiar to EBCDIC. Internally, v-strings are stored as
2178Unicode code points, and encoded in EBCDIC as UTF-EBCDIC. The UTF-EBCDIC
2179encoding is limited to code points no larger than 2147483647 (0x7FFFFFFF).
2180
1a147d38
YO
2181=item Infinite recursion in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2182
2183(F) You used a pattern that references itself without consuming any input
2184text. You should check the pattern to ensure that recursive patterns
2185either consume text or fail.
2186
2187The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
2188discovered.
2189
6dbe9451
NC
2190=item Initialization of state variables in list context currently forbidden
2191
2192(F) Currently the implementation of "state" only permits the initialization
2193of scalar variables in scalar context. Re-write C<state ($a) = 42> as
2194C<state $a = 42> to change from list to scalar context. Constructions such
2195as C<state (@a) = foo()> will be supported in a future perl release.
2196
a0d0e21e
LW
2197=item Insecure dependency in %s
2198
8b1a09fc 2199(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
be771a83
GS
2200The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or
2201setgid, or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The
2202tainting mechanism labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly
2203from the user, who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any
2204such data is used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See
2205L<perlsec> for more information.
a0d0e21e
LW
2206
2207=item Insecure directory in %s
2208
be771a83
GS
2209(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
2210setgid script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by
df98f984
RGS
2211the world. Also, the PATH must not contain any relative directory.
2212See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2213
62f468fc 2214=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2215
2216(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc 2217setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
332d5f78
SR
2218C<$ENV{ENV}>, C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> or C<$ENV{TERM}> are derived from data
2219supplied (or potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set
2220the path to a known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2221
0e9be77f
DM
2222=item Insecure user-defined property %s
2223
2224(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
2225expression that contains a call to a user-defined character property
2226function, i.e. C<\p{IsFoo}> or C<\p{InFoo}>.
2227See L<perlunicode/User-Defined Character Properties> and L<perlsec>.
2228
b9ef414d
FC
2229=item Integer overflow in format string for %s
2230
2231(F) The indexes and widths specified in the format string of C<printf()>
2232or C<sprintf()> are too large. The numbers must not overflow the size of
2233integers for your architecture.
2234
a7ae9550
GS
2235=item Integer overflow in %s number
2236
75b44862 2237(W overflow) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have specified
be771a83
GS
2238either as a literal or as an argument to hex() or oct() is too big for
2239your architecture, and has been converted to a floating point number.
2240On a 32-bit architecture the largest hexadecimal, octal or binary number
9e24b6e2
JH
2241representable without overflow is 0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or
22420b11111111111111111111111111111111 respectively. Note that Perl
2243transparently promotes all numbers to a floating point representation
2244internally--subject to loss of precision errors in subsequent
2245operations.
bbce6d69 2246
46314c13
JP
2247=item Integer overflow in version
2248
2249(F) Some portion of a version initialization is too large for the
2250size of integers for your architecture. This is not a warning
2251because there is no rational reason for a version to try and use a
2252element larger than typically 2**32. This is usually caused by
2253trying to use some odd mathematical operation as a version, like
2254100/9.
2255
7253e4e3 2256=item Internal disaster in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2257
2258(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
7253e4e3 2259The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
b45f050a
JF
2260discovered.
2261
748a9306
LW
2262=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
2263
be771a83
GS
2264(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number of times
2265you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine whether the current call
2266to C<exec> should affect the current script or a subprocess (see
2267L<perlvms/"exec LIST">). Somehow, this count has become scrambled, so
2268Perl is making a guess and treating this C<exec> as a request to
2269terminate the Perl script and execute the specified command.
748a9306 2270
7253e4e3 2271=item Internal urp in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a 2272
7253e4e3
RK
2273(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser. The
2274<-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
2275discovered.
a0d0e21e 2276
6df41af2
GS
2277=item %s (...) interpreted as function
2278
75b44862 2279(W syntax) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator
be771a83 2280followed by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list
64977eb6 2281operators arguments found inside the parentheses. See
13a2d996 2282L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
6df41af2 2283
09bef843
SB
2284=item Invalid %s attribute: %s
2285
a4a4c9e2 2286(F) The indicated attribute for a subroutine or variable was not recognized
09bef843
SB
2287by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
2288
2289=item Invalid %s attributes: %s
2290
a4a4c9e2 2291(F) The indicated attributes for a subroutine or variable were not
be771a83 2292recognized by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2293
c635e13b
PP
2294=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
2295
be771a83
GS
2296(W printf) Perl does not understand the given format conversion. See
2297L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
c635e13b 2298
9e08bc66
ST
2299=item Invalid escape in the specified encoding in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2300
2301(W regexp) The numeric escape (for example C<\xHH>) of value < 256
2302didn't correspond to a single character through the conversion
2303from the encoding specified by the encoding pragma.
2304The escape was replaced with REPLACEMENT CHARACTER (U+FFFD) instead.
2305The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
2306escape was discovered.
2307
8149aa9f
FC
2308=item Invalid hexadecimal number in \N{U+...}
2309
2310(F) The character constant represented by C<...> is not a valid hexadecimal
74f8e9e3
FC
2311number. Either it is empty, or you tried to use a character other than
23120 - 9 or A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number.
8149aa9f 2313
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2314=item Invalid mro name: '%s'
2315
162a3e34
FC
2316(F) You tried to C<mro::set_mro("classname", "foo")> or C<use mro 'foo'>,
2317where C<foo> is not a valid method resolution order (MRO). Currently,
2318the only valid ones supported are C<dfs> and C<c3>, unless you have loaded
2319a module that is a MRO plugin. See L<mro> and L<perlmroapi>.
2c7d6b9c 2320
7253e4e3 2321=item Invalid [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2322
2323(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
7253e4e3
RK
2324greater than the maximum character. One possibility is that you forgot the
2325C<{}> from your ending C<\x{}> - C<\x> without the curly braces can go only
2326up to C<ff>. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
2327problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 2328
d1573ac7 2329=item Invalid range "%s" in transliteration operator
c2e66d9e
GS
2330
2331(F) The range specified in the tr/// or y/// operator had a minimum
2332character greater than the maximum character. See L<perlop>.
2333
09bef843
SB
2334=item Invalid separator character %s in attribute list
2335
0120eecf 2336(F) Something other than a colon or whitespace was seen between the
be771a83
GS
2337elements of an attribute list. If the previous attribute had a
2338parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that list was terminated too soon.
2339See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2340
b4581f09
JH
2341=item Invalid separator character %s in PerlIO layer specification %s
2342
2bfc5f71
FC
2343(W layer) When pushing layers onto the Perl I/O system, something other
2344than a colon or whitespace was seen between the elements of a layer list.
b4581f09
JH
2345If the previous attribute had a parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that
2346list was terminated too soon.
2347
2c86d456
DG
2348=item Invalid strict version format (%s)
2349
2350(F) A version number did not meet the "strict" criteria for versions.
2351A "strict" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2352decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
2353v-string with a leading 'v' character and at least three components.
a6485a24 2354The parenthesized text indicates which criteria were not met.
2c86d456
DG
2355See the L<version> module for more details on allowed version formats.
2356
49704364 2357=item Invalid type '%s' in %s
96e4d5b1 2358
49704364
LW
2359(F) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type.
2360See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2361(W) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type but used to be
75b44862 2362silently ignored.
96e4d5b1 2363
2c86d456
DG
2364=item Invalid version format (%s)
2365
2366(F) A version number did not meet the "lax" criteria for versions.
2367A "lax" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2368decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
9da2b86b
FC
2369v-string. If the v-string has fewer than three components, it must
2370have a leading 'v' character. Otherwise, the leading 'v' is optional.
2371Both decimal and dotted-decimal versions may have a trailing "alpha"
2c86d456
DG
2372component separated by an underscore character after a fractional or
2373dotted-decimal component. The parenthesized text indicates which
a6485a24 2374criteria were not met. See the L<version> module for more details on
2c86d456 2375allowed version formats.
46314c13 2376
798ae1b7
DG
2377=item Invalid version object
2378
2379(F) The internal structure of the version object was invalid. Perhaps
2380the internals were modified directly in some way or an arbitrary reference
2381was blessed into the "version" class.
2382
a0d0e21e
LW
2383=item ioctl is not implemented
2384
2385(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
2386strange for a machine that supports C.
2387
c289d2f7
JH
2388=item ioctl() on unopened %s
2389
2390(W unopened) You tried ioctl() on a filehandle that was never opened.
34b6fd5e 2391Check your control flow and number of arguments.
c289d2f7 2392
fe13d51d 2393=item IO layers (like '%s') unavailable
363c40c4
SB
2394
2395(F) Your Perl has not been configured to have PerlIO, and therefore
34b6fd5e 2396you cannot use IO layers. To have PerlIO, Perl must be configured
363c40c4
SB
2397with 'useperlio'.
2398
80cbd5ad
JH
2399=item IO::Socket::atmark not implemented on this architecture
2400
2401(F) Your machine doesn't implement the sockatmark() functionality,
34b6fd5e 2402neither as a system call nor an ioctl call (SIOCATMARK).
80cbd5ad 2403
b4581f09
JH
2404=item $* is no longer supported
2405
a58ac25e
FC
2406(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$*>, deprecated in older
2407perls, has been removed as of 5.9.0 and is no longer supported. In
2408previous versions of perl the use of C<$*> enabled or disabled multi-line
2409matching within a string.
4fd19576
B
2410
2411Instead of using C<$*> you should use the C</m> (and maybe C</s>) regexp
570dedd4
FC
2412modifiers. You can enable C</m> for a lexical scope (even a whole file)
2413with C<use re '/m'>. (In older versions: when C<$*> was set to a true value
2414then all regular expressions behaved as if they were written using C</m>.)
b4581f09 2415
8ae1fe26
RGS
2416=item $# is no longer supported
2417
a58ac25e
FC
2418(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$#>, deprecated in older
2419perls, has been removed as of 5.9.3 and is no longer supported. You
2420should use the printf/sprintf functions instead.
8ae1fe26 2421
ccf3535a 2422=item '%s' is not a code reference
6ad11d81 2423
04a80ee0
RGS
2424(W overload) The second (fourth, sixth, ...) argument of overload::constant
2425needs to be a code reference. Either an anonymous subroutine, or a reference
6ad11d81
JH
2426to a subroutine.
2427
ccf3535a 2428=item '%s' is not an overloadable type
6ad11d81 2429
04a80ee0
RGS
2430(W overload) You tried to overload a constant type the overload package is
2431unaware of.
6ad11d81 2432
a0d0e21e
LW
2433=item junk on end of regexp
2434
2435(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
2436
2437=item Label not found for "last %s"
2438
be771a83
GS
2439(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a loop
2440of that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2441L<perlfunc/last>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2442
2443=item Label not found for "next %s"
2444
2445(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
2446that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2447L<perlfunc/last>.
2448
2449=item Label not found for "redo %s"
2450
2451(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
2452that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2453L<perlfunc/last>.
2454
85ab1d1d 2455=item leaving effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 2456
85ab1d1d 2457(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
2458effective uids or gids failed.
2459
49704364
LW
2460=item length/code after end of string in unpack
2461
d7f8936a 2462(F) While unpacking, the string buffer was already used up when an unpack
49704364
LW
2463length/code combination tried to obtain more data. This results in
2464an undefined value for the length. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2465
e508c8a4
MH
2466=item length() used on %s
2467
0d46a4e7
FC
2468(W syntax) You used length() on either an array or a hash when you
2469probably wanted a count of the items.
e508c8a4
MH
2470
2471Array size can be obtained by doing:
2472
2473 scalar(@array);
2474
2475The number of items in a hash can be obtained by doing:
2476
2477 scalar(keys %hash);
2478
f0e67a1d
Z
2479=item Lexing code attempted to stuff non-Latin-1 character into Latin-1 input
2480
2481(F) An extension is attempting to insert text into the current parse
96090e4f 2482(using L<lex_stuff_pvn|perlapi/lex_stuff_pvn> or similar), but tried to insert a character
d35a2c71
FC
2483that couldn't be part of the current input. This is an inherent pitfall
2484of the stuffing mechanism, and one of the reasons to avoid it. Where it
2485is necessary to stuff, stuffing only plain ASCII is recommended.
f0e67a1d
Z
2486
2487=item Lexing code internal error (%s)
2488
2489(F) Lexing code supplied by an extension violated the lexer's API in a
2490detectable way.
2491
69282e91 2492=item listen() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2493
be771a83
GS
2494(W closed) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget
2495to check the return value of your socket() call? See
2496L<perlfunc/listen>.
a0d0e21e 2497
bcd05b94 2498=item localtime(%f) too large
8b56d6ff 2499
e9200be3 2500(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with a number that was larger
fc003d4b 2501than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
b539c2c9 2502wrong date. This warning is also triggered with NaN (the special
fc003d4b
MS
2503not-a-number value).
2504
bcd05b94 2505=item localtime(%f) too small
fc003d4b 2506
e9200be3 2507(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with a number that was smaller
fc003d4b 2508than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
b539c2c9 2509wrong date. This warning is also triggered with NaN (the special
fc003d4b 2510not-a-number value).
8b56d6ff 2511
58e23c8d 2512=item Lookbehind longer than %d not implemented in regex m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
2513
2514(F) There is currently a limit on the length of string which lookbehind can
58e23c8d 2515handle. This restriction may be eased in a future release.
2e50fd82 2516
b88df990
NC
2517=item Lost precision when %s %f by 1
2518
2519(W) The value you attempted to increment or decrement by one is too large
2520for the underlying floating point representation to store accurately,
2521hence the target of C<++> or C<--> is unchanged. Perl issues this warning
2522because it has already switched from integers to floating point when values
2523are too large for integers, and now even floating point is insufficient.
2524You may wish to switch to using L<Math::BigInt> explicitly.
2525
2f7da168
RK
2526=item lstat() on filehandle %s
2527
2528(W io) You tried to do an lstat on a filehandle. What did you mean
2529by that? lstat() makes sense only on filenames. (Perl did a fstat()
2530instead on the filehandle.)
2531
bb3abb05
FC
2532=item lvalue attribute cannot be removed after the subroutine has been defined
2533
2534(W misc) The lvalue attribute on a Perl subroutine cannot be turned off
2535once the subroutine is defined.
2536
885ef6f5
GG
2537=item lvalue attribute ignored after the subroutine has been defined
2538
bb3abb05
FC
2539(W misc) Making a Perl subroutine an lvalue subroutine after it has been
2540defined, whether by declaring the subroutine with an lvalue attribute
2541or by using L<attributes.pm|attributes>, is not possible. To make the subroutine an
2542lvalue subroutine, add the lvalue attribute to the definition, or put
2543the declaration before the definition.
885ef6f5 2544
2db62bbc 2545=item Malformed integer in [] in pack
49704364 2546
2db62bbc 2547(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
49704364
LW
2548are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2549
2550=item Malformed integer in [] in unpack
2551
2db62bbc 2552(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
49704364
LW
2553are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2554
6df41af2
GS
2555=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
2556
2557(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
2558
2559 prefix1;prefix2
2560
2561or
6df41af2
GS
2562 prefix1 prefix2
2563
be771a83
GS
2564with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix of
2565a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error may
2566appear if components are not found, or are too long. See
fecfaeb8 2567"PERLLIB_PREFIX" in L<perlos2>.
6df41af2 2568
2f758a16
ST
2569=item Malformed prototype for %s: %s
2570
d37a9538
ST
2571(F) You tried to use a function with a malformed prototype. The
2572syntax of function prototypes is given a brief compile-time check for
2573obvious errors like invalid characters. A more rigorous check is run
2574when the function is called.
2f758a16 2575
ba210ebe
JH
2576=item Malformed UTF-8 character (%s)
2577
2575c402
JW
2578(S utf8) (F) Perl detected a string that didn't comply with UTF-8
2579encoding rules, even though it had the UTF8 flag on.
ba210ebe 2580
2575c402
JW
2581One possible cause is that you set the UTF8 flag yourself for data that
2582you thought to be in UTF-8 but it wasn't (it was for example legacy
25838-bit data). To guard against this, you can use Encode::decode_utf8.
2584
2585If you use the C<:encoding(UTF-8)> PerlIO layer for input, invalid byte
2586sequences are handled gracefully, but if you use C<:utf8>, the flag is
2587set without validating the data, possibly resulting in this error
2588message.
2589
2590See also L<Encode/"Handling Malformed Data">.
901b21bf 2591
ff3f963a
KW
2592=item Malformed UTF-8 returned by \N
2593
2594(F) The charnames handler returned malformed UTF-8.
2595
4a5d3a93
FC
2596=item Malformed UTF-8 string in '%c' format in unpack
2597
2598(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2599rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2600
f337b084
TH
2601=item Malformed UTF-8 string in pack
2602
2603(F) You tried to pack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2604rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2605
2606=item Malformed UTF-8 string in unpack
2607
2608(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2609rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2610
4a5d3a93 2611=item Malformed UTF-16 surrogate
f337b084 2612
4a5d3a93
FC
2613(F) Perl thought it was reading UTF-16 encoded character data but while
2614doing it Perl met a malformed Unicode surrogate.
2615
2616=item %s matches null string many times in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2617
2618(W regexp) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
2619regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. The <-- HERE
2620shows in the regular expression about where the problem was discovered.
2621See L<perlre>.
f337b084 2622
de42a5a9 2623=item Maximal count of pending signals (%u) exceeded
2563cec5 2624
2db62bbc 2625(F) Perl aborted due to too high a number of signals pending. This
2563cec5
IZ
2626usually indicates that your operating system tried to deliver signals
2627too fast (with a very high priority), starving the perl process from
2628resources it would need to reach a point where it can process signals
2629safely. (See L<perlipc/"Deferred Signals (Safe Signals)">.)
2630
25f58aea
PN
2631=item "%s" may clash with future reserved word
2632
2633(W) This warning may be due to running a perl5 script through a perl4
2634interpreter, especially if the word that is being warned about is
2635"use" or "my".
2636
49704364 2637=item % may not be used in pack
6df41af2
GS
2638
2639(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
be771a83
GS
2640checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other way.
2641See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
6df41af2 2642
a0d0e21e
LW
2643=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
2644
2645(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
e7ea3e70 2646doesn't resolve to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 2647
3cdd684c
TP
2648=item Method %s not permitted
2649
2650See Server error.
2651
a0d0e21e
LW
2652=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
2653
2654(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
2655by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
2656ended earlier on the current line.
2657
2658=item Misplaced _ in number
2659
d4ced10d
JH
2660(W syntax) An underscore (underbar) in a numeric constant did not
2661separate two digits.
a0d0e21e 2662
7baa4690
HS
2663=item Missing argument in %s
2664
2665(W uninitialized) A printf-type format required more arguments than were
2666supplied.
2667
9e81e6a1
RGS
2668=item Missing argument to -%c
2669
2670(F) The argument to the indicated command line switch must follow
2671immediately after the switch, without intervening spaces.
2672
ff3f963a 2673=item Missing braces on \N{}
423cee85 2674
4a2d328f 2675(F) Wrong syntax of character name literal C<\N{charname}> within
532cb70d
FC
2676double-quotish context. This can also happen when there is a space
2677(or comment) between the C<\N> and the C<{> in a regex with the C</x> modifier.
2678This modifier does not change the requirement that the brace immediately
2679follow the C<\N>.
423cee85 2680
f0a2b745
KW
2681=item Missing braces on \o{}
2682
2683(F) A C<\o> must be followed immediately by a C<{> in double-quotish context.
2684
a0d0e21e
LW
2685=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
2686
2687(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
2688"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
2689
06eaf0bc
GS
2690=item Missing command in piped open
2691
be771a83
GS
2692(W pipe) You used the C<open(FH, "| command")> or
2693C<open(FH, "command |")> construction, but the command was missing or
2694blank.
06eaf0bc 2695
961ce445
RGS
2696=item Missing control char name in \c
2697
2698(F) A double-quoted string ended with "\c", without the required control
2699character name.
2700
6df41af2
GS
2701=item Missing name in "my sub"
2702
be771a83
GS
2703(F) The reserved syntax for lexically scoped subroutines requires that
2704they have a name with which they can be found.
6df41af2
GS
2705
2706=item Missing $ on loop variable
2707
be771a83
GS
2708(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables
2709are always mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it
2710can vary from one line to the next.
6df41af2 2711
cc507455 2712=item (Missing operator before %s?)
748a9306 2713
56da5a46
RGS
2714(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2715"%s found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
748a9306 2716
ab13f0c7
JH
2717=item Missing right brace on %s
2718
ff3f963a
KW
2719(F) Missing right brace in C<\x{...}>, C<\p{...}>, C<\P{...}>, or C<\N{...}>.
2720
4a68bf9d 2721=item Missing right brace on \N{} or unescaped left brace after \N
ff3f963a 2722
d32207c9
FC
2723(F) C<\N> has two meanings.
2724
2725The traditional one has it followed by a name enclosed in braces,
2726meaning the character (or sequence of characters) given by that
2727name. Thus C<\N{ASTERISK}> is another way of writing C<*>, valid in both
2728double-quoted strings and regular expression patterns. In patterns,
2729it doesn't have the meaning an unescaped C<*> does.
2730
2731Starting in Perl 5.12.0, C<\N> also can have an additional meaning (only)
2732in patterns, namely to match a non-newline character. (This is short
2733for C<[^\n]>, and like C<.> but is not affected by the C</s> regex modifier.)
2734
2735This can lead to some ambiguities. When C<\N> is not followed immediately
2736by a left brace, Perl assumes the C<[^\n]> meaning. Also, if the braces
2737form a valid quantifier such as C<\N{3}> or C<\N{5,}>, Perl assumes that this
2738means to match the given quantity of non-newlines (in these examples,
27393; and 5 or more, respectively). In all other case, where there is a
2740C<\N{> and a matching C<}>, Perl assumes that a character name is desired.
2741
2742However, if there is no matching C<}>, Perl doesn't know if it was
2743mistakenly omitted, or if C<[^\n]{> was desired, and raises this error.
2744If you meant the former, add the right brace; if you meant the latter,
2745escape the brace with a backslash, like so: C<\N\{>
ab13f0c7 2746
d98d5fff 2747=item Missing right curly or square bracket
a0d0e21e 2748
be771a83
GS
2749(F) The lexer counted more opening curly or square brackets than closing
2750ones. As a general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place you
2751were last editing.
a0d0e21e 2752
6df41af2
GS
2753=item (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
2754
56da5a46
RGS
2755(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2756"%s found where operator expected". Don't automatically put a semicolon on
6df41af2
GS
2757the previous line just because you saw this message.
2758
a0d0e21e
LW
2759=item Modification of a read-only value attempted
2760
2761(F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
5f05dabc 2762constant. You didn't, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
a0d0e21e
LW
2763catches that. But an easy way to do the same thing is:
2764
2765 sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
2766 mod(2);
2767
2768Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.
2769
c5674021
PDF
2770Yet another way is to assign to a C<foreach> loop I<VAR> when I<VAR>
2771is aliased to a constant in the look I<LIST>:
2772
2773 $x = 1;
2774 foreach my $n ($x, 2) {
2775 $n *= 2; # modifies the $x, but fails on attempt to modify the 2
64977eb6 2776 }
c5674021 2777
7a4340ed 2778=item Modification of non-creatable array value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2779
2780(F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
2781subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the array
2782backwards.
2783
7a4340ed 2784=item Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e 2785
be771a83
GS
2786(P) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it
2787couldn't be created for some peculiar reason.
a0d0e21e
LW
2788
2789=item Module name must be constant
2790
2791(F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".
2792
be98fb35 2793=item Module name required with -%c option
6df41af2 2794
be98fb35
GS
2795(F) The C<-M> or C<-m> options say that Perl should load some module, but
2796you omitted the name of the module. Consult L<perlrun> for full details
2797about C<-M> and C<-m>.
6df41af2 2798
fe13d51d 2799=item More than one argument to '%s' open
ed9aa3b7
SG
2800
2801(F) The C<open> function has been asked to open multiple files. This
2802can happen if you are trying to open a pipe to a command that takes a
2803list of arguments, but have forgotten to specify a piped open mode.
2804See L<perlfunc/open> for details.
2805
a0d0e21e
LW
2806=item msg%s not implemented
2807
2808(F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.
2809
2810=item Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
2811
75b44862
GS
2812(W syntax) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like C<$foo[1,2,3]>.
2813They're written like C<$foo[1][2][3]>, as in C.
8b1a09fc 2814
49704364 2815=item '/' must follow a numeric type in unpack
6df41af2 2816
49704364
LW
2817(F) You had an unpack template that contained a '/', but this did not
2818follow some unpack specification producing a numeric value.
2819See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6df41af2
GS
2820
2821=item "my sub" not yet implemented
2822
be771a83
GS
2823(F) Lexically scoped subroutines are not yet implemented. Don't try
2824that yet.
6df41af2 2825
fd1b7234 2826=item "my" variable %s can't be in a package
6df41af2 2827
be771a83
GS
2828(F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make
2829sense to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the front. Use
2830local() if you want to localize a package variable.
09bef843 2831
8149aa9f
FC
2832=item Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
2833
2834(W once) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable names.
2835If you had a good reason for having a unique name, then just mention it
2836again somehow to suppress the message. The C<our> declaration is
2837provided for this purpose.
2838
2839NOTE: This warning detects symbols that have been used only once so $c, @c,
2840%c, *c, &c, sub c{}, c(), and c (the filehandle or format) are considered
2841the same; if a program uses $c only once but also uses any of the others it
2842will not trigger this warning.
2843
4a68bf9d 2844=item \N in a character class must be a named character: \N{...}
ff3f963a 2845
c3c41406 2846(F) The new (5.12) meaning of C<\N> as C<[^\n]> is not valid in a bracketed
f4e361c7
FC
2847character class, for the same reason that C<.> in a character class loses
2848its specialness: it matches almost everything, which is probably not
2849what you want.
c3c41406 2850
4a68bf9d 2851=item \N{NAME} must be resolved by the lexer
c3c41406 2852
f4e361c7
FC
2853(F) When compiling a regex pattern, an unresolved named character or
2854sequence was encountered. This can happen in any of several ways that
2855bypass the lexer, such as using single-quotish context, or an extra
7fae04b9 2856backslash in double-quotish:
c3c41406
KW
2857
2858 $re = '\N{SPACE}'; # Wrong!
b09c05e6 2859 $re = "\\N{SPACE}"; # Wrong!
c3c41406
KW
2860 /$re/;
2861
b09c05e6 2862Instead, use double-quotes with a single backslash:
c3c41406
KW
2863
2864 $re = "\N{SPACE}"; # ok
2865 /$re/;
2866
2867The lexer can be bypassed as well by creating the pattern from smaller
2868components:
2869
2870 $re = '\N';
2871 /${re}{SPACE}/; # Wrong!
2872
2873It's not a good idea to split a construct in the middle like this, and it
2874doesn't work here. Instead use the solution above.
2875
2876Finally, the message also can happen under the C</x> regex modifier when the
2877C<\N> is separated by spaces from the C<{>, in which case, remove the spaces.
2878
2879 /\N {SPACE}/x; # Wrong!
2880 /\N{SPACE}/x; # ok
ff3f963a 2881
49704364
LW
2882=item Negative '/' count in unpack
2883
2884(F) The length count obtained from a length/code unpack operation was
2885negative. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2886
a0d0e21e
LW
2887=item Negative length
2888
be771a83
GS
2889(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer
2890length that is less than 0. This is difficult to imagine.
a0d0e21e 2891
ed9aa3b7
SG
2892=item Negative offset to vec in lvalue context
2893
2894(F) When C<vec> is called in an lvalue context, the second argument must be
2895greater than or equal to zero.
2896
7253e4e3 2897=item Nested quantifiers in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 2898
b45f050a 2899(F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses. So
7253e4e3 2900things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal. The <-- HERE shows in the regular
b45f050a 2901expression about where the problem was discovered.
a0d0e21e 2902
7253e4e3 2903Note that the minimal matching quantifiers, C<*?>, C<+?>, and
be771a83 2904C<??> appear to be nested quantifiers, but aren't. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 2905
6df41af2 2906=item %s never introduced
a0d0e21e 2907
be771a83
GS
2908(S internal) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of
2909scope before it could possibly have been used.
a0d0e21e 2910
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2911=item next::method/next::can/maybe::next::method cannot find enclosing method
2912
2913(F) C<next::method> needs to be called within the context of a
2914real method in a real package, and it could not find such a context.
2915See L<mro>.
2916
a0d0e21e
LW
2917=item No %s allowed while running setuid
2918
be771a83
GS
2919(F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or
2920setgid script to even be allowed to attempt. Generally speaking there
2921will be another way to do what you want that is, if not secure, at least
2922securable. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2923
a0d0e21e
LW
2924=item No comma allowed after %s
2925
2926(F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is not
2927allowed to have a comma between that and the following arguments.
2928Otherwise it'd be just another one of the arguments.
2929
0a753a76
PP
2930One possible cause for this is that you expected to have imported a
2931constant to your name space with B<use> or B<import> while no such
2932importing took place, it may for example be that your operating system
2933does not support that particular constant. Hopefully you did use an
f7af5ce1 2934explicit import list for the constants you expect to see; please see
0a753a76
PP
2935L<perlfunc/use> and L<perlfunc/import>. While an explicit import list
2936would probably have caught this error earlier it naturally does not
2937remedy the fact that your operating system still does not support that
2938constant. Maybe you have a typo in the constants of the symbol import
2939list of B<use> or B<import> or in the constant name at the line where
2940this error was triggered?
2941
748a9306
LW
2942=item No command into which to pipe on command line
2943
be771a83
GS
2944(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2945redirection, and found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it
2946doesn't know where you want to pipe the output from this command.
748a9306 2947
a0d0e21e
LW
2948=item No DB::DB routine defined
2949
be771a83 2950(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
f7af5ce1 2951for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
ccafdc96
RGS
2952module) didn't define a routine to be called at the beginning of each
2953statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
2954
2955=item No dbm on this machine
2956
2957(P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine should
5f05dabc 2958supply dbm nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM. See L<SDBM_File>.
a0d0e21e 2959
ccafdc96 2960=item No DB::sub routine defined
a0d0e21e 2961
ccafdc96
RGS
2962(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
2963for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
2964module) didn't define a C<DB::sub> routine to be called at the beginning
2965of each ordinary subroutine call.
a0d0e21e 2966
c47ff5f1 2967=item No error file after 2> or 2>> on command line
748a9306 2968
be771a83
GS
2969(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2970redirection, and found a '2>' or a '2>>' on the command line, but can't
2971find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stderr.
748a9306 2972
49704364
LW
2973=item No group ending character '%c' found in template
2974
2975(F) A pack or unpack template has an opening '(' or '[' without its
2976matching counterpart. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2977
c47ff5f1 2978=item No input file after < on command line
748a9306 2979
be771a83
GS
2980(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2981redirection, and found a '<' on the command line, but can't find the
2982name of the file from which to read data for stdin.
748a9306 2983
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2984=item No next::method '%s' found for %s
2985
2986(F) C<next::method> found no further instances of this method name
2987in the remaining packages of the MRO of this class. If you don't want
2988it throwing an exception, use C<maybe::next::method>
2989or C<next::can>. See L<mro>.
2990
6df41af2
GS
2991=item "no" not allowed in expression
2992
be771a83
GS
2993(F) The "no" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and
2994returns no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
6df41af2 2995
c47ff5f1 2996=item No output file after > on command line
748a9306 2997
be771a83
GS
2998(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2999redirection, and found a lone '>' at the end of the command line, so it
3000doesn't know where you wanted to redirect stdout.
748a9306 3001
c47ff5f1 3002=item No output file after > or >> on command line
748a9306 3003
be771a83
GS
3004(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
3005redirection, and found a '>' or a '>>' on the command line, but can't
3006find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stdout.
748a9306 3007
1ec3e8de
GS
3008=item No package name allowed for variable %s in "our"
3009
be771a83
GS
3010(F) Fully qualified variable names are not allowed in "our"
3011declarations, because that doesn't make much sense under existing
3012semantics. Such syntax is reserved for future extensions.
1ec3e8de 3013
a0d0e21e
LW
3014=item No Perl script found in input
3015
3016(F) You called C<perl -x>, but no line was found in the file beginning
3017with #! and containing the word "perl".
3018
3019=item No setregid available
3020
3021(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setregid() call for
3022your system.
3023
3024=item No setreuid available
3025
3026(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setreuid() call for
3027your system.
3028
6df41af2
GS
3029=item No %s specified for -%c
3030
3031(F) The indicated command line switch needs a mandatory argument, but
3032you haven't specified one.
f7af5ce1 3033
e75d1f10
RD
3034=item No such class field "%s" in variable %s of type %s
3035
3036(F) You tried to access a key from a hash through the indicated typed variable
3037but that key is not allowed by the package of the same type. The indicated
3038package has restricted the set of allowed keys using the L<fields> pragma.
3039
2c692339
RGS
3040=item No such class %s
3041
dc7e5945
FC
3042(F) You provided a class qualifier in a "my", "our" or "state"
3043declaration, but this class doesn't exist at this point in your program.
2c692339 3044
3c20a832
SP
3045=item No such hook: %s
3046
dc7e5945
FC
3047(F) You specified a signal hook that was not recognized by Perl.
3048Currently, Perl accepts C<__DIE__> and C<__WARN__> as valid signal hooks.
3c20a832 3049
6df41af2
GS
3050=item No such pipe open
3051
3052(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The internal routine my_pclose() tried to
be771a83
GS
3053close a pipe which hadn't been opened. This should have been caught
3054earlier as an attempt to close an unopened filehandle.
6df41af2 3055
a0d0e21e
LW
3056=item No such signal: SIG%s
3057
be771a83
GS
3058(W signal) You specified a signal name as a subscript to %SIG that was
3059not recognized. Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal
3060names on your system.
a0d0e21e
LW
3061
3062=item Not a CODE reference
3063
3064(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
3065subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
3066use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
3067also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3068
3069=item Not a format reference
3070
3071(F) I'm not sure how you managed to generate a reference to an anonymous
3072format, but this indicates you did, and that it didn't exist.
3073
3074=item Not a GLOB reference
3075
be771a83
GS
3076(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a "typeglob" (that is, a
3077symbol table entry that looks like C<*foo>), but found a reference to
3078something else instead. You can use the ref() function to find out what
3079kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3080
3081=item Not a HASH reference
3082
be771a83
GS
3083(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a hash value, but found a
3084reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function to
3085find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 3086
6df41af2
GS
3087=item Not an ARRAY reference
3088
be771a83
GS
3089(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to an array value, but found
3090a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
3091to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 3092
d4fc4415
FC
3093=item Not an unblessed ARRAY reference
3094
3095(F) You passed a reference to a blessed array to C<push>, C<shift> or
3096another array function. These only accept unblessed array references
3097or arrays beginning explicitly with C<@>.
3098
a0d0e21e
LW
3099=item Not a SCALAR reference
3100
be771a83
GS
3101(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a scalar value, but found
3102a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
3103to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3104
3105=item Not a subroutine reference
3106
3107(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
3108subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
3109use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
3110also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 3111
e7ea3e70 3112=item Not a subroutine reference in overload table
a0d0e21e
LW
3113
3114(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
8b1a09fc 3115doesn't somehow point to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 3116
a0d0e21e
LW
3117=item Not enough arguments for %s
3118
3119(F) The function requires more arguments than you specified.
3120
6df41af2
GS
3121=item Not enough format arguments
3122
be771a83
GS
3123(W syntax) A format specified more picture fields than the next line
3124supplied. See L<perlform>.
6df41af2
GS
3125
3126=item %s: not found
3127
be771a83
GS
3128(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell instead
3129of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl
3130yourself.
6df41af2
GS
3131
3132=item no UTC offset information; assuming local time is UTC
a0d0e21e 3133
6df41af2
GS
3134(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl was unable to find the local
3135timezone offset, so it's assuming that local system time is equivalent
be771a83
GS
3136to UTC. If it's not, define the logical name
3137F<SYS$TIMEZONE_DIFFERENTIAL> to translate to the number of seconds which
3138need to be added to UTC to get local time.
a0d0e21e 3139
f0a2b745
KW
3140=item Non-octal character '%c'. Resolved as "%s"
3141
5493e060
FC
3142(W digit) In parsing an octal numeric constant, a character was
3143unexpectedly encountered that isn't octal. The resulting value is as
3144indicated.
f0a2b745 3145
4ef2275c
GA
3146=item Non-string passed as bitmask
3147
3148(W misc) A number has been passed as a bitmask argument to select().
3149Use the vec() function to construct the file descriptor bitmasks for
bc4b151d 3150select. See L<perlfunc/select>.
4ef2275c 3151
a0d0e21e
LW
3152=item Null filename used
3153
be771a83
GS
3154(F) You can't require the null filename, especially because on many
3155machines that means the current directory! See L<perlfunc/require>.
a0d0e21e 3156
6df41af2
GS
3157=item NULL OP IN RUN
3158
f84fe999 3159(S debugging) Some internal routine called run() with a null opcode
be771a83 3160pointer.
6df41af2 3161
55497cff
PP
3162=item Null picture in formline
3163
3164(F) The first argument to formline must be a valid format picture
3165specification. It was found to be empty, which probably means you
3166supplied it an uninitialized value. See L<perlform>.
3167
a0d0e21e
LW
3168=item Null realloc
3169
3170(P) An attempt was made to realloc NULL.
3171
3172=item NULL regexp argument
3173
5f05dabc 3174(P) The internal pattern matching routines blew it big time.
a0d0e21e
LW
3175
3176=item NULL regexp parameter
3177
3178(P) The internal pattern matching routines are out of their gourd.
3179
fc36a67e
PP
3180=item Number too long
3181
be771a83 3182(F) Perl limits the representation of decimal numbers in programs to
da75cd15 3183about 250 characters. You've exceeded that length. Future
be771a83
GS
3184versions of Perl are likely to eliminate this arbitrary limitation. In
3185the meantime, try using scientific notation (e.g. "1e6" instead of
3186"1_000_000").
fc36a67e 3187
f0a2b745
KW
3188=item Number with no digits
3189
1043934d
FC
3190(F) Perl was looking for a number but found nothing that looked like
3191a number. This happens, for example with C<\o{}>, with no number between
3192the braces.
f0a2b745 3193
6df41af2
GS
3194=item Octal number in vector unsupported
3195
be771a83
GS
3196(F) Numbers with a leading C<0> are not currently allowed in vectors.
3197The octal number interpretation of such numbers may be supported in a
3198future version.
6df41af2 3199
252aa082
JH
3200=item Octal number > 037777777777 non-portable
3201
75b44862 3202(W portable) The octal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
be771a83
GS
3203(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
3204L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 3205
6ad11d81
JH
3206=item Odd number of arguments for overload::constant
3207
04a80ee0
RGS
3208(W overload) The call to overload::constant contained an odd number of
3209arguments. The arguments should come in pairs.
6ad11d81 3210
b21befc1
MG
3211=item Odd number of elements in anonymous hash
3212
3213(W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash,
3214which is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
3215
1930e939 3216=item Odd number of elements in hash assignment
a0d0e21e 3217
be771a83
GS
3218(W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash,
3219which is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
a0d0e21e 3220
bbce6d69
PP
3221=item Offset outside string
3222
1fa582fa 3223(F)(W layer) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv/seek operation
42bc49da 3224with an offset pointing outside the buffer. This is difficult to
f5a7294f
JH
3225imagine. The sole exceptions to this are that zero padding will
3226take place when going past the end of the string when either
3227C<sysread()>ing a file, or when seeking past the end of a scalar opened
1a7a2554
MB
3228for I/O (in anticipation of future reads and to imitate the behaviour
3229with real files).
bbce6d69 3230
c289d2f7 3231=item %s() on unopened %s
2dd78f96
JH
3232
3233(W unopened) An I/O operation was attempted on a filehandle that was
3234never initialized. You need to do an open(), a sysopen(), or a socket()
3235call, or call a constructor from the FileHandle package.
3236
96ebfdd7
RK
3237=item -%s on unopened filehandle %s
3238
3239(W unopened) You tried to invoke a file test operator on a filehandle
3240that isn't open. Check your control flow. See also L<perlfunc/-X>.
3241
a0d0e21e
LW
3242=item oops: oopsAV
3243
e476b1b5 3244(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e
LW
3245
3246=item oops: oopsHV
3247
e476b1b5 3248(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e 3249
abc718f2
RGS
3250=item Opening dirhandle %s also as a file
3251
a4a4c9e2 3252(W io, deprecated) You used open() to associate a filehandle to
abc718f2
RGS
3253a symbol (glob or scalar) that already holds a dirhandle.
3254Although legal, this idiom might render your code confusing
3255and is deprecated.
3256
3257=item Opening filehandle %s also as a directory
3258
a4a4c9e2 3259(W io, deprecated) You used opendir() to associate a dirhandle to
abc718f2
RGS
3260a symbol (glob or scalar) that already holds a filehandle.
3261Although legal, this idiom might render your code confusing
3262and is deprecated.
3263
a0288114 3264=item Operation "%s": no method found, %s
44a8e56a 3265
be771a83
GS
3266(F) An attempt was made to perform an overloaded operation for which no
3267handler was defined. While some handlers can be autogenerated in terms
3268of other handlers, there is no default handler for any operation, unless
e4aad80d 3269the C<fallback> overloading key is specified to be true. See L<overload>.
44a8e56a 3270
5ff1373f 3271=item Operation "%s" returns its argument for non-Unicode code point 0x%X
9ae3ac1a 3272
8457b38f
KW
3273(W utf8, non_unicode) You performed an operation requiring Unicode
3274semantics on a code
5ff1373f
FC
3275point that is not in Unicode, so what it should do is not defined. Perl
3276has chosen to have it do nothing, and warn you.
9ae3ac1a
KW
3277
3278If the operation shown is "ToFold", it means that case-insensitive
3279matching in a regular expression was done on the code point.
3280
3281If you know what you are doing you can turn off this warning by
8457b38f 3282C<no warnings 'non_unicode';>.
9ae3ac1a 3283
5ff1373f 3284=item Operation "%s" returns its argument for UTF-16 surrogate U+%X
9ae3ac1a 3285
8457b38f
KW
3286(W utf8, surrogate) You performed an operation requiring Unicode
3287semantics on a Unicode
5ff1373f
FC
3288surrogate. Unicode frowns upon the use of surrogates for anything but
3289storing strings in UTF-16, but semantics are (reluctantly) defined for
3290the surrogates, and they are to do nothing for this operation. Because
3291the use of surrogates can be dangerous, Perl warns.
9ae3ac1a
KW
3292
3293If the operation shown is "ToFold", it means that case-insensitive
3294matching in a regular expression was done on the code point.
3295
3296If you know what you are doing you can turn off this warning by
8457b38f 3297C<no warnings 'surrogate';>.
9ae3ac1a 3298
748a9306
LW
3299=item Operator or semicolon missing before %s
3300
be771a83
GS
3301(S ambiguous) You used a variable or subroutine call where the parser
3302was expecting an operator. The parser has assumed you really meant to
3303use an operator, but this is highly likely to be incorrect. For
3304example, if you say "*foo *foo" it will be interpreted as if you said
3305"*foo * 'foo'".
748a9306 3306
6df41af2
GS
3307=item "our" variable %s redeclared
3308
be771a83
GS
3309(W misc) You seem to have already declared the same global once before
3310in the current lexical scope.
6df41af2 3311
a80b8354
GS
3312=item Out of memory!
3313
3314(X) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
be771a83
GS
3315remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. Perl has
3316no option but to exit immediately.
a80b8354 3317
19a52907
JH
3318At least in Unix you may be able to get past this by increasing your
3319process datasize limits: in csh/tcsh use C<limit> and
3320C<limit datasize n> (where C<n> is the number of kilobytes) to check
3321the current limits and change them, and in ksh/bash/zsh use C<ulimit -a>
3322and C<ulimit -d n>, respectively.
3323
6d3b25aa
RGS
3324=item Out of memory during %s extend
3325
3326(X) An attempt was made to extend an array, a list, or a string beyond
3327the largest possible memory allocation.
3328
6df41af2 3329=item Out of memory during "large" request for %s
a0d0e21e 3330
6df41af2
GS
3331(F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
3332remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. However,
be771a83
GS
3333the request was judged large enough (compile-time default is 64K), so a
3334possibility to shut down by trapping this error is granted.
a0d0e21e 3335
1b979e0a 3336=item Out of memory during request for %s
a0d0e21e 3337
1fa582fa 3338(X)(F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was
be771a83
GS
3339insufficient remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the
3340request.
eff9c6e2
CS
3341
3342