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1If you read this file _as_is_, just ignore the funny characters you
2see. It is written in the POD format (see pod/perlpod.pod) which is
3specially designed to be readable as is.
4
5=head1 NAME
6
7perlandroid - Perl under Android
8
9=head1 SYNOPSIS
10
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11The first portions of this documents contains instructions
12to cross-compile Perl for Android 2.0 and later, using the
13binaries provided by Google. The latter portion describes how to build
14perl native using one of the toolchains available on the Play Store.
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15
16=head1 DESCRIPTION
17
18This document describes how to set up your host environment when
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19attempting to build Perl for Android.
20
d639e0ae 21=head1 Cross-Compiling
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22
23These instructions assume an Unixish build environment on your host system;
24they've been tested on Linux and OS X, and may work on Cygwin and MSYS.
25While Google also provides an NDK for Windows, these steps won't work
26native there, although it may be possible to cross-compile through different
27means.
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29If your host system's architecture is 32 bits, remember to change the
30C<x86_64>'s below to C<x86>'s. On a similar vein, the examples below
31use the 4.8 toolchain; if you want to use something older or newer (for
32example, the 4.4.3 toolchain included in the 8th revision of the NDK), just
33change those to the relevant version.
34
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35=head2 Get the Android Native Development Kit (NDK)
36
37You can download the NDK from L<https://developer.android.com/tools/sdk/ndk/index.html>.
38You'll want the normal, non-legacy version.
39
40=head2 Determine the architecture you'll be cross-compiling for
41
42There's three possible options: arm-linux-androideabi for ARM,
43mipsel-linux-android for MIPS, and simply x86 for x86.
44As of 2014, most Android devices run on ARM, so that is generally a safe bet.
45
46With those two in hand, you should add
47
77edee38 48$ANDROID_NDK/toolchains/$TARGETARCH-4.8/prebuilt/`uname | tr '[A-Z]' '[a-z]'`-x86_64/bin
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49
50to your PATH, where $ANDROID_NDK is the location where you unpacked the
51NDK, and $TARGETARCH is your target's architecture.
52
53=head2 Set up a standalone toolchain
54
55This creates a working sysroot that we can feed to Configure later.
56
57 $ export ANDROID_TOOLCHAIN=/tmp/my-toolchain-$TARGETARCH
58 $ export SYSROOT=$ANDROID_TOOLCHAIN/sysroot
59 $ $ANDROID_NDK/build/tools/make-standalone-toolchain.sh \
60 --platform=android-9 \
61 --install-dir=$ANDROID_TOOLCHAIN \
62 --system=`uname | tr '[A-Z]' '[a-z]'`-x86_64 \
77edee38 63 --toolchain=$TARGETARCH-4.8
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64
65=head2 adb or ssh?
66
67adb is the Android Debug Bridge. For our purposes, it's basically a way
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68of establishing an ssh connection to an Android device without having to
69install anything on the device itself, as long as the device is either on
70the same local network as the host, or it is connected to the host through
71USB.
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72Perl can be cross-compiled using either adb or a normal ssh connection;
73in general, if you can connect your device to the host using a USB port,
fbda5f20 74or if you don't feel like installing an sshd app on your device,
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75you may want to use adb, although you may be forced to switch to ssh if
76your device is not rooted and you're unlucky -- more on that later.
77Alternatively, if you're cross-compiling for an emulator, you'll have to
78use adb.
79
80=head3 adb
81
82To use adb, download the Android SDK from L<https://developer.android.com/sdk/index.html>.
83The "SDK Tools Only" version should suffice -- if you downloaded the ADT
84Bundle, you can find the sdk under $ADT_BUNDLE/sdk/.
85
86Add $ANDROID_SDK/platform-tools to your PATH, which should give you access
87to adb. You'll now have to find your device's name using 'adb devices',
88and later pass that to Configure through '-Dtargethost=$DEVICE'.
89
90However, before calling Configure, you need to check if using adb is a
91viable choice in the first place. Because Android doesn't have a /tmp,
92nor does it allow executables in the sdcard, we need to find somewhere in
93the device for Configure to put some files in, as well as for the tests
94to run in. If your device is rooted, then you're good. Try running these:
95
96 $ export TARGETDIR=/mnt/asec/perl
97 $ adb -s $DEVICE shell "echo sh -c '\"mkdir $TARGETDIR\"' | su --"
98
99Which will create the directory we need, and you can move on to the next
100step. /mnt/asec is mounted as a tmpfs in Android, but it's only
101accessible to root.
102
103If your device is not rooted, you may still be in luck. Try running this:
104
105 $ export TARGETDIR=/data/local/tmp/perl
106 $ adb -s $DEVICE shell "mkdir $TARGETDIR"
107
108If the command works, you can move to the next step, but beware:
109B<You'll have to remove the directory from the device once you are done!
110Unlike /mnt/asec, /data/local/tmp may not get automatically garbage
111collected once you shut off the phone>.
112
113If neither of those work, then you can't use adb to cross-compile to your
114device. Either try rooting it, or go for the ssh route.
115
116=head3 ssh
117
118To use ssh, you'll need to install and run a sshd app and set it up
119properly. There are several paid and free apps that do this rather
120easily, so you should be able to spot one easily.
121Remember that Perl requires a passwordless connection, so set up a
122public key.
123
124Note that several apps spew crap to stderr every time you
125connect, which can throw off Configure. You may need to monkeypatch
126the part of Configure that creates 'run-ssh' to have it discard stderr.
127
128Since you're using ssh, you'll have to pass some extra arguments to
129Configure: -Dtargetrun=ssh -Dtargethost=$TARGETHOST -Dtargetuser=$TARGETUSER -Dtargetport=$TARGETPORT
130
131=head2 Configure and beyond
132
133With all of the previous done, you're now ready to call Configure.
134
135If using adb, a "basic" Configure line will look like this:
136
137$ ./Configure -des -Dusedevel -Dusecrosscompile -Dtargetrun=adb \
138 -Dcc=$TARGETARCH-gcc \
139 -Dsysroot=$SYSROOT \
140 -Dtargetdir=$TARGETDIR \
141 -Dtargethost=$DEVICE
142
143If using ssh, it's not too different -- we just change targetrun to ssh,
144and pass in targetuser and targetport. It ends up looking like this:
145
146$ ./Configure -des -Dusedevel -Dusecrosscompile -Dtargetrun=ssh \
147 -Dcc=$TARGETARCH-gcc \
148 -Dsysroot=$SYSROOT \
149 -Dtargetdir=$TARGETDIR \
150 -Dtargethost="$TARGETHOST" \
151 -Dtargetuser=$TARGETUSER \
152 -Dtargetport=$TARGETPORT
153
154Now you're ready to run make and make test!
155
156As a final word of warning, if you're using adb, make test may appear to
157hang; this is because it doesn't output anything until it finishes
158running all tests. You can check its progress by logging into the
159device, moving to $TARGETDIR, and looking at the file output.stdout.
160
161=head3 Notes
162
163=over
164
165=item *
166
167If you are targetting x86 Android, you will have to change $TARGETARCH-gcc
168to i686-linux-android-gcc.
169
170=item *
171
172On some older low-end devices -- think early 2.2 era -- some tests,
173particularly t/re/uniprops, may crash the phone, causing it to turn
174itself off once, and then back on again.
175
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176=back
177
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178=head1 Native Builds
179
180While Google doesn't provide a native toolchain for Android,
181you can still get one from the Play Store; for example, there's the CCTools
182app which you can get for free.
183Keep in mind that you want a full
184toolchain; some apps tend to default to installing only a barebones
185version without some important utilities, like ar or nm.
186
187Once you have the toolchain set up properly, the only
188remaining hurdle is actually locating where in the device it was installed
189in. For example, CCTools installs its toolchain in
190/data/data/com.pdaxrom.cctools/root/cctools. With the path in hand,
191compiling perl is little more than:
192
193 export SYSROOT=<location of the native toolchain>
194 export LD_LIBRARY_PATH="$SYSROOT/lib:`pwd`:`pwd`/lib:`pwd`/lib/auto:$LD_LIBRARY_PATH"
195 sh Configure -des -Dsysroot=$SYSROOT -Alibpth="/system/lib /vendor/lib"
196
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197=head1 AUTHOR
198
199Brian Fraser <fraserbn@gmail.com>
200
201=cut