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1=head1 NAME
2
3Install - Build and Installation guide for perl5.
4
5=head1 SYNOPSIS
6
7f678428 7The basic steps to build and install perl5 on a Unix system are:
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dc45a647 9 rm -f config.sh Policy.sh
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10 sh Configure
11 make
12 make test
13 make install
36477c24 14
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15 # You may also wish to add these:
16 (cd /usr/include && h2ph *.h sys/*.h)
3e3baf6d 17 (installhtml --help)
aa689395 18 (cd pod && make tex && <process the latex files>)
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19
20Each of these is explained in further detail below.
21
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22For information on non-Unix systems, see the section on
23L<"Porting information"> below.
7f678428 24
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25For information on what's new in this release, see the
26pod/perldelta.pod file. For more detailed information about specific
27changes, see the Changes file.
c3edaffb 28
1ec51d55 29=head1 DESCRIPTION
edb1cbcb 30
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31This document is written in pod format as an easy way to indicate its
32structure. The pod format is described in pod/perlpod.pod, but you can
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33read it as is with any pager or editor. Headings and items are marked
34by lines beginning with '='. The other mark-up used is
35
36 B<text> embolden text, used for switches, programs or commands
37 C<code> literal code
38 L<name> A link (cross reference) to name
39
40You should probably at least skim through this entire document before
41proceeding.
c3edaffb 42
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43If you're building Perl on a non-Unix system, you should also read
44the README file specific to your operating system, since this may
45provide additional or different instructions for building Perl.
46
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47If there is a hint file for your system (in the hints/ directory) you
48should also read that hint file for specific information for your
49system. (Unixware users should use the svr4.sh hint file.)
50
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51=head1 NOTE: This version is not binary compatible with Perl 5.004.
52
53For Perl 5.004 it was possible to be binary compatible with 5.003.
54Starting from Perl 5.004_50 this is no longer possible because there were
55many deep and far-reaching changes to the language internals.
56
57If you have dynamically loaded extensions that you built under perl
585.003 or 5.004 and the so-called 'bincompat3' mode (the default mode)
59and that you wish to continue to use with perl 5.005, you may need to
60reinstall the extensions. If you wish to continue to support both 5.004
61and 5.005 on your system, you will have to move the 5.004 extensions
62over to the 5.004 architecture-dependent library. See the discussion
63below on L<"Coexistence with earlier versions of perl5.">
64
65The standard extensions supplied with Perl will be handled automatically.
66
67In a related issue, old extensions may possibly be affected by the
68changes in the Perl language in the current release. Please see
69pod/perldelta.pod for a description of what's changed.
70
aa689395 71=head1 Space Requirements
eed2e782 72
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73The complete perl5 source tree takes up about 10 MB of disk space. The
74complete tree after completing make takes roughly 20 MB, though the
1ec51d55 75actual total is likely to be quite system-dependent. The installation
dc45a647 76directories need something on the order of 10 MB, though again that
1ec51d55 77value is system-dependent.
8e07c86e 78
aa689395 79=head1 Start with a Fresh Distribution
8e07c86e 80
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81If you have built perl before, you should clean out the build directory
82with the command
83
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84 make distclean
85
86or
87
edb1cbcb 88 make realclean
c3edaffb 89
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90The only difference between the two is that make distclean also removes
91your old config.sh and Policy.sh files.
92
93The results of a Configure run are stored in the config.sh and Policy.sh
94files. If you are upgrading from a previous version of perl, or if you
95change systems or compilers or make other significant changes, or if
96you are experiencing difficulties building perl, you should probably
97not re-use your old config.sh. Simply remove it or rename it, e.g.
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98
99 mv config.sh config.sh.old
4633a7c4 100
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101If you wish to use your old config.sh, be especially attentive to the
102version and architecture-specific questions and answers. For example,
103the default directory for architecture-dependent library modules
104includes the version name. By default, Configure will reuse your old
105name (e.g. /opt/perl/lib/i86pc-solaris/5.003) even if you're running
106Configure for a different version, e.g. 5.004. Yes, Configure should
107probably check and correct for this, but it doesn't, presently.
108Similarly, if you used a shared libperl.so (see below) with version
109numbers, you will probably want to adjust them as well.
110
111Also, be careful to check your architecture name. Some Linux systems
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112(such as Debian) use i386, while others may use i486 or i586. If you
113pick up a precompiled binary, it might not use the same name.
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114
115In short, if you wish to use your old config.sh, I recommend running
116Configure interactively rather than blindly accepting the defaults.
8e07c86e 117
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118If your reason to reuse your old config.sh is to save your
119particular installation choices, then you can probably achieve the
120same effect by using the new Policy.sh file. See the section on
121L<"Site-wide Policy settings"> below.
122
aa689395 123=head1 Run Configure
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124
125Configure will figure out various things about your system. Some
126things Configure will figure out for itself, other things it will ask
1ec51d55 127you about. To accept the default, just press RETURN. The default
a3cb178b 128is almost always okay. At any Configure prompt, you can type &-d
203c3eec 129and Configure will use the defaults from then on.
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130
131After it runs, Configure will perform variable substitution on all the
1ec51d55 132*.SH files and offer to run make depend.
8e07c86e 133
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134Configure supports a number of useful options. Run B<Configure -h> to
135get a listing. See the Porting/Glossary file for a complete list of
136Configure variables you can set and their definitions.
137
138To compile with gcc, for example, you should run
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139
140 sh Configure -Dcc=gcc
141
142This is the preferred way to specify gcc (or another alternative
143compiler) so that the hints files can set appropriate defaults.
144
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145If you want to use your old config.sh but override some of the items
146with command line options, you need to use B<Configure -O>.
147
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148By default, for most systems, perl will be installed in
149/usr/local/{bin, lib, man}. You can specify a different 'prefix' for
150the default installation directory, when Configure prompts you or by
151using the Configure command line option -Dprefix='/some/directory',
152e.g.
153
25f94b33 154 sh Configure -Dprefix=/opt/perl
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155
156If your prefix contains the string "perl", then the directories
157are simplified. For example, if you use prefix=/opt/perl,
158then Configure will suggest /opt/perl/lib instead of
4fdae800 159/opt/perl/lib/perl5/.
8e07c86e 160
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161NOTE: You must not specify an installation directory that is below
162your perl source directory. If you do, installperl will attempt
163infinite recursion.
164
a3cb178b 165It may seem obvious to say, but Perl is useful only when users can
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166easily find it. It's often a good idea to have both /usr/bin/perl and
167/usr/local/bin/perl be symlinks to the actual binary. Be especially
168careful, however, of overwriting a version of perl supplied by your
169vendor. In any case, system administrators are strongly encouraged to
170put (symlinks to) perl and its accompanying utilities, such as perldoc,
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171into a directory typically found along a user's PATH, or in another
172obvious and convenient place.
173
aa689395 174By default, Configure will compile perl to use dynamic loading if
8e07c86e 175your system supports it. If you want to force perl to be compiled
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176statically, you can either choose this when Configure prompts you or
177you can use the Configure command line option -Uusedl.
8e07c86e 178
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179If you are willing to accept all the defaults, and you want terse
180output, you can run
181
182 sh Configure -des
183
184For my Solaris system, I usually use
185
186 sh Configure -Dprefix=/opt/perl -Doptimize='-xpentium -xO4' -des
187
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188=head2 GNU-style configure
189
1ec51d55 190If you prefer the GNU-style configure command line interface, you can
dc45a647 191use the supplied configure.gnu command, e.g.
46bb10fb 192
693762b4 193 CC=gcc ./configure.gnu
46bb10fb 194
dc45a647 195The configure.gnu script emulates a few of the more common configure
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196options. Try
197
693762b4 198 ./configure.gnu --help
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199
200for a listing.
201
aa689395 202Cross compiling is not supported.
46bb10fb 203
dc45a647 204(The file is called configure.gnu to avoid problems on systems
693762b4 205that would not distinguish the files "Configure" and "configure".)
46bb10fb 206
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207=head2 Extensions
208
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209By default, Configure will offer to build every extension which appears
210to be supported. For example, Configure will offer to build GDBM_File
211only if it is able to find the gdbm library. (See examples below.)
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212B, DynaLoader, Fcntl, IO, and attrs are always built by default.
213Configure does not contain code to test for POSIX compliance, so POSIX
214is always built by default as well. If you wish to skip POSIX, you can
215set the Configure variable useposix=false either in a hint file or from
216the Configure command line. Similarly, the Opcode extension is always
217built by default, but you can skip it by setting the Configure variable
c3edaffb 218useopcode=false either in a hint file for from the command line.
24b3df7f 219
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220You can learn more about each of these extensions by consulting the
221documentation in the individual .pm modules, located under the
222ext/ subdirectory.
223
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224Even if you do not have dynamic loading, you must still build the
225DynaLoader extension; you should just build the stub dl_none.xs
226version. (Configure will suggest this as the default.)
227
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228In summary, here are the Configure command-line variables you can set
229to turn off each extension:
230
693762b4 231 B (Always included by default)
24b3df7f 232 DB_File i_db
56c6f531 233 DynaLoader (Must always be included as a static extension)
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234 Fcntl (Always included by default)
235 GDBM_File i_gdbm
9d67150a 236 IO (Always included by default)
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237 NDBM_File i_ndbm
238 ODBM_File i_dbm
239 POSIX useposix
240 SDBM_File (Always included by default)
c3edaffb 241 Opcode useopcode
24b3df7f 242 Socket d_socket
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243 Threads usethreads
244 attrs (Always included by default)
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245
246Thus to skip the NDBM_File extension, you can use
247
248 sh Configure -Ui_ndbm
249
250Again, this is taken care of automatically if you don't have the ndbm
251library.
252
253Of course, you may always run Configure interactively and select only
aa689395 254the extensions you want.
24b3df7f 255
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256Note: The DB_File module will only work with version 1.x of Berkeley
257DB or newer releases of version 2. Configure will automatically detect
258this for you and refuse to try to build DB_File with version 2.
1ec51d55 259
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260If you re-use your old config.sh but change your system (e.g. by
261adding libgdbm) Configure will still offer your old choices of extensions
262for the default answer, but it will also point out the discrepancy to
263you.
264
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265Finally, if you have dynamic loading (most modern Unix systems do)
266remember that these extensions do not increase the size of your perl
267executable, nor do they impact start-up time, so you probably might as
268well build all the ones that will work on your system.
269
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270=head2 Including locally-installed libraries
271
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272Perl5 comes with interfaces to number of database extensions, including
273dbm, ndbm, gdbm, and Berkeley db. For each extension, if
274Configure can find the appropriate header files and libraries, it will
275automatically include that extension. The gdbm and db libraries
1ec51d55 276are not included with perl. See the library documentation for
4633a7c4 277how to obtain the libraries.
8e07c86e 278
1ec51d55 279Note: If your database header (.h) files are not in a
8e07c86e 280directory normally searched by your C compiler, then you will need to
1ec51d55 281include the appropriate -I/your/directory option when prompted by
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282Configure. If your database library (.a) files are not in a directory
283normally searched by your C compiler and linker, then you will need to
1ec51d55 284include the appropriate -L/your/directory option when prompted by
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285Configure. See the examples below.
286
287=head2 Examples
288
289=over 4
290
aa689395 291=item gdbm in /usr/local
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292
293Suppose you have gdbm and want Configure to find it and build the
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294GDBM_File extension. This examples assumes you have gdbm.h
295installed in /usr/local/include/gdbm.h and libgdbm.a installed in
296/usr/local/lib/libgdbm.a. Configure should figure all the
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297necessary steps out automatically.
298
299Specifically, when Configure prompts you for flags for
1ec51d55 300your C compiler, you should include -I/usr/local/include.
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301
302When Configure prompts you for linker flags, you should include
1ec51d55 303-L/usr/local/lib.
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304
305If you are using dynamic loading, then when Configure prompts you for
306linker flags for dynamic loading, you should again include
1ec51d55 307-L/usr/local/lib.
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308
309Again, this should all happen automatically. If you want to accept the
310defaults for all the questions and have Configure print out only terse
311messages, then you can just run
312
313 sh Configure -des
314
315and Configure should include the GDBM_File extension automatically.
316
317This should actually work if you have gdbm installed in any of
318(/usr/local, /opt/local, /usr/gnu, /opt/gnu, /usr/GNU, or /opt/GNU).
319
320=item gdbm in /usr/you
321
322Suppose you have gdbm installed in some place other than /usr/local/,
323but you still want Configure to find it. To be specific, assume you
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324have /usr/you/include/gdbm.h and /usr/you/lib/libgdbm.a. You
325still have to add -I/usr/you/include to cc flags, but you have to take
326an extra step to help Configure find libgdbm.a. Specifically, when
8e07c86e 327Configure prompts you for library directories, you have to add
1ec51d55 328/usr/you/lib to the list.
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329
330It is possible to specify this from the command line too (all on one
331line):
332
333 sh Configure -des \
334 -Dlocincpth="/usr/you/include" \
335 -Dloclibpth="/usr/you/lib"
336
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337locincpth is a space-separated list of include directories to search.
338Configure will automatically add the appropriate -I directives.
8e07c86e 339
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340loclibpth is a space-separated list of library directories to search.
341Configure will automatically add the appropriate -L directives. If
342you have some libraries under /usr/local/ and others under
343/usr/you, then you have to include both, namely
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344
345 sh Configure -des \
346 -Dlocincpth="/usr/you/include /usr/local/include" \
347 -Dloclibpth="/usr/you/lib /usr/local/lib"
348
349=back
350
aa689395 351=head2 Installation Directories
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352
353The installation directories can all be changed by answering the
354appropriate questions in Configure. For convenience, all the
355installation questions are near the beginning of Configure.
356
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357I highly recommend running Configure interactively to be sure it puts
358everything where you want it. At any point during the Configure
359process, you can answer a question with &-d and Configure
360will use the defaults from then on.
1ec51d55 361
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362By default, Configure uses the following directories for
363library files (archname is a string like sun4-sunos, determined
364by Configure)
365
46bb10fb 366 /usr/local/lib/perl5/archname/5.004
4633a7c4 367 /usr/local/lib/perl5/
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368 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/archname
369 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl
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370
371and the following directories for manual pages:
372
373 /usr/local/man/man1
374 /usr/local/lib/perl5/man/man3
375
376(Actually, Configure recognizes the SVR3-style
377/usr/local/man/l_man/man1 directories, if present, and uses those
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378instead.)
379
380The module man pages are stuck in that strange spot so that
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381they don't collide with other man pages stored in /usr/local/man/man3,
382and so that Perl's man pages don't hide system man pages. On some
383systems, B<man less> would end up calling up Perl's less.pm module man
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384page, rather than the less program. (This default location will likely
385change to /usr/local/man/man3 in a future release of perl.)
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386
387Note: Many users prefer to store the module man pages in
388/usr/local/man/man3. You can do this from the command line with
389
390 sh Configure -Dman3dir=/usr/local/man/man3
391
392Some users also prefer to use a .3pm suffix. You can do that with
393
394 sh Configure -Dman3ext=3pm
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395
396If you specify a prefix that contains the string "perl", then the
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397directory structure is simplified. For example, if you Configure with
398-Dprefix=/opt/perl, then the defaults are
4633a7c4 399
46bb10fb 400 /opt/perl/lib/archname/5.004
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401 /opt/perl/lib
402 /opt/perl/lib/site_perl/archname
403 /opt/perl/lib/site_perl
404
405 /opt/perl/man/man1
406 /opt/perl/man/man3
407
408The perl executable will search the libraries in the order given
409above.
410
411The directories site_perl and site_perl/archname are empty, but are
412intended to be used for installing local or site-wide extensions. Perl
693762b4 413will automatically look in these directories.
4633a7c4 414
46bb10fb 415In order to support using things like #!/usr/local/bin/perl5.004 after
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416a later version is released, architecture-dependent libraries are
417stored in a version-specific directory, such as
693762b4 418/usr/local/lib/perl5/archname/5.004/.
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419
420Again, these are just the defaults, and can be changed as you run
421Configure.
422
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423=head2 Changing the installation directory
424
425Configure distinguishes between the directory in which perl (and its
426associated files) should be installed and the directory in which it
427will eventually reside. For most sites, these two are the same; for
428sites that use AFS, this distinction is handled automatically.
1ec51d55 429However, sites that use software such as depot to manage software
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430packages may also wish to install perl into a different directory and
431use that management software to move perl to its final destination.
432This section describes how to do this. Someday, Configure may support
433an option -Dinstallprefix=/foo to simplify this.
434
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435Suppose you want to install perl under the /tmp/perl5 directory. You
436can edit config.sh and change all the install* variables to point to
437/tmp/perl5 instead of /usr/local/wherever. Or, you can automate this
438process by placing the following lines in a file config.over before you
439run Configure (replace /tmp/perl5 by a directory of your choice):
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440
441 installprefix=/tmp/perl5
442 test -d $installprefix || mkdir $installprefix
443 test -d $installprefix/bin || mkdir $installprefix/bin
444 installarchlib=`echo $installarchlib | sed "s!$prefix!$installprefix!"`
445 installbin=`echo $installbin | sed "s!$prefix!$installprefix!"`
446 installman1dir=`echo $installman1dir | sed "s!$prefix!$installprefix!"`
447 installman3dir=`echo $installman3dir | sed "s!$prefix!$installprefix!"`
448 installprivlib=`echo $installprivlib | sed "s!$prefix!$installprefix!"`
449 installscript=`echo $installscript | sed "s!$prefix!$installprefix!"`
450 installsitelib=`echo $installsitelib | sed "s!$prefix!$installprefix!"`
451 installsitearch=`echo $installsitearch | sed "s!$prefix!$installprefix!"`
452
453Then, you can Configure and install in the usual way:
454
455 sh Configure -des
456 make
457 make test
458 make install
459
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460Beware, though, that if you go to try to install new add-on
461extensions, they too will get installed in under '/tmp/perl5' if you
462follow this example. The next section shows one way of dealing with
463that problem.
464
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465=head2 Creating an installable tar archive
466
467If you need to install perl on many identical systems, it is
468convenient to compile it once and create an archive that can be
469installed on multiple systems. Here's one way to do that:
470
471 # Set up config.over to install perl into a different directory,
472 # e.g. /tmp/perl5 (see previous part).
473 sh Configure -des
474 make
475 make test
476 make install
477 cd /tmp/perl5
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478 # Edit lib/<archname>/<version>/Config.pm to change all the
479 # install* variables back to reflect where everything will
480 # really be installed.
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481 tar cvf ../perl5-archive.tar .
482 # Then, on each machine where you want to install perl,
483 cd /usr/local # Or wherever you specified as $prefix
484 tar xvf perl5-archive.tar
485
dc45a647 486=head2 Site-wide Policy settings
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487
488After Configure runs, it stores a number of common site-wide "policy"
489answers (such as installation directories and the local perl contact
490person) in the Policy.sh file. If you want to build perl on another
491system using the same policy defaults, simply copy the Policy.sh file
492to the new system and Configure will use it along with the appropriate
493hint file for your system.
494
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495Alternatively, if you wish to change some or all of those policy
496answers, you should
497
498 rm -f Policy.sh
499
500to ensure that Configure doesn't re-use them.
501
502Further information is in the Policy_sh.SH file itself.
503
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504=head2 Configure-time Options
505
506There are several different ways to Configure and build perl for your
507system. For most users, the defaults are sensible and will work.
508Some users, however, may wish to further customize perl. Here are
509some of the main things you can change.
510
693762b4 511=head2 Threads
aa689395 512
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513On some platforms, perl5.005 can be compiled to use threads. To
514enable this, read the file README.threads, and then try
f7542a9d 515
693762b4 516 sh Configure -Dusethreads
aa689395 517
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518Currently, you need to specify -Dusethreads on the Configure command
519line so that the hint files can make appropriate adjustments.
520
521The default is to compile without thread support.
3fe9a6f1 522
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523=head2 Selecting File IO mechanisms
524
525Previous versions of perl used the standard IO mechanisms as defined in
1ec51d55 526stdio.h. Versions 5.003_02 and later of perl allow alternate IO
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527mechanisms via a "PerlIO" abstraction, but the stdio mechanism is still
528the default and is the only supported mechanism.
529
530This PerlIO abstraction can be enabled either on the Configure command
531line with
532
533 sh Configure -Duseperlio
534
535or interactively at the appropriate Configure prompt.
536
537If you choose to use the PerlIO abstraction layer, there are two
538(experimental) possibilities for the underlying IO calls. These have been
539tested to some extent on some platforms, but are not guaranteed to work
540everywhere.
541
542=over 4
543
544=item 1.
545
1ec51d55 546AT&T's "sfio". This has superior performance to stdio.h in many
aa689395 547cases, and is extensible by the use of "discipline" modules. Sfio
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548currently only builds on a subset of the UNIX platforms perl supports.
549Because the data structures are completely different from stdio, perl
550extension modules or external libraries may not work. This
551configuration exists to allow these issues to be worked on.
552
553This option requires the 'sfio' package to have been built and installed.
554A (fairly old) version of sfio is in CPAN, and work is in progress to make
555it more easily buildable by adding Configure support.
556
557You select this option by
558
559 sh Configure -Duseperlio -Dusesfio
560
561If you have already selected -Duseperlio, and if Configure detects
562that you have sfio, then sfio will be the default suggested by
563Configure.
564
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565Note: On some systems, sfio's iffe configuration script fails
566to detect that you have an atexit function (or equivalent).
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567Apparently, this is a problem at least for some versions of Linux
568and SunOS 4.
569
570You can test if you have this problem by trying the following shell
571script. (You may have to add some extra cflags and libraries. A
572portable version of this may eventually make its way into Configure.)
573
574 #!/bin/sh
575 cat > try.c <<'EOCP'
576 #include <stdio.h>
577 main() { printf("42\n"); }
578 EOCP
579 cc -o try try.c -lsfio
580 val=`./try`
581 if test X$val = X42; then
582 echo "Your sfio looks ok"
583 else
584 echo "Your sfio has the exit problem."
585 fi
586
587If you have this problem, the fix is to go back to your sfio sources
588and correct iffe's guess about atexit (or whatever is appropriate for
589your platform.)
590
591There also might be a more recent release of Sfio that fixes your
592problem.
593
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594=item 2.
595
596Normal stdio IO, but with all IO going through calls to the PerlIO
597abstraction layer. This configuration can be used to check that perl and
598extension modules have been correctly converted to use the PerlIO
599abstraction.
600
601This configuration should work on all platforms (but might not).
602
aa689395 603You select this option via:
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604
605 sh Configure -Duseperlio -Uusesfio
606
607If you have already selected -Duseperlio, and if Configure does not
608detect sfio, then this will be the default suggested by Configure.
609
610=back
611
aa689395 612=head2 Building a shared libperl.so Perl library
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613
614Currently, for most systems, the main perl executable is built by
615linking the "perl library" libperl.a with perlmain.o, your static
616extensions (usually just DynaLoader.a) and various extra libraries,
617such as -lm.
618
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619On some systems that support dynamic loading, it may be possible to
620replace libperl.a with a shared libperl.so. If you anticipate building
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621several different perl binaries (e.g. by embedding libperl into
622different programs, or by using the optional compiler extension), then
9d67150a 623you might wish to build a shared libperl.so so that all your binaries
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624can share the same library.
625
626The disadvantages are that there may be a significant performance
9d67150a 627penalty associated with the shared libperl.so, and that the overall
aa689395 628mechanism is still rather fragile with respect to different versions
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629and upgrades.
630
631In terms of performance, on my test system (Solaris 2.5_x86) the perl
9d67150a 632test suite took roughly 15% longer to run with the shared libperl.so.
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633Your system and typical applications may well give quite different
634results.
635
636The default name for the shared library is typically something like
a6006777 637libperl.so.3.2 (for Perl 5.003_02) or libperl.so.302 or simply
9d67150a 638libperl.so. Configure tries to guess a sensible naming convention
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639based on your C library name. Since the library gets installed in a
640version-specific architecture-dependent directory, the exact name
641isn't very important anyway, as long as your linker is happy.
642
643For some systems (mostly SVR4), building a shared libperl is required
644for dynamic loading to work, and hence is already the default.
645
646You can elect to build a shared libperl by
647
648 sh Configure -Duseshrplib
649
650To actually build perl, you must add the current working directory to your
aa689395 651LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable before running make. You can do
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652this with
653
654 LD_LIBRARY_PATH=`pwd`:$LD_LIBRARY_PATH; export LD_LIBRARY_PATH
655
656for Bourne-style shells, or
657
658 setenv LD_LIBRARY_PATH `pwd`
659
660for Csh-style shells. You *MUST* do this before running make.
661Folks running NeXT OPENSTEP must substitute DYLD_LIBRARY_PATH for
662LD_LIBRARY_PATH above.
663
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664There is also an potential problem with the shared perl library if you
665want to have more than one "flavor" of the same version of perl (e.g.
666with and without -DDEBUGGING). For example, suppose you build and
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667install a standard Perl 5.004 with a shared library. Then, suppose you
668try to build Perl 5.004 with -DDEBUGGING enabled, but everything else
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669the same, including all the installation directories. How can you
670ensure that your newly built perl will link with your newly built
7f678428 671libperl.so.4 rather with the installed libperl.so.4? The answer is
9d67150a 672that you might not be able to. The installation directory is encoded
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673in the perl binary with the LD_RUN_PATH environment variable (or
674equivalent ld command-line option). On Solaris, you can override that
7beaa944 675with LD_LIBRARY_PATH; on Linux you can't. On Digital Unix, you can
0dcb58f4 676override LD_LIBRARY_PATH by setting the _RLD_ROOT environment variable
7beaa944 677to point to the perl build directory.
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678
679The only reliable answer is that you should specify a different
680directory for the architecture-dependent library for your -DDEBUGGING
fb73857a 681version of perl. You can do this by changing all the *archlib*
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682variables in config.sh, namely archlib, archlib_exp, and
683installarchlib, to point to your new architecture-dependent library.
684
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685=head2 Malloc Issues
686
687Perl relies heavily on malloc(3) to grow data structures as needed, so
688perl's performance can be noticeably affected by the performance of
689the malloc function on your system.
690
691The perl source is shipped with a version of malloc that is very fast
692but somewhat wasteful of space. On the other hand, your system's
693762b4 693malloc() function may be a bit slower but also a bit more frugal.
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694However, note that space efficiency also contributes to speed efficiency,
695so there's a chance that perl's malloc may be more efficient both
696space and speed wise.
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697
698For many uses, speed is probably the most important consideration, so
699the default behavior (for most systems) is to use the malloc supplied
700with perl. However, if you will be running very large applications
701(e.g. Tk or PDL) or if your system already has an excellent malloc, or
702if you are experiencing difficulties with extensions that use
703third-party libraries that call malloc, then you might wish to use
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704your system's malloc. (Or, you might wish to explore the malloc flags
705discussed below.)
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706
707To build without perl's malloc, you can use the Configure command
708
709 sh Configure -Uusemymalloc
710
711or you can answer 'n' at the appropriate interactive Configure prompt.
712
aa689395 713=head2 Malloc Performance Flags
c3edaffb 714
87c6202a 715If you are using Perl's malloc, you may add one or more of the following
808270a4 716items to your ccflags config.sh variable to change its behavior. You can
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717find out more about these and other flags by reading the commentary near
718the top of the malloc.c source.
c3edaffb 719
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720=over 4
721
87c6202a 722=item -DNO_FANCY_MALLOC
2ae324a7 723
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724Undefined by default. Defining it returns malloc to the state it was at
725in Perl version 5.004.
aa689395 726
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727If left undefined, it enables -DBUCKETS_ROOT2, -DIGNORE_SMALL_BAD_FREE,
728and -DSMALL_BUCKET_VIA_VTABLE. See the commentary in malloc.c for more
729details.
aa689395 730
87c6202a 731=item -DPLAIN_MALLOC
aa689395 732
87c6202a
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733Undefined by default. Defining it in addition to NO_FANCY_MALLOC returns
734malloc to the state it was at in Perl version 5.000.
aa689395 735
87c6202a
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736If left undefined, it enables -DPERL_EMERGENCY_SBRK, -DPACK_MALLOC,
737-DTWO_POT_OPTIMIZE, and -DDEBUGGING_MSTATS. See the commentary in
738malloc.c for more details.
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739
740=back
741
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742=head2 Building a debugging perl
743
744You can run perl scripts under the perl debugger at any time with
3fe9a6f1 745B<perl -d your_script>. If, however, you want to debug perl itself,
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746you probably want to do
747
748 sh Configure -Doptimize='-g'
749
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750This will do two independent things: First, it will force compilation
751to use cc -g so that you can use your system's debugger on the
752executable. (Note: Your system may actually require something like
a3cb178b 753cc -g2. Check your man pages for cc(1) and also any hint file for your
203c3eec 754system.) Second, it will add -DDEBUGGING to your ccflags variable in
1ec51d55 755config.sh so that you can use B<perl -D> to access perl's internal
203c3eec 756state. (Note: Configure will only add -DDEBUGGING by
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757default if you are not reusing your old config.sh. If you want to
758reuse your old config.sh, then you can just edit it and change the
3fe9a6f1 759optimize and ccflags variables by hand and then propagate your changes
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760as shown in L<"Propagating your changes to config.sh"> below.)
761
762You can actually specify -g and -DDEBUGGING independently, but usually
763it's convenient to have both.
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764
765If you are using a shared libperl, see the warnings about multiple
766versions of perl under L<Building a shared libperl.so Perl library>.
767
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768=head2 Other Compiler Flags
769
770For most users, all of the Configure defaults are fine. However,
771you can change a number of factors in the way perl is built
1ec51d55 772by adding appropriate -D directives to your ccflags variable in
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773config.sh.
774
775For example, you can replace the rand() and srand() functions in the
776perl source by any other random number generator by a trick such as the
777following:
778
779 sh Configure -Dccflags='-Drand=random -Dsrand=srandom'
780
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781or by adding -Drand=random and -Dsrand=srandom to your ccflags
782at the appropriate Configure prompt. (Note: Although this worked for
783me, it might not work for you if your system's header files give
784different prototypes for rand() and random() or srand() and srandom().)
785
786You should also run Configure interactively to verify that a hint file
787doesn't inadvertently override your ccflags setting. (Hints files
788shouldn't do that, but some might.)
c3edaffb 789
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790=head2 What if it doesn't work?
791
792=over 4
793
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794=item Running Configure Interactively
795
796If Configure runs into trouble, remember that you can always run
797Configure interactively so that you can check (and correct) its
798guesses.
799
800All the installation questions have been moved to the top, so you don't
aa689395 801have to wait for them. Once you've handled them (and your C compiler and
1ec51d55 802flags) you can type &-d at the next Configure prompt and Configure
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803will use the defaults from then on.
804
805If you find yourself trying obscure command line incantations and
806config.over tricks, I recommend you run Configure interactively
807instead. You'll probably save yourself time in the long run.
808
aa689395 809=item Hint files
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810
811The perl distribution includes a number of system-specific hints files
812in the hints/ directory. If one of them matches your system, Configure
813will offer to use that hint file.
814
815Several of the hint files contain additional important information.
816If you have any problems, it is a good idea to read the relevant hint
1ec51d55 817file for further information. See hints/solaris_2.sh for an
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818extensive example.
819
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820=item *** WHOA THERE!!! ***
821
822Occasionally, Configure makes a wrong guess. For example, on SunOS
8234.1.3, Configure incorrectly concludes that tzname[] is in the
824standard C library. The hint file is set up to correct for this. You
825will see a message:
826
827 *** WHOA THERE!!! ***
828 The recommended value for $d_tzname on this machine was "undef"!
829 Keep the recommended value? [y]
830
831You should always keep the recommended value unless, after reading the
832relevant section of the hint file, you are sure you want to try
833overriding it.
834
835If you are re-using an old config.sh, the word "previous" will be
836used instead of "recommended". Again, you will almost always want
837to keep the previous value, unless you have changed something on your
838system.
839
840For example, suppose you have added libgdbm.a to your system
841and you decide to reconfigure perl to use GDBM_File. When you run
842Configure again, you will need to add -lgdbm to the list of libraries.
843Now, Configure will find your gdbm library and will issue a message:
844
845 *** WHOA THERE!!! ***
846 The previous value for $i_gdbm on this machine was "undef"!
847 Keep the previous value? [y]
848
1ec51d55 849In this case, you do not want to keep the previous value, so you
c3edaffb 850should answer 'n'. (You'll also have to manually add GDBM_File to
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851the list of dynamic extensions to build.)
852
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853=item Changing Compilers
854
855If you change compilers or make other significant changes, you should
1ec51d55 856probably not re-use your old config.sh. Simply remove it or
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857rename it, e.g. mv config.sh config.sh.old. Then rerun Configure
858with the options you want to use.
859
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860This is a common source of problems. If you change from cc to
861gcc, you should almost always remove your old config.sh.
8e07c86e 862
c3edaffb 863=item Propagating your changes to config.sh
8e07c86e 864
1ec51d55
CS
865If you make any changes to config.sh, you should propagate
866them to all the .SH files by running
867
868 sh Configure -S
869
870You will then have to rebuild by running
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871
872 make depend
873 make
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874
875=item config.over
876
877You can also supply a shell script config.over to over-ride Configure's
878guesses. It will get loaded up at the very end, just before config.sh
879is created. You have to be careful with this, however, as Configure
d52d4e46 880does no checking that your changes make sense. See the section on
7f678428 881L<"Changing the installation directory"> for an example.
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882
883=item config.h
884
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885Many of the system dependencies are contained in config.h.
886Configure builds config.h by running the config_h.SH script.
887The values for the variables are taken from config.sh.
8e07c86e 888
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889If there are any problems, you can edit config.h directly. Beware,
890though, that the next time you run Configure, your changes will be
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891lost.
892
893=item cflags
894
895If you have any additional changes to make to the C compiler command
1ec51d55
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896line, they can be made in cflags.SH. For instance, to turn off the
897optimizer on toke.c, find the line in the switch structure for
898toke.c and put the command optimize='-g' before the ;; . You
899can also edit cflags directly, but beware that your changes will be
900lost the next time you run Configure.
8e07c86e 901
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CS
902To change the C flags for all the files, edit config.sh
903and change either $ccflags or $optimize,
904and then re-run
905
906 sh Configure -S
907 make depend
8e07c86e 908
aa689395 909=item No sh
8e07c86e 910
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911If you don't have sh, you'll have to copy the sample file Porting/config_H
912to config.h and edit the config.h to reflect your system's peculiarities.
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913You'll probably also have to extensively modify the extension building
914mechanism.
915
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916=item Porting information
917
2ae324a7 918Specific information for the OS/2, Plan9, VMS and Win32 ports is in the
1ec51d55
CS
919corresponding README files and subdirectories. Additional information,
920including a glossary of all those config.sh variables, is in the Porting
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921subdirectory.
922
7f678428 923Ports for other systems may also be available. You should check out
1ec51d55 924http://www.perl.com/CPAN/ports for current information on ports to
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925various other operating systems.
926
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927=back
928
929=head1 make depend
930
931This will look for all the includes.
1ec51d55
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932The output is stored in makefile. The only difference between
933Makefile and makefile is the dependencies at the bottom of
934makefile. If you have to make any changes, you should edit
935makefile, not Makefile since the Unix make command reads
936makefile first. (On non-Unix systems, the output may be stored in
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937a different file. Check the value of $firstmakefile in your config.sh
938if in doubt.)
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939
940Configure will offer to do this step for you, so it isn't listed
941explicitly above.
942
943=head1 make
944
945This will attempt to make perl in the current directory.
946
947If you can't compile successfully, try some of the following ideas.
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948If none of them help, and careful reading of the error message and
949the relevant manual pages on your system doesn't help, you can
950send a message to either the comp.lang.perl.misc newsgroup or to
951perlbug@perl.com with an accurate description of your problem.
aa689395 952See L<"Reporting Problems"> below.
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953
954=over 4
955
1ec51d55 956=item hints
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957
958If you used a hint file, try reading the comments in the hint file
959for further tips and information.
960
1ec51d55 961=item extensions
8e07c86e 962
1ec51d55 963If you can successfully build miniperl, but the process crashes
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964during the building of extensions, you should run
965
966 make minitest
967
968to test your version of miniperl.
969
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970=item locale
971
972If you have any locale-related environment variables set, try
973unsetting them. I have some reports that some versions of IRIX hang
974while running B<./miniperl configpm> with locales other than the C
3e6e419a
JH
975locale. See the discussion under L<"make test"> below about locales
976and the whole L<Locale problems> section in the file pod/perllocale.pod.
977The latter is especially useful if you see something like this
978
979 perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
980 perl: warning: Please check that your locale settings:
981 LC_ALL = "En_US",
982 LANG = (unset)
983 are supported and installed on your system.
984 perl: warning: Falling back to the standard locale ("C").
985
986at Perl startup.
e57fd563 987
1ec51d55 988=item malloc duplicates
c3edaffb 989
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990If you get duplicates upon linking for malloc et al, add -DEMBEDMYMALLOC
991to your ccflags variable in config.sh.
c3edaffb 992
7f678428 993=item varargs
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994
995If you get varargs problems with gcc, be sure that gcc is installed
996correctly. When using gcc, you should probably have i_stdarg='define'
997and i_varargs='undef' in config.sh. The problem is usually solved by
998running fixincludes correctly. If you do change config.sh, don't
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999forget to propagate your changes (see
1000L<"Propagating your changes to config.sh"> below).
1001See also the L<"vsprintf"> item below.
c3edaffb 1002
1ec51d55 1003=item croak
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1004
1005If you get error messages such as the following (the exact line
1006numbers will vary in different versions of perl):
1007
1008 util.c: In function `Perl_croak':
1009 util.c:962: number of arguments doesn't match prototype
1010 proto.h:45: prototype declaration
1011
1012it might well be a symptom of the gcc "varargs problem". See the
7f678428 1013previous L<"varargs"> item.
c3edaffb 1014
9d67150a 1015=item Solaris and SunOS dynamic loading
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1016
1017If you have problems with dynamic loading using gcc on SunOS or
1018Solaris, and you are using GNU as and GNU ld, you may need to add
1ec51d55 1019-B/bin/ (for SunOS) or -B/usr/ccs/bin/ (for Solaris) to your
c3edaffb 1020$ccflags, $ldflags, and $lddlflags so that the system's versions of as
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1021and ld are used. Note that the trailing '/' is required.
1022Alternatively, you can use the GCC_EXEC_PREFIX
c3edaffb 1023environment variable to ensure that Sun's as and ld are used. Consult
1ec51d55 1024your gcc documentation for further information on the -B option and
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1025the GCC_EXEC_PREFIX variable.
1026
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1027One convenient way to ensure you are not using GNU as and ld is to
1028invoke Configure with
1029
1030 sh Configure -Dcc='gcc -B/usr/ccs/bin/'
1031
1032for Solaris systems. For a SunOS system, you must use -B/bin/
1033instead.
1034
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1035Alternatively, recent versions of GNU ld reportedly work if you
1036include C<-Wl,-export-dynamic> in the ccdlflags variable in
1037config.sh.
1038
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1039=item ld.so.1: ./perl: fatal: relocation error:
1040
1041If you get this message on SunOS or Solaris, and you're using gcc,
7f678428
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1042it's probably the GNU as or GNU ld problem in the previous item
1043L<"Solaris and SunOS dynamic loading">.
9d67150a 1044
1ec51d55 1045=item LD_LIBRARY_PATH
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1046
1047If you run into dynamic loading problems, check your setting of
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1048the LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable. If you're creating a static
1049Perl library (libperl.a rather than libperl.so) it should build
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1050fine with LD_LIBRARY_PATH unset, though that may depend on details
1051of your local set-up.
1052
1053=item dlopen: stub interception failed
1054
1055The primary cause of the 'dlopen: stub interception failed' message is
1056that the LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable includes a directory
1057which is a symlink to /usr/lib (such as /lib).
1058
aa689395 1059The reason this causes a problem is quite subtle. The file libdl.so.1.0
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1060actually *only* contains functions which generate 'stub interception
1061failed' errors! The runtime linker intercepts links to
1062"/usr/lib/libdl.so.1.0" and links in internal implementation of those
1063functions instead. [Thanks to Tim Bunce for this explanation.]
1064
aa689395 1065=item nm extraction
c3edaffb
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1066
1067If Configure seems to be having trouble finding library functions,
1068try not using nm extraction. You can do this from the command line
1069with
1070
1071 sh Configure -Uusenm
1072
1073or by answering the nm extraction question interactively.
1ec51d55 1074If you have previously run Configure, you should not reuse your old
c3edaffb
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1075config.sh.
1076
7f678428 1077=item vsprintf
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1078
1079If you run into problems with vsprintf in compiling util.c, the
1080problem is probably that Configure failed to detect your system's
1081version of vsprintf(). Check whether your system has vprintf().
1082(Virtually all modern Unix systems do.) Then, check the variable
1083d_vprintf in config.sh. If your system has vprintf, it should be:
1084
1085 d_vprintf='define'
1086
1087If Configure guessed wrong, it is likely that Configure guessed wrong
1088on a number of other common functions too. You are probably better off
1089re-running Configure without using nm extraction (see previous item).
1090
3fe9a6f1
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1091=item do_aspawn
1092
1093If you run into problems relating to do_aspawn or do_spawn, the
1094problem is probably that Configure failed to detect your system's
1095fork() function. Follow the procedure in the previous items
1096on L<"vsprintf"> and L<"nm extraction">.
1097
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1098=item __inet_* errors
1099
1100If you receive unresolved symbol errors during Perl build and/or test
1101referring to __inet_* symbols, check to see whether BIND 8.1 is
1102installed. It installs a /usr/local/include/arpa/inet.h that refers to
1103these symbols. Versions of BIND later than 8.1 do not install inet.h
1104in that location and avoid the errors. You should probably update to a
1105newer version of BIND. If you can't, you can either link with the
1106updated resolver library provided with BIND 8.1 or rename
1107/usr/local/bin/arpa/inet.h during the Perl build and test process to
1108avoid the problem.
1109
aa689395 1110=item Optimizer
c3edaffb 1111
9d67150a 1112If you can't compile successfully, try turning off your compiler's
aa689395 1113optimizer. Edit config.sh and change the line
9d67150a
PP
1114
1115 optimize='-O'
1116
1117to something like
1118
1119 optimize=' '
1120
1121then propagate your changes with B<sh Configure -S> and rebuild
1122with B<make depend; make>.
1123
1ec51d55 1124=item CRIPPLED_CC
9d67150a 1125
1ec51d55 1126If you still can't compile successfully, try adding a -DCRIPPLED_CC
56c6f531
JH
1127flag. (Just because you get no errors doesn't mean it compiled right!)
1128This simplifies some complicated expressions for compilers that get
1129indigestion easily.
9d67150a
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1130
1131=item Missing functions
1132
1133If you have missing routines, you probably need to add some library or
1134other, or you need to undefine some feature that Configure thought was
1135there but is defective or incomplete. Look through config.h for
1136likely suspects.
8e07c86e 1137
1ec51d55 1138=item toke.c
8e07c86e 1139
1ec51d55
CS
1140Some compilers will not compile or optimize the larger files (such as
1141toke.c) without some extra switches to use larger jump offsets or
1142allocate larger internal tables. You can customize the switches for
1143each file in cflags. It's okay to insert rules for specific files into
1144makefile since a default rule only takes effect in the absence of a
8e07c86e
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1145specific rule.
1146
7f678428 1147=item Missing dbmclose
8e07c86e 1148
c3edaffb
PP
1149SCO prior to 3.2.4 may be missing dbmclose(). An upgrade to 3.2.4
1150that includes libdbm.nfs (which includes dbmclose()) may be available.
8e07c86e 1151
f3d9a6ba 1152=item Note (probably harmless): No library found for -lsomething
7f678428
PP
1153
1154If you see such a message during the building of an extension, but
1155the extension passes its tests anyway (see L<"make test"> below),
1156then don't worry about the warning message. The extension
1157Makefile.PL goes looking for various libraries needed on various
aa689395 1158systems; few systems will need all the possible libraries listed.
7f678428
PP
1159For example, a system may have -lcposix or -lposix, but it's
1160unlikely to have both, so most users will see warnings for the one
f3d9a6ba
CS
1161they don't have. The phrase 'probably harmless' is intended to
1162reassure you that nothing unusual is happening, and the build
1163process is continuing.
7f678428
PP
1164
1165On the other hand, if you are building GDBM_File and you get the
1166message
1167
f3d9a6ba 1168 Note (probably harmless): No library found for -lgdbm
7f678428
PP
1169
1170then it's likely you're going to run into trouble somewhere along
1171the line, since it's hard to see how you can use the GDBM_File
1172extension without the -lgdbm library.
1173
1174It is true that, in principle, Configure could have figured all of
1175this out, but Configure and the extension building process are not
1176quite that tightly coordinated.
1177
aa689395
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1178=item sh: ar: not found
1179
1180This is a message from your shell telling you that the command 'ar'
1181was not found. You need to check your PATH environment variable to
1182make sure that it includes the directory with the 'ar' command. This
1ec51d55 1183is a common problem on Solaris, where 'ar' is in the /usr/ccs/bin
aa689395
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1184directory.
1185
1186=item db-recno failure on tests 51, 53 and 55
1187
1188Old versions of the DB library (including the DB library which comes
1189with FreeBSD 2.1) had broken handling of recno databases with modified
1190bval settings. Upgrade your DB library or OS.
1191
1ec51d55 1192=item Miscellaneous
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1193
1194Some additional things that have been reported for either perl4 or perl5:
1195
1196Genix may need to use libc rather than libc_s, or #undef VARARGS.
1197
1198NCR Tower 32 (OS 2.01.01) may need -W2,-Sl,2000 and #undef MKDIR.
1199
1ec51d55 1200UTS may need one or more of -DCRIPPLED_CC, -K or -g, and undef LSTAT.
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1201
1202If you get syntax errors on '(', try -DCRIPPLED_CC.
1203
1204Machines with half-implemented dbm routines will need to #undef I_ODBM
1205
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1206=back
1207
1208=head1 make test
1209
84902520
TB
1210This will run the regression tests on the perl you just made (you
1211should run plain 'make' before 'make test' otherwise you won't have a
1212complete build). If 'make test' doesn't say "All tests successful"
1213then something went wrong. See the file t/README in the t subdirectory.
1214
84902520 1215Note that you can't run the tests in background if this disables
fb73857a
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1216opening of /dev/tty. You can use 'make test-notty' in that case but
1217a few tty tests will be skipped.
c3edaffb 1218
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1219=head2 What if make test doesn't work?
1220
1ec51d55
CS
1221If make test bombs out, just cd to the t directory and run ./TEST
1222by hand to see if it makes any difference. If individual tests
c3edaffb 1223bomb, you can run them by hand, e.g.,
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1224
1225 ./perl op/groups.t
1226
aa689395 1227Another way to get more detailed information about failed tests and
1ec51d55 1228individual subtests is to cd to the t directory and run
aa689395
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1229
1230 ./perl harness
1231
fb73857a 1232(this assumes that most basic tests succeed, since harness uses
aa689395
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1233complicated constructs).
1234
fb73857a 1235You should also read the individual tests to see if there are any helpful
c3edaffb
PP
1236comments that apply to your system.
1237
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1238=over 4
1239
1240=item locale
1241
1ec51d55 1242Note: One possible reason for errors is that some external programs
c07a80fd 1243may be broken due to the combination of your environment and the way
3fe9a6f1 1244B<make test> exercises them. For example, this may happen if you have
1ec51d55
CS
1245one or more of these environment variables set: LC_ALL LC_CTYPE
1246LC_COLLATE LANG. In some versions of UNIX, the non-English locales
e57fd563
PP
1247are known to cause programs to exhibit mysterious errors.
1248
1249If you have any of the above environment variables set, please try
aa689395
PP
1250
1251 setenv LC_ALL C
1252
1253(for C shell) or
1254
1255 LC_ALL=C;export LC_ALL
1256
1ec51d55
CS
1257for Bourne or Korn shell) from the command line and then retry
1258make test. If the tests then succeed, you may have a broken program that
aa689395 1259is confusing the testing. Please run the troublesome test by hand as
e57fd563 1260shown above and see whether you can locate the program. Look for
1ec51d55
CS
1261things like: exec, `backquoted command`, system, open("|...") or
1262open("...|"). All these mean that Perl is trying to run some
e57fd563 1263external program.
eed2e782 1264
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1265=item Out of memory
1266
1267On some systems, particularly those with smaller amounts of RAM, some
1268of the tests in t/op/pat.t may fail with an "Out of memory" message.
1269Specifically, in perl5.004_64, tests 74 and 78 have been reported to
1270fail on some systems. On my SparcStation IPC with 8 MB of RAM, test 78
1271will fail if the system is running any other significant tasks at the
1272same time.
1273
1274Try stopping other jobs on the system and then running the test by itself:
1275
1276 cd t; ./perl op/pat.t
1277
1278to see if you have any better luck. If your perl still fails this
1279test, it does not necessarily mean you have a broken perl. This test
1280tries to exercise the regular expression subsystem quite thoroughly,
1281and may well be far more demanding than your normal usage.
1282
1283You may also be able to reduce perl's memory usage by using some of
1284the ideas described above in L<"Malloc Performance Flags">.
1285
1286=back
1287
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1288=head1 make install
1289
1290This will put perl into the public directory you specified to
1ec51d55 1291Configure; by default this is /usr/local/bin. It will also try
8e07c86e 1292to put the man pages in a reasonable place. It will not nroff the man
aa689395 1293pages, however. You may need to be root to run B<make install>. If you
8e07c86e
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1294are not root, you must own the directories in question and you should
1295ignore any messages about chown not working.
1296
dd64f1c3
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1297=head2 Installing perl under different names
1298
1299If you want to install perl under a name other than "perl" (for example,
1300when installing perl with special features enabled, such as debugging),
1301indicate the alternate name on the "make install" line, such as:
1302
1303 make install PERLNAME=myperl
1304
1305=head2 Installed files
1306
8e07c86e
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1307If you want to see exactly what will happen without installing
1308anything, you can run
4633a7c4 1309
8e07c86e
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1310 ./perl installperl -n
1311 ./perl installman -n
1312
1ec51d55 1313make install will install the following:
8e07c86e
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1314
1315 perl,
1316 perl5.nnn where nnn is the current release number. This
1317 will be a link to perl.
1318 suidperl,
1319 sperl5.nnn If you requested setuid emulation.
1320 a2p awk-to-perl translator
1321 cppstdin This is used by perl -P, if your cc -E can't
1322 read from stdin.
1323 c2ph, pstruct Scripts for handling C structures in header files.
1324 s2p sed-to-perl translator
1325 find2perl find-to-perl translator
aa689395 1326 h2ph Extract constants and simple macros from C headers
8e07c86e 1327 h2xs Converts C .h header files to Perl extensions.
24b3df7f 1328 perlbug Tool to report bugs in Perl.
8e07c86e 1329 perldoc Tool to read perl's pod documentation.
aa689395 1330 pl2pm Convert Perl 4 .pl files to Perl 5 .pm modules
8e07c86e 1331 pod2html, Converters from perl's pod documentation format
aa689395
PP
1332 pod2latex, to other useful formats.
1333 pod2man, and
1334 pod2text
1335 splain Describe Perl warnings and errors
8e07c86e
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1336
1337 library files in $privlib and $archlib specified to
1338 Configure, usually under /usr/local/lib/perl5/.
1339 man pages in the location specified to Configure, usually
1340 something like /usr/local/man/man1.
1341 module in the location specified to Configure, usually
1342 man pages under /usr/local/lib/perl5/man/man3.
1343 pod/*.pod in $privlib/pod/.
1344
4633a7c4
LW
1345Installperl will also create the library directories $siteperl and
1346$sitearch listed in config.sh. Usually, these are something like
24b3df7f
PP
1347 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/
1348 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/$archname
4633a7c4
LW
1349where $archname is something like sun4-sunos. These directories
1350will be used for installing extensions.
1351
56c6f531
JH
1352Perl's *.h header files and the libperl.a library are also installed
1353under $archlib so that any user may later build new extensions, run the
1354optional Perl compiler, or embed the perl interpreter into another
1355program even if the Perl source is no longer available.
8e07c86e 1356
aa689395 1357=head1 Coexistence with earlier versions of perl5
4633a7c4 1358
693762b4
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1359WARNING: The upgrade from 5.004_0x to 5.005 is going to be a bit
1360tricky. See L<"Upgrading from 5.004 to 5.005"> below.
1361
1362In general, you can usually safely upgrade from one version of Perl (e.g.
13635.004_04) to another similar version (e.g. 5.004_05) without re-compiling
1364all of your add-on extensions. You can also safely leave the old version
1365around in case the new version causes you problems for some reason.
1366For example, if you want to be sure that your script continues to run
dc45a647 1367with 5.004_04, simply replace the '#!/usr/local/bin/perl' line at the
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1368top of the script with the particular version you want to run, e.g.
1369#!/usr/local/bin/perl5.00404.
1370
1371(If you are upgrading from 5.002 or earlier, beware that some of the
1372standard library files have changed in incompatible ways, so you are
1373probably better off starting with a fresh installation.)
1374
1375The standard library files in /usr/local/lib/perl5 should be usable by
1376all versions of perl5 after 5.002. An exception is the diagnostics.pm
1377module. Since that module uses the /usr/local/lib/perl5/pod/perldiag.pod
1378documentation file, the C<use diagnostics;> pragma and the splain script
1379will only identify and explain any warnings or errors that the most
1380recently-installed version of perl can generate. Usually, this is not
1381a problem.
1382
1383Most extensions will probably not need to be recompiled to use
1384with a newer version of perl. Here is how it is supposed to work.
1385(These examples assume you accept all the Configure defaults.)
1386
1387The directories searched by version 5.004_05 will be
1388
1389 /usr/local/lib/perl5/archname/5.00405
1390 /usr/local/lib/perl5/
1391 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/archname
1392 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl
1393
1394while the directories searched by version 5.004_04 are
1395
1396 /usr/local/lib/perl5/archname/5.00404
1397 /usr/local/lib/perl5/
1398 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/archname
1399 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl
1400
1401When you install an add-on extension, it gets installed into
1402/usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/archname (if it is architecture-specific.)
1403This directory is deliberately NOT version-specific so that both 5.004_04
1404and 5.004_05 can use the extension.
1405
1406However, if you do run into problems, and you want to continue to
1407use the old version of perl along with your extension, simply move
4633a7c4 1408those extension files to the appropriate version directory, such as
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1409/usr/local/lib/perl5/archname/5.00404. Then use your newer version of
1410perl to rebuild and re-install the extension into site_perl. This way,
1411Perl 5.004_04 will find your files in the 5.00404 directory, and
1412newer versions of perl will find your newer extension in the site_perl
1413directory.
1414
1415=head2 Maintaining completely separate versions
4633a7c4 1416
1ec51d55 1417Many users prefer to keep all versions of perl in completely
d52d4e46
PP
1418separate directories. One convenient way to do this is by
1419using a separate prefix for each version, such as
1420
46bb10fb 1421 sh Configure -Dprefix=/opt/perl5.004
d52d4e46 1422
46bb10fb 1423and adding /opt/perl5.004/bin to the shell PATH variable. Such users
d52d4e46
PP
1424may also wish to add a symbolic link /usr/local/bin/perl so that
1425scripts can still start with #!/usr/local/bin/perl.
1426
693762b4
AD
1427Others might share a common directory for maintenance sub-versions
1428(e.g. 5.004 for all 5.004_0x versions), but change directory with
1429each major version.
1430
6877a1cf
AD
1431If you are installing a development subversion, you probably ought to
1432seriously consider using a separate directory, since development
1433subversions may not have all the compatibility wrinkles ironed out
1434yet.
1435
693762b4
AD
1436=head2 Upgrading from 5.004 to 5.005
1437
1438Extensions compiled with versions of perl prior to 5.004_50 will need
1439to be recompiled to be used with 5.004_50 and later.
1440
1441If you wish to continue using those extensions under 5.004_04, for
1442example, then you need to move those extensions from their current
dc45a647 1443directories, which are something like
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1444
1445 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/
1446 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/archname
1447
1448to the version-specific directory such as
1449
1450 /usr/local/lib/perl5/archname/5.00404
1451
1452as described above.
1453
1454Once you have moved the 5.00404 versions of the extensions out of the
1455way, you may recompile and reinstall with 5.005.
1456
8e07c86e
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1457=head1 Coexistence with perl4
1458
1459You can safely install perl5 even if you want to keep perl4 around.
1460
1ec51d55
CS
1461By default, the perl5 libraries go into /usr/local/lib/perl5/, so
1462they don't override the perl4 libraries in /usr/local/lib/perl/.
8e07c86e
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1463
1464In your /usr/local/bin directory, you should have a binary named
1ec51d55 1465perl4.036. That will not be touched by the perl5 installation
8e07c86e
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1466process. Most perl4 scripts should run just fine under perl5.
1467However, if you have any scripts that require perl4, you can replace
1ec51d55 1468the #! line at the top of them by #!/usr/local/bin/perl4.036
edb1cbcb
PP
1469(or whatever the appropriate pathname is). See pod/perltrap.pod
1470for possible problems running perl4 scripts under perl5.
8e07c86e 1471
aa689395
PP
1472=head1 cd /usr/include; h2ph *.h sys/*.h
1473
1474Some perl scripts need to be able to obtain information from
1475the system header files. This command will convert the most commonly used
1ec51d55 1476header files in /usr/include into files that can be easily interpreted
aa689395 1477by perl. These files will be placed in the architectural library directory
1ec51d55
CS
1478you specified to Configure; by default this is
1479/usr/local/lib/perl5/ARCH/VERSION, where ARCH is your architecture
1480(such as sun4-solaris) and VERSION is the version of perl you are
1481building (for example, 5.004).
aa689395 1482
1ec51d55 1483Note: Due to differences in the C and perl languages, the
aa689395
PP
1484conversion of the header files is not perfect. You will probably have
1485to hand-edit some of the converted files to get them to parse
1486correctly. For example, h2ph breaks spectacularly on type casting and
1487certain structures.
1488
fb73857a 1489=head1 installhtml --help
aa689395 1490
3e3baf6d
TB
1491Some sites may wish to make perl documentation available in HTML
1492format. The installhtml utility can be used to convert pod
fb73857a 1493documentation into linked HTML files and install them.
aa689395 1494
fb73857a 1495The following command-line is an example of one used to convert
3e3baf6d 1496perl documentation:
aa689395 1497
3e3baf6d
TB
1498 ./installhtml \
1499 --podroot=. \
1500 --podpath=lib:ext:pod:vms \
1501 --recurse \
1502 --htmldir=/perl/nmanual \
1503 --htmlroot=/perl/nmanual \
1504 --splithead=pod/perlipc \
1505 --splititem=pod/perlfunc \
1506 --libpods=perlfunc:perlguts:perlvar:perlrun:perlop \
1507 --verbose
1508
1509See the documentation in installhtml for more details. It can take
1510many minutes to execute a large installation and you should expect to
1511see warnings like "no title", "unexpected directive" and "cannot
1512resolve" as the files are processed. We are aware of these problems
1513(and would welcome patches for them).
aa689395 1514
fb73857a
PP
1515You may find it helpful to run installhtml twice. That should reduce
1516the number of "cannot resolve" warnings.
1517
aa689395
PP
1518=head1 cd pod && make tex && (process the latex files)
1519
1520Some sites may also wish to make the documentation in the pod/ directory
1521available in TeX format. Type
1522
1523 (cd pod && make tex && <process the latex files>)
1524
1525=head1 Reporting Problems
1526
1527If you have difficulty building perl, and none of the advice in this
1528file helps, and careful reading of the error message and the relevant
1529manual pages on your system doesn't help either, then you should send a
1530message to either the comp.lang.perl.misc newsgroup or to
1531perlbug@perl.com with an accurate description of your problem.
1532
1ec51d55 1533Please include the output of the ./myconfig shell script
aa689395 1534that comes with the distribution. Alternatively, you can use the
1ec51d55 1535perlbug program that comes with the perl distribution,
aa689395
PP
1536but you need to have perl compiled and installed before you can use it.
1537
1ec51d55 1538You might also find helpful information in the Porting
aa689395
PP
1539directory of the perl distribution.
1540
8e07c86e
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1541=head1 DOCUMENTATION
1542
1543Read the manual entries before running perl. The main documentation is
1544in the pod/ subdirectory and should have been installed during the
1545build process. Type B<man perl> to get started. Alternatively, you
1ec51d55 1546can type B<perldoc perl> to use the supplied perldoc script. This
8e07c86e
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1547is sometimes useful for finding things in the library modules.
1548
1ec51d55
CS
1549Under UNIX, you can produce a documentation book in postscript form,
1550along with its table of contents, by going to the pod/ subdirectory
34a2a22e
RM
1551and running (either):
1552
1553 ./roffitall -groff # If you have GNU groff installed
aa689395 1554 ./roffitall -psroff # If you have psroff
34a2a22e
RM
1555
1556This will leave you with two postscript files ready to be printed.
aa689395
PP
1557(You may need to fix the roffitall command to use your local troff
1558set-up.)
34a2a22e
RM
1559
1560Note that you must have performed the installation already before
1561running the above, since the script collects the installed files to
1562generate the documentation.
1563
8e07c86e
AD
1564=head1 AUTHOR
1565
fb73857a
PP
1566Original author: Andy Dougherty doughera@lafcol.lafayette.edu ,
1567borrowing very heavily from the original README by Larry Wall,
1568with lots of helpful feedback and additions from the
1569perl5-porters@perl.org folks.
1570
1571If you have problems or questions, please see L<"Reporting Problems">
1572above.
8e07c86e 1573
a5f75d66 1574=head1 LAST MODIFIED
24b3df7f 1575
dd64f1c3 1576$Id: INSTALL,v 1.35 1998/05/18 19:06:26 doughera Released $