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1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
d1d15184 11 (D) A deprecation (enabled by default).
00eb3f2b 12 (S) A severe warning (enabled by default).
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13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
75b44862 18The majority of messages from the first three classifications above
64977eb6 19(W, D & S) can be controlled using the C<warnings> pragma.
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20
21If a message can be controlled by the C<warnings> pragma, its warning
22category is included with the classification letter in the description
23below.
24
25Optional warnings are enabled by using the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-w>
26and B<-W> switches. Warnings may be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}>
27to a reference to a routine that will be called on each warning instead
28of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
29
b7eceb5b 30Severe warnings are always enabled, unless they are explicitly disabled
e476b1b5 31with the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-X> switch.
4438c4b7 32
748a9306 33Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
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34L<perlfunc/eval>. In almost all cases, warnings may be selectively
35disabled or promoted to fatal errors using the C<warnings> pragma.
36See L<warnings>.
a0d0e21e 37
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38The messages are in alphabetical order, without regard to upper or
39lower-case. Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are
40denoted with a %s or other printf-style escape. These escapes are
41ignored by the alphabetical order, as are all characters other than
42letters. To look up your message, just ignore anything that is not a
43letter.
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44
45=over 4
46
6df41af2 47=item accept() on closed socket %s
33633739 48
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49(W closed) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget
50to check the return value of your socket() call? See
51L<perlfunc/accept>.
33633739 52
de42a5a9 53=item Allocation too large: %x
a0d0e21e 54
6df41af2 55(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e 56
1109a392 57=item '%c' allowed only after types %s
ef54e1a4 58
1109a392
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59(F) The modifiers '!', '<' and '>' are allowed in pack() or unpack() only
60after certain types. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
ef54e1a4 61
6df41af2 62=item Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
43192e07 63
75b44862 64(W ambiguous) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl
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65keyword, and you have used the name without qualification for calling
66one or the other. Perl decided to call the builtin because the
67subroutine is not imported.
43192e07 68
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69To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand
70before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.
71Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's
72imported with the C<use subs> pragma).
43192e07 73
6df41af2 74To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the C<CORE::> prefix
496a33f5 75on the operator (e.g. C<CORE::log($x)>) or declare the subroutine
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76to be an object method (see L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes"> or
77L<attributes>).
43192e07 78
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79=item Ambiguous overloaded argument to %s resolved as %s
80
81(W ambiguous) You called C<keys>, C<values> or C<each> on an object that had
82overloading of C<%{}> or C<@{}> or both. In such a case, the object is
83dereferenced according to its overloading, not its underlying reference type.
84The warning is issued when C<%{}> overloading exists on a blessed arrayref,
85when C<@{}> overloading exists on a blessed hashref, or when both overloadings
86are defined (in which case C<%{}> is used). You can force the interpretation
c69ca1d4 87of the object by explicitly dereferencing it as an array or hash instead of
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88passing the object itself to C<keys>, C<values> or C<each>.
89
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90=item Ambiguous range in transliteration operator
91
92(F) You wrote something like C<tr/a-z-0//> which doesn't mean anything at
93all. To include a C<-> character in a transliteration, put it either
94first or last. (In the past, C<tr/a-z-0//> was synonymous with
95C<tr/a-y//>, which was probably not what you would have expected.)
96
6df41af2 97=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
43192e07 98
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99(W ambiguous)(S) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
100you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
101a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
a0d0e21e 102
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103=item Ambiguous use of %c resolved as operator %c
104
105(W ambiguous) C<%>, C<&>, and C<*> are both infix operators (modulus,
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106bitwise and, and multiplication) I<and> initial special characters
107(denoting hashes, subroutines and typeglobs), and you said something
108like C<*foo * foo> that might be interpreted as either of them. We
109assumed you meant the infix operator, but please try to make it more
110clear -- in the example given, you might write C<*foo * foo()> if you
111really meant to multiply a glob by the result of calling a function.
d8225693 112
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113=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s} resolved to %c%s
114
115(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<@{foo}>, which might be
116asking for the variable C<@foo>, or it might be calling a function
117named foo, and dereferencing it as an array reference. If you wanted
118the varable, you can just write C<@foo>. If you wanted to call the
119function, write C<@{foo()}> ... or you could just not have a variable
120and a function with the same name, and save yourself a lot of trouble.
121
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122=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s[...]} resolved to %c%s[...]
123
124=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s{...}} resolved to %c%s{...}
4da60377 125
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126(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<${foo[2]}> (where foo
127represents the name of a Perl keyword), which might be looking for
128element number 2 of the array named C<@foo>, in which case please write
129C<$foo[2]>, or you might have meant to pass an anonymous arrayref to
130the function named foo, and then do a scalar deref on the value it
131returns. If you meant that, write C<${foo([2])}>.
132
133In regular expressions, the C<${foo[2]}> syntax is sometimes necessary
134to disambiguate between array subscripts and character classes.
135C</$length[2345]/>, for instance, will be interpreted as C<$length>
136followed by the character class C<[2345]>. If an array subscript is what
137you want, you can avoid the warning by changing C</${length[2345]}/>
138to the unsightly C</${\$length[2345]}/>, by renaming your array to
139something that does not coincide with a built-in keyword, or by
140simply turning off warnings with C<no warnings 'ambiguous';>.
4da60377 141
bdac9d71 142=item Ambiguous use of -%s resolved as -&%s()
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143
144(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<-foo>, which might be the
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145string C<"-foo">, or a call to the function C<foo>, negated. If you meant
146the string, just write C<"-foo">. If you meant the function call,
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147write C<-foo()>.
148
6df41af2 149=item '|' and '<' may not both be specified on command line
a0d0e21e 150
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151(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
152redirection, and found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to
153redirect STDIN using '<'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
c9f97d15 154
6df41af2 155=item '|' and '>' may not both be specified on command line
1028017a 156
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157(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
158redirection, and thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and
159into a pipe to another command. You need to choose one or the other,
160though nothing's stopping you from piping into a program or Perl script
161which 'splits' output into two streams, such as
1028017a 162
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163 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
164 while (<STDIN>) {
165 print;
166 print OUT;
167 }
168 close OUT;
c9f97d15 169
6df41af2 170=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
eb6e2d6f 171
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172(W misc) The pattern match (C<//>), substitution (C<s///>), and
173transliteration (C<tr///>) operators work on scalar values. If you apply
be771a83 174one of them to an array or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to
ac036724 175a scalar value (the length of an array, or the population info of a
176hash) and then work on that scalar value. This is probably not what
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177you meant to do. See L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for
178alternatives.
eb6e2d6f 179
6df41af2 180=item Args must match #! line
a0d0e21e 181
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182(F) The setuid emulator requires that the arguments Perl was invoked
183with match the arguments specified on the #! line. Since some systems
184impose a one-argument limit on the #! line, try combining switches;
185for example, turn C<-w -U> into C<-wU>.
a0d0e21e 186
6df41af2 187=item Arg too short for msgsnd
76cd736e 188
6df41af2 189(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
76cd736e 190
b0fdf69e 191=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or a subroutine
a0d0e21e 192
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193(F) The argument to exists() must be a hash or array element or a
194subroutine with an ampersand, such as:
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195
196 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 197 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
cc1c2e42 198 &do_something
a0d0e21e 199
8ea97a1e 200=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice
5f05dabc 201
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202(F) The argument to delete() must be either a hash or array element,
203such as:
5f05dabc 204
205 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 206 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
5f05dabc 207
8ea97a1e 208or a hash or array slice, such as:
5f05dabc 209
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210 @foo[$bar, $baz, $xyzzy]
211 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
5315574d 212
6df41af2 213=item %s argument is not a subroutine name
a0d0e21e 214
6df41af2 215(F) The argument to exists() for C<exists &sub> must be a subroutine
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216name, and not a subroutine call. C<exists &sub()> will generate this
217error.
a0d0e21e 218
f86702cc 219=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
a0d0e21e 220
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221(W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator
222that expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
223will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
a0d0e21e 224
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225=item Argument list not closed for PerlIO layer "%s"
226
227(W layer) When pushing a layer with arguments onto the Perl I/O system you
228forgot the ) that closes the argument list. (Layers take care of transforming
229data between external and internal representations.) Perl stopped parsing
230the layer list at this point and did not attempt to push this layer.
231If your program didn't explicitly request the failing operation, it may be
232the result of the value of the environment variable PERLIO.
233
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234=item Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
235
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236(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some
237spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
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238
239=item assertion botched: %s
240
241(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
242
243=item Assertion failed: file "%s"
244
245(P) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
246
247=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
248
249(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
250must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
251know which context to supply to the right side.
252
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253=item A thread exited while %d threads were running
254
4447dfc1 255(W threads)(S) When using threaded Perl, a thread (not necessarily the main
96ebfdd7 256thread) exited while there were still other threads running.
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257Usually it's a good idea first to collect the return values of the
258created threads by joining them, and only then to exit from the main
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259thread. See L<threads>.
260
2393f1b9 261=item Attempt to access disallowed key '%s' in a restricted hash
1b1f1335 262
49293501 263(F) The failing code has attempted to get or set a key which is not in
2393f1b9 264the current set of allowed keys of a restricted hash.
49293501 265
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266=item Attempt to bless into a reference
267
268(F) The CLASSNAME argument to the bless() operator is expected to be
269the name of the package to bless the resulting object into. You've
270supplied instead a reference to something: perhaps you wrote
271
272 bless $self, $proto;
273
274when you intended
275
276 bless $self, ref($proto) || $proto;
277
278If you actually want to bless into the stringified version
279of the reference supplied, you need to stringify it yourself, for
280example by:
281
282 bless $self, "$proto";
283
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284=item Attempt to delete disallowed key '%s' from a restricted hash
285
286(F) The failing code attempted to delete from a restricted hash a key
287which is not in its key set.
288
289=item Attempt to delete readonly key '%s' from a restricted hash
290
291(F) The failing code attempted to delete a key whose value has been
292declared readonly from a restricted hash.
293
de42a5a9 294=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%x
a0d0e21e 295
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296(P internal) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas
297that will be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be
298outside any of those arenas.
a0d0e21e 299
54310121 300=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string
bbce6d69 301
111a855e 302(P internal) Perl maintains a reference-counted internal table of
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303strings to optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other
304strings. This indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count
305of a string that can no longer be found in the table.
bbce6d69 306
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307=item Attempt to free temp prematurely
308
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309(W debugging) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the
310free_tmps() routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the
311SV before the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the
312free_tmps() routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does
313try to free it.
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314
315=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
316
e476b1b5 317(P internal) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
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318
319=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar
320
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321(W internal) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to
322see if it would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0
323earlier, and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed.
324This could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or
325that SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was
326mortalized when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been
327corrupted.
a0d0e21e 328
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329=item Attempt to join self
330
331(F) You tried to join a thread from within itself, which is an
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332impossible task. You may be joining the wrong thread, or you may need
333to move the join() to some other thread.
dcdda58d 334
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335=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
336
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337(W pack) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
338function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
339means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
340invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
341literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
342avoid this warning.
84902520 343
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344=item Attempt to reload %s aborted.
345
346(F) You tried to load a file with C<use> or C<require> that failed to
347compile once already. Perl will not try to compile this file again
348unless you delete its entry from %INC. See L<perlfunc/require> and
349L<perlvar/%INC>.
350
1b20cd17
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351=item Attempt to set length of freed array
352
353(W) You tried to set the length of an array which has been freed. You
354can do this by storing a reference to the scalar representing the last index
355of an array and later assigning through that reference. For example
356
357 $r = do {my @a; \$#a};
358 $$r = 503
359
b7a902f4 360=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
361
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362(W substr) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr()
363used as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
364dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
b7a902f4 365
c32124fe
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366=item Attribute "locked" is deprecated
367
111a855e 368(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragma to modify the "locked"
c32124fe 369attribute on a code reference. The :locked attribute is obsolete, has had no
a5547419 370effect since 5005 threads were removed, and will be removed in a future
c32124fe
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371release of Perl 5.
372
f1a3ce43
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373=item Attribute "unique" is deprecated
374
111a855e 375(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragma to modify the "unique"
b7a2910f 376attribute on an array, hash or scalar reference. The :unique attribute has
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377had no effect since Perl 5.8.8, and will be removed in a future release
378of Perl 5.
f1a3ce43 379
de42a5a9 380=item Bad arg length for %s, is %u, should be %d
a0d0e21e 381
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382(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl()
383or shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 384S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
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385S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
386
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387=item Bad evalled substitution pattern
388
496a33f5 389(F) You've used the C</e> switch to evaluate the replacement for a
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390substitution, but perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate,
391most likely an unexpected right brace '}'.
392
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393=item Bad filehandle: %s
394
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395(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the
396symbol has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an
397open(), or did it in another package.
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398
399=item Bad free() ignored
400
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401(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had never
402been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
9ea8bc6d 403setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 0.
33c8a3fe 404
9ea8bc6d 405This message can be seen quite often with DB_File on systems with "hard"
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406dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of C<Berkeley DB>
407which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving> system malloc().
a0d0e21e 408
aa689395 409=item Bad hash
410
411(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
412
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413=item Badly placed ()'s
414
415(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
416of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
417Perl yourself.
418
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419=item Bad name after %s::
420
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421(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then
422didn't finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside
423of quotes, so
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424
425 $var = 'myvar';
426 $sym = mypack::$var;
427
428is not the same as
429
430 $var = 'myvar';
431 $sym = "mypack::$var";
432
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433=item Bad plugin affecting keyword '%s'
434
435(F) An extension using the keyword plugin mechanism violated the
436plugin API.
437
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438=item Bad realloc() ignored
439
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440(S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that had
441never been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled
4dcecea4 442by setting the environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
4ad56ec9 443
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444=item Bad symbol for array
445
446(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
447wasn't a symbol table entry.
448
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449=item Bad symbol for dirhandle
450
451(P) An internal request asked to add a dirhandle entry to something
452that wasn't a symbol table entry.
453
454
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455=item Bad symbol for filehandle
456
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457(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something
458that wasn't a symbol table entry.
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459
460=item Bad symbol for hash
461
462(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
463wasn't a symbol table entry.
464
34d09196
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465=item Bareword found in conditional
466
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467(W bareword) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a
468conditional, which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part
469of the last argument of the previous construct, for example:
34d09196
GS
470
471 open FOO || die;
472
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473It may also indicate a misspelled constant that has been interpreted as
474a bareword:
34d09196
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475
476 use constant TYPO => 1;
477 if (TYOP) { print "foo" }
478
479The C<strict> pragma is useful in avoiding such errors.
480
6df41af2
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481=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
482
483(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
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484subroutine identifier, in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>"
485symbol. Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
6df41af2
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486
487=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
488
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489(W bareword) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but the
490compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point. Perhaps
491you need to predeclare a package?
6df41af2 492
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493=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
494
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495(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN
496subroutine. Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is
497exited.
a0d0e21e 498
68dc0745 499=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
500
501(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
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502implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had already
503occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}> could not
504be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code likely
505depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
68dc0745 506
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507=item \1 better written as $1
508
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509(W syntax) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables.
510The use of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
511substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
512because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better if
513there are more than 9 backreferences.
6df41af2 514
252aa082
JH
515=item Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable
516
e476b1b5 517(W portable) The binary number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
518(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
519L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 520
69282e91 521=item bind() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 522
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523(W closed) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to
524check the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
a0d0e21e 525
c289d2f7
JH
526=item binmode() on closed filehandle %s
527
528(W unopened) You tried binmode() on a filehandle that was never opened.
4dcecea4 529Check your control flow and number of arguments.
c289d2f7 530
f866a7cd
FC
531=item "\b{" is deprecated; use "\b\{" instead
532
533=item "\B{" is deprecated; use "\B\{" instead
534
535(W deprecated, regexp) Use of an unescaped "{" immediately following a
536C<\b> or C<\B> is now deprecated so as to reserve its use for Perl
537itself in a future release.
538
c5a0f51a
JH
539=item Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
540
e476b1b5 541(W portable) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is non-portable.
c5a0f51a 542
4633a7c4
LW
543=item Bizarre copy of %s in %s
544
be771a83 545(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not
4dcecea4 546copiable.
4633a7c4 547
f675dbe5
CB
548=item Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
549
be771a83
GS
550(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. While Perl was preparing to
551iterate over %ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition
552which was too long, so it was truncated to the string shown.
f675dbe5 553
a0d0e21e
LW
554=item Callback called exit
555
4929bf7b 556(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via call_sv()
a0d0e21e
LW
557exited by calling exit.
558
6df41af2 559=item %s() called too early to check prototype
f675dbe5 560
be771a83
GS
561(W prototype) You've called a function that has a prototype before the
562parser saw a definition or declaration for it, and Perl could not check
563that the call conforms to the prototype. You need to either add an
564early prototype declaration for the subroutine in question, or move the
565subroutine definition ahead of the call to get proper prototype
566checking. Alternatively, if you are certain that you're calling the
567function correctly, you may put an ampersand before the name to avoid
568the warning. See L<perlsub>.
f675dbe5 569
49704364 570=item Cannot compress integer in pack
0258719b
NC
571
572(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was too large to compress. The BER
573compressed integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you
574attempted to compress Infinity or a very large number (> 1e308).
575See L<perlfunc/pack>.
576
49704364 577=item Cannot compress negative numbers in pack
0258719b
NC
578
579(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was negative. The BER compressed integer
580format can only be used with positive integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
581
5c1f4d79
NC
582=item Cannot convert a reference to %s to typeglob
583
584(F) You manipulated Perl's symbol table directly, stored a reference in it,
585then tried to access that symbol via conventional Perl syntax. The access
586triggers Perl to autovivify that typeglob, but it there is no legal conversion
587from that type of reference to a typeglob.
588
ba2fdce6
NC
589=item Cannot copy to %s in %s
590
591(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy a value to an internal type that cannot
4dcecea4 592be directly assigned to.
ba2fdce6 593
b5d97229
RGS
594=item Cannot find encoding "%s"
595
596(S io) You tried to apply an encoding that did not exist to a filehandle,
597either with open() or binmode().
598
96ebfdd7
RK
599=item Can only compress unsigned integers in pack
600
601(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was not an integer. The BER compressed
602integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you attempted
603to compress something else. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
604
a0d0e21e
LW
605=item Can't bless non-reference value
606
607(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
608encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
609
dc57907a
RGS
610=item Can't "break" in a loop topicalizer
611
0d863452
RH
612(F) You called C<break>, but you're in a C<foreach> block rather than
613a C<given> block. You probably meant to use C<next> or C<last>.
614
615=item Can't "break" outside a given block
dc57907a 616
0d863452
RH
617(F) You called C<break>, but you're not inside a C<given> block.
618
6df41af2
GS
619=item Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
620
621(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
622object reference or package name contains an undefined value. Something
623like this will reproduce the error:
6df41af2
GS
624
625 $BADREF = undef;
626 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
627 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
628
a0d0e21e
LW
629=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
630
54310121 631(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
be771a83
GS
632ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but you
633didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't an
634object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
635
636=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
637
638(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
639object reference or package name contains an expression that returns a
640defined value which is neither an object reference nor a package name.
72b5445b
GS
641Something like this will reproduce the error:
642
643 $BADREF = 42;
644 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
645 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
646
a0d0e21e
LW
647=item Can't chdir to %s
648
649(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but C</foo/bar> is not a directory
650that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
651
0545a864 652=item Can't check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid
104d25b7 653
be771a83
GS
654(P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for
655nosuid.
104d25b7 656
22e74366 657=item Can't coerce %s to %s in %s
a0d0e21e
LW
658
659(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 660(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
a0d0e21e
LW
661say things like:
662
663 *foo += 1;
664
665You CAN say
666
667 $foo = *foo;
668 $foo += 1;
669
670but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
671
0d863452 672=item Can't "continue" outside a when block
dc57907a 673
0d863452
RH
674(F) You called C<continue>, but you're not inside a C<when>
675or C<default> block.
676
a0d0e21e
LW
677=item Can't create pipe mailbox
678
be771a83
GS
679(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted
680quotas or other plumbing problems.
a0d0e21e 681
eb64745e
GS
682=item Can't declare %s in "%s"
683
30c282f6
NC
684(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as "my", "our" or
685"state" variables. They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
a0d0e21e 686
6df41af2
GS
687=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
688
be771a83
GS
689(S inplace) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as
690a file in /dev, or a FIFO. The file was ignored.
6df41af2 691
a0d0e21e
LW
692=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
693
be771a83
GS
694(S inplace) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated
695reason.
a0d0e21e 696
54310121 697=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
a0d0e21e 698
be771a83
GS
699(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try
700reading from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say
701C<-i.bak>, or some such.
a0d0e21e 702
10f9c03d 703=item Can't do inplace edit: %s would not be unique
a0d0e21e 704
e476b1b5 705(S inplace) Your filesystem does not support filenames longer than 14
10f9c03d
CK
706characters and Perl was unable to create a unique filename during
707inplace editing with the B<-i> switch. The file was ignored.
a0d0e21e 708
7253e4e3 709=item Can't do {n,m} with n > m in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 710
b45f050a 711(F) Minima must be less than or equal to maxima. If you really want your
7253e4e3 712regexp to match something 0 times, just put {0}. The <-- HERE shows in the
b45f050a 713regular expression about where the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 714
a0d0e21e
LW
715=item Can't do waitpid with flags
716
be771a83
GS
717(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only
718waitpid() without flags is emulated.
a0d0e21e 719
a0d0e21e
LW
720=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
721
be771a83
GS
722(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this
723point. For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #!
724line.
a0d0e21e 725
1109a392
MHM
726=item Can't %s %s-endian %ss on this platform
727
728(F) Your platform's byte-order is neither big-endian nor little-endian,
729or it has a very strange pointer size. Packing and unpacking big- or
730little-endian floating point values and pointers may not be possible.
731See L<perlfunc/pack>.
732
a0d0e21e
LW
733=item Can't exec "%s": %s
734
d1be9408 735(W exec) A system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the
be771a83
GS
736named program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the
737permissions were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in
738C<$ENV{PATH}>, the executable in question was compiled for another
739architecture, or the #! line in a script points to an interpreter that
740can't be run for similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support
741#! at all.)
a0d0e21e
LW
742
743=item Can't exec %s
744
be771a83
GS
745(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because
746that's what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may
747need to mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
a0d0e21e
LW
748
749=item Can't execute %s
750
be771a83
GS
751(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute
752found in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
2a92aaa0 753
6df41af2 754=item Can't find an opnumber for "%s"
2a92aaa0 755
be771a83
GS
756(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but there
757is no builtin with the name C<word>.
6df41af2 758
56ca2fc0
JH
759=item Can't find %s character property "%s"
760
761(F) You used C<\p{}> or C<\P{}> but the character property by that name
e1b711da
KW
762could not be found. Maybe you misspelled the name of the property?
763See L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
764for a complete list of available properties.
56ca2fc0 765
6df41af2
GS
766=item Can't find label %s
767
be771a83
GS
768(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's
769possible for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2a92aaa0
GS
770
771=item Can't find %s on PATH
772
be771a83
GS
773(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
774found in the PATH.
a0d0e21e 775
6df41af2 776=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
a0d0e21e 777
be771a83
GS
778(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
779found in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The
780script exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
a0d0e21e
LW
781
782=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
783
be771a83
GS
784(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means
785that the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count
786nesting levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
a0d0e21e 787
fb73857a 788 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
789
be771a83
GS
790If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have included
791unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag. A good programmer's
792editor will have a way to help you find these characters.
a0d0e21e 793
660a4616
TS
794=item Can't find Unicode property definition "%s"
795
5f8ad6b6
FC
796(F) You may have tried to use C<\p> which means a Unicode
797property (for example C<\p{Lu}> matches all uppercase
798letters). If you did mean to use a Unicode property, see
e1b711da 799L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
5f8ad6b6
FC
800for a complete list of available properties. If you didn't
801mean to use a Unicode property, escape the C<\p>, either by C<\\p>
802(just the C<\p>) or by C<\Q\p> (the rest of the string, or
803until C<\E>).
660a4616 804
b3647a36 805=item Can't fork: %s
a0d0e21e 806
be771a83
GS
807(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a
808pipeline.
a0d0e21e 809
b3647a36
SR
810=item Can't fork, trying again in 5 seconds
811
c973c02e 812(W pipe) A fork in a piped open failed with EAGAIN and will be retried
b3647a36
SR
813after five seconds.
814
748a9306
LW
815=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
816
be771a83
GS
817(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference
818between access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes.
819Under VMS, access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in
820the stat buffer, so that ACLs and other protections can be taken into
821account. Unfortunately, Perl assumes that the stat buffer contains all
822the necessary information, and passes it, instead of the filespec, to
2fe2bdfd 823the access-checking routine. It will try to retrieve the filespec using
be771a83
GS
824the device name and FID present in the stat buffer, but this works only
825if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat() routine,
826because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
2fe2bdfd
FC
827appears, the name lookup failed, and the access-checking routine gave up
828and returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access-checking
be771a83
GS
829routine knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you
830shouldn't ever see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises
831only if some internal code takes stat buffers lightly.)
748a9306 832
a0d0e21e
LW
833=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
834
be771a83
GS
835(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a
836pipe, Perl can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
837
838=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
839
748a9306
LW
840(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
841mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e 842
6df41af2 843=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
a0d0e21e 844
be771a83
GS
845(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a foreach
846loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2
GS
847
848=item Can't "goto" out of a pseudo block
849
be771a83
GS
850(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look like
851a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually occurs if
852you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which is a no-no.
853See L<perlfunc/goto>.
a0d0e21e 854
9850bf21 855=item Can't goto subroutine from a sort sub (or similar callback)
cd299c6e 856
9850bf21
RH
857(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of the
858comparison sub for a sort(), or from a similar callback (such
859as the reduce() function in List::Util).
860
c74ace89 861=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-%s
b150fb22 862
be771a83 863(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval
c74ace89 864"string" or block.
b150fb22 865
6df41af2
GS
866=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
867
be771a83
GS
868(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one
869subroutine call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole
870cloth. In general you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD
871routine anyway. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2 872
0b5b802d
GS
873=item Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default
874
be771a83
GS
875(W signal) Perl has detected that it is being run with the SIGCHLD
876signal (sometimes known as SIGCLD) disabled. Since disabling this
877signal will interfere with proper determination of exit status of child
878processes, Perl has reset the signal to its default value. This
879situation typically indicates that the parent program under which Perl
880may be running (e.g. cron) is being very careless.
0b5b802d 881
e2c0f81f
DG
882=item Can't kill a non-numeric process ID
883
884(F) Process identifiers must be (signed) integers. It is a fatal error to
885attempt to kill() an undefined, empty-string or otherwise non-numeric
886process identifier.
887
6df41af2 888=item Can't "last" outside a loop block
4633a7c4 889
6df41af2 890(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
be771a83
GS
891except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a current
892block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a "loopish"
893block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or grep(). You can
894usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the
895inner curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See
896L<perlfunc/last>.
4633a7c4 897
2c7d6b9c
RGS
898=item Can't linearize anonymous symbol table
899
900(F) Perl tried to calculate the method resolution order (MRO) of a
901package, but failed because the package stash has no name.
902
b8170e59
JB
903=item Can't load '%s' for module %s
904
905(F) The module you tried to load failed to load a dynamic extension. This
906may either mean that you upgraded your version of perl to one that is
907incompatible with your old dynamic extensions (which is known to happen
908between major versions of perl), or (more likely) that your dynamic
16d98ec5 909extension was built against an older version of the library that is
b8170e59
JB
910installed on your system. You may need to rebuild your old dynamic
911extensions.
912
748a9306
LW
913=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
914
2ba9eb46 915(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
30c282f6 916lexical variable using "my" or "state". This is not allowed. If you want to
748a9306
LW
917localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with the
918package name.
919
6df41af2 920=item Can't localize through a reference
4727527e 921
6df41af2
GS
922(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
923handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
be771a83 924pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be sure
64977eb6 925that $ref will still be a reference.
4727527e 926
ea071790 927=item Can't locate %s
ec889f3a
GS
928
929(F) You said to C<do> (or C<require>, or C<use>) a file that couldn't be
930found. Perl looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in @INC,
be771a83
GS
931unless the file name included the full path to the file. Perhaps you
932need to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where
933the extra library is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name
934to @INC. Or maybe you just misspelled the name of the file. See
935L<perlfunc/require> and L<lib>.
a0d0e21e 936
6df41af2
GS
937=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
938
be771a83
GS
939(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows
940autoload, but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes
941are a misprint in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit>
942the file, say, by doing C<make install>.
6df41af2 943
b8170e59
JB
944=item Can't locate loadable object for module %s in @INC
945
946(F) The module you loaded is trying to load an external library, like
947for example, C<foo.so> or C<bar.dll>, but the L<DynaLoader> module was
948unable to locate this library. See L<DynaLoader>.
949
a0d0e21e
LW
950=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
951
952(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
953functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 954method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
955
956=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
957
be771a83
GS
958(W syntax) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that
959doesn't seem to exist.
a0d0e21e 960
2f7da168
RK
961=item Can't locate PerlIO%s
962
963(F) You tried to use in open() a PerlIO layer that does not exist,
964e.g. open(FH, ">:nosuchlayer", "somefile").
965
3e3baf6d
TB
966=item Can't make list assignment to \%ENV on this system
967
be771a83
GS
968(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably
969VMS.
3e3baf6d 970
a0d0e21e
LW
971=item Can't modify %s in %s
972
be771a83
GS
973(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try
974to change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 975
54310121 976=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
977
978(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
979a NULL.
980
6df41af2
GS
981=item Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call
982
983(F) Subroutines meant to be used in lvalue context should be declared as
2fe2bdfd 984such. See L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
6df41af2 985
5f05dabc 986=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 987
5f05dabc 988(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
989buffer.
990
6df41af2
GS
991=item Can't "next" outside a loop block
992
993(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
994there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
be771a83
GS
995count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or
996grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
997though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that loops
998once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
6df41af2 999
a0d0e21e
LW
1000=item Can't open %s: %s
1001
c47ff5f1 1002(S inplace) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<< <> >>
08e9d68e
DD
1003filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
1004switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually this
be771a83
GS
1005is because you don't have read permission for a file which you named on
1006the command line.
a0d0e21e 1007
9a869a14
RGS
1008=item Can't open a reference
1009
1010(W io) You tried to open a scalar reference for reading or writing,
2fe2bdfd 1011using the 3-arg open() syntax:
9a869a14
RGS
1012
1013 open FH, '>', $ref;
1014
1015but your version of perl is compiled without perlio, and this form of
1016open is not supported.
1017
a0d0e21e
LW
1018=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
1019
be771a83
GS
1020(W pipe) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported.
1021You can try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such
1022as IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using
1023">", and then read it in under a different file handle.
a0d0e21e 1024
748a9306
LW
1025=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
1026
be771a83
GS
1027(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1028redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '2>' or '2>>' on
1029the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1030
1031=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
1032
be771a83
GS
1033(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1034redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '<' on the
1035command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
1036
1037=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
1038
be771a83
GS
1039(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1040redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '>' or '>>' on
1041the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1042
1043=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
1044
be771a83
GS
1045(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1046redirection, and couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined
1047for stdout.
748a9306 1048
2b8ca739 1049=item Can't open perl script%s
a0d0e21e
LW
1050
1051(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
1052
fa3aa65a
JC
1053If you're debugging a script that uses #!, and normally relies on the
1054shell's $PATH search, the -S option causes perl to do that search, so
1055you don't have to type the path or C<`which $scriptname`>.
1056
6df41af2
GS
1057=item Can't read CRTL environ
1058
1059(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read an element of %ENV
1060from the CRTL's internal environment array and discovered the array was
1061missing. You need to figure out where your CRTL misplaced its environ
be771a83
GS
1062or define F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that environ is not
1063searched.
6df41af2 1064
6df41af2
GS
1065=item Can't "redo" outside a loop block
1066
1067(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
1068there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
1069count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map()
1070or grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1071though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that
1072loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
1073
64977eb6 1074=item Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file
10f9c03d 1075
be771a83
GS
1076(S inplace) You requested an inplace edit without creating a backup
1077file. Perl was unable to remove the original file to replace it with
1078the modified file. The file was left unmodified.
10f9c03d 1079
a0d0e21e
LW
1080=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
1081
e476b1b5 1082(S inplace) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason,
10f9c03d 1083probably because you don't have write permission to the directory.
a0d0e21e 1084
748a9306
LW
1085=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
1086
be771a83
GS
1087(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried
1088to reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
748a9306 1089
fe13d51d 1090=item Can't resolve method "%s" overloading "%s" in package "%s"
6df41af2 1091
be771a83
GS
1092(F|P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as opposed
1093to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the package. If
2fe2bdfd 1094the method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
6df41af2 1095
cd06dffe
GS
1096=item Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine
1097
be771a83
GS
1098(F) Perl detected an attempt to return illegal lvalues (such as
1099temporary or readonly values) from a subroutine used as an lvalue. This
1100is not allowed.
cd06dffe 1101
96ebfdd7
RK
1102=item Can't return outside a subroutine
1103
1104(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
1105there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
1106
78f9721b
SM
1107=item Can't return %s to lvalue scalar context
1108
1109(F) You tried to return a complete array or hash from an lvalue subroutine,
1110but you called the subroutine in a way that made Perl think you meant
1111to return only one value. You probably meant to write parentheses around
1112the call to the subroutine, which tell Perl that the call should be in
1113list context.
1114
a0d0e21e
LW
1115=item Can't stat script "%s"
1116
be771a83
GS
1117(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have it
1118open already. Bizarre.
a0d0e21e 1119
a0d0e21e
LW
1120=item Can't take log of %g
1121
fb73857a 1122(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
1123negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
be771a83
GS
1124standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for the
1125negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
1126
1127=item Can't take sqrt of %g
1128
1129(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a 1130negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
1131with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
1132
1133=item Can't undef active subroutine
1134
1135(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
1136however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
1137redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
1138
c81225bc 1139=item Can't upgrade %s (%d) to %d
a0d0e21e 1140
be771a83
GS
1141(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making it
1142into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are so
1143specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This message
1144indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
a0d0e21e 1145
1db89ea5
BS
1146=item Can't use anonymous symbol table for method lookup
1147
e27ad1f2 1148(F) The internal routine that does method lookup was handed a symbol
1db89ea5
BS
1149table that doesn't have a name. Symbol tables can become anonymous
1150for example by undefining stashes: C<undef %Some::Package::>.
1151
96ebfdd7
RK
1152=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
1153
1154(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
1155be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
1156
6df41af2
GS
1157=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
1158
be771a83
GS
1159(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1160references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 1161
90b75b61 1162=item Can't use %! because Errno.pm is not available
1d2dff63
GS
1163
1164(F) The first time the %! hash is used, perl automatically loads the
1165Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
1166provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
1167
1109a392
MHM
1168=item Can't use both '<' and '>' after type '%c' in %s
1169
1170(F) A type cannot be forced to have both big-endian and little-endian
1171byte-order at the same time, so this combination of modifiers is not
1172allowed. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1173
6df41af2
GS
1174=item Can't use %s for loop variable
1175
be771a83
GS
1176(F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a
1177foreach.
6df41af2 1178
aab6a793 1179=item Can't use global %s in "%s"
6df41af2 1180
be771a83
GS
1181(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This
1182is not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location
1183(namely the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to
1184have variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
6df41af2
GS
1185weren't.
1186
6d3b25aa
RGS
1187=item Can't use '%c' in a group with different byte-order in %s
1188
1189(F) You attempted to force a different byte-order on a type
1190that is already inside a group with a byte-order modifier.
1191For example you cannot force little-endianness on a type that
1192is inside a big-endian group.
1193
c07a80fd 1194=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
1195
1196(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
c47ff5f1 1197You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the <=> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd 1198and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
1199Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
1200lexical variable.
1201
a0d0e21e
LW
1202=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
1203
1204(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
1205reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
1206test the type of the reference, if need be.
1207
748a9306 1208=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e 1209
be771a83
GS
1210(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1211references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 1212
748a9306
LW
1213=item Can't use subscript on %s
1214
1215(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
1216subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
209e7cf1 1217didn't look like a hash or array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
748a9306 1218
6df41af2
GS
1219=item Can't use \%c to mean $%c in expression
1220
75b44862
GS
1221(W syntax) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that
1222creates a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a
1223backreference to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular
be771a83
GS
1224expression pattern. Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a
1225value that prints out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form
1226instead.
6df41af2 1227
0d863452 1228=item Can't use "when" outside a topicalizer
dc57907a 1229
0d863452
RH
1230(F) You have used a when() block that is neither inside a C<foreach>
1231loop nor a C<given> block. (Note that this error is issued on exit
1232from the C<when> block, so you won't get the error if the match fails,
1233or if you use an explicit C<continue>.)
1234
810b8aa5
GS
1235=item Can't weaken a nonreference
1236
1237(F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference. Only
1238references can be weakened.
1239
5f05dabc 1240=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e 1241
be771a83
GS
1242(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value)
1243with an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
a0d0e21e
LW
1244Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
1245
4a68bf9d 1246=item Character following "\c" must be ASCII
f9d13529 1247
17a3df4c
KW
1248(F|W deprecated, syntax) In C<\cI<X>>, I<X> must be an ASCII character.
1249It is planned to make this fatal in all instances in Perl 5.16. In the
1250cases where it isn't fatal, the character this evaluates to is
1251derived by exclusive or'ing the code point of this character with 0x40.
1252
1253Note that non-alphabetic ASCII characters are discouraged here as well.
f9d13529 1254
f337b084 1255=item Character in 'C' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1256
1257(W pack) You said
1258
1259 pack("C", $x)
1260
1261where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255; the C<"C"> format is
1262only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1263and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1264
1265 pack("C", $x & 255)
1266
1267If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1268instead.
1269
f337b084
TH
1270=item Character in 'W' format wrapped in pack
1271
1272(W pack) You said
1273
1274 pack("U0W", $x)
1275
1276where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255. However, C<U0>-mode expects
1277all values to fall in the interval [0, 255], so Perl behaved as if you
1278meant:
1279
1280 pack("U0W", $x & 255)
1281
1282=item Character in 'c' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1283
1284(W pack) You said
1285
1286 pack("c", $x)
1287
1288where $x is either less than -128 or more than 127; the C<"c"> format
1289is only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1290and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1291
1292 pack("c", $x & 255);
1293
1294If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1295instead.
1296
f337b084
TH
1297=item Character in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1298
1299(W unpack) You tried something like
1300
1301 unpack("H", "\x{2a1}")
1302
1a147d38 1303where the format expects to process a byte (a character with a value
f337b084
TH
1304below 256), but a higher value was provided instead. Perl uses the value
1305modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1306
1307 unpack("H", "\x{a1}")
1308
1309=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in pack
1310
1311(W pack) You tried something like
1312
1313 pack("u", "\x{1f3}b")
1314
1a147d38
YO
1315where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
1316value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1317uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1318
1319 pack("u", "\x{f3}b")
1320
1321=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1322
1323(W unpack) You tried something like
1324
1325 unpack("s", "\x{1f3}b")
1326
1a147d38
YO
1327where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
1328value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1329uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1330
1331 unpack("s", "\x{f3}b")
1332
f866a7cd
FC
1333=item "\c{" is deprecated and is more clearly written as ";"
1334
1335(D deprecated, syntax) The C<\cI<X>> construct is intended to be a way
1336to specify non-printable characters. You used it with a "{" which
1337evaluates to ";", which is printable. It is planned to remove the
1338ability to specify a semi-colon this way in Perl 5.16. Just use a
1339semi-colon or a backslash-semi-colon without the "\c".
1340
1341=item "\c%c" is more clearly written simply as "%s"
1342
1343(W syntax) The C<\cI<X>> construct is intended to be a way to specify
1344non-printable characters. You used it for a printable one, which is better
1345written as simply itself, perhaps preceded by a backslash for non-word
1346characters.
1347
96ebfdd7
RK
1348=item close() on unopened filehandle %s
1349
1350(W unopened) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
1351
abc7ecad
SP
1352=item closedir() attempted on invalid dirhandle %s
1353
1354(W io) The dirhandle you tried to close is either closed or not really
1355a dirhandle. Check your control flow.
1356
541ed3a9
FC
1357=item Closure prototype called
1358
1359(F) If a closure has attributes, the subroutine passed to an attribute
1360handler is the prototype that is cloned when a new closure is created.
1361This subroutine cannot be called.
1362
49704364
WL
1363=item Code missing after '/'
1364
1365(F) You had a (sub-)template that ends with a '/'. There must be another
1366template code following the slash. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1367
0876b9a0
KW
1368=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, may not be portable
1369
9ae3ac1a
KW
1370=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, no properties match it; all inverse properties do
1371
0876b9a0
KW
1372(W utf8) You had a code point above the Unicode maximum of U+10FFFF.
1373
1374Perl allows strings to contain a superset of Unicode code
1375points, up to the limit of what is storable in an unsigned integer on
1376your system, but these may not be accepted by other languages/systems.
1377At one time, it was legal in some standards to have code points up to
13780x7FFF_FFFF, but not higher. Code points above 0xFFFF_FFFF require
1379larger than a 32 bit word.
1380
9ae3ac1a
KW
1381None of the Unicode or Perl-defined properties will match a non-Unicode
1382code point. For example,
1383
1384 chr(0x7FF_FFFF) =~ /\p{Any}/
1385
1386will not match, because the code point is not in Unicode. But
1387
1388 chr(0x7FF_FFFF) =~ /\P{Any}/
1389
1390will match.
1391
6df41af2
GS
1392=item %s: Command not found
1393
be771a83
GS
1394(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1395Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2 1396
7a2e2cd6 1397=item Compilation failed in require
1398
1399(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
be771a83
GS
1400Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it
1401encountered were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
7a2e2cd6 1402
c3464db5
DD
1403=item Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
1404
be771a83
GS
1405(W regexp) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex
1406situations where back-tracking is required. Recursion depth is limited
1407to 32766, or perhaps less in architectures where the stack cannot grow
1408arbitrarily. ("Simple" and "medium" situations are handled without
1409recursion and are not subject to a limit.) Try shortening the string
1410under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with C<while>) rather than
1411in the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular expression so
c2e66d9e 1412that it is simpler or backtracks less. (See L<perlfaq2> for information
be771a83 1413on I<Mastering Regular Expressions>.)
c3464db5 1414
38875929
DM
1415=item cond_broadcast() called on unlocked variable
1416
1417(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to call
1418cond_broadcast() on a variable which wasn't locked. The cond_broadcast()
a568ca76 1419function is used to wake up another thread that is waiting in a
38875929 1420cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't sent before the other thread
a568ca76
FC
1421has a chance to enter the wait, it is usual for the signaling thread
1422first to wait for a lock on variable. This lock attempt will only succeed
38875929
DM
1423after the other thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the
1424lock.
1425
38875929
DM
1426=item cond_signal() called on unlocked variable
1427
1428(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to call
1429cond_signal() on a variable which wasn't locked. The cond_signal()
a568ca76 1430function is used to wake up another thread that is waiting in a
38875929 1431cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't sent before the other thread
a568ca76
FC
1432has a chance to enter the wait, it is usual for the signaling thread
1433first to wait for a lock on variable. This lock attempt will only succeed
38875929
DM
1434after the other thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the
1435lock.
1436
69282e91 1437=item connect() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1438
be771a83
GS
1439(W closed) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget
1440to check the return value of your socket() call? See
1441L<perlfunc/connect>.
a0d0e21e 1442
41ab332f 1443=item Constant(%s)%s: %s
6df41af2 1444
be771a83
GS
1445(F) The parser found inconsistencies either while attempting to define
1446an overloaded constant, or when trying to find the character name
1447specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you forgot to load the
1448corresponding C<overload> or C<charnames> pragma? See L<charnames> and
1449L<overload>.
6df41af2 1450
fc8cd66c
YO
1451=item Constant(%s)%s: %s in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1452
1a147d38
YO
1453(F) The parser found inconsistencies while attempting to find
1454the character name specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you
1455forgot to load the corresponding C<charnames> pragma?
fc8cd66c
YO
1456See L<charnames>.
1457
1458
779c5bc9
GS
1459=item Constant is not %s reference
1460
1461(F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the C<use constant> pragma)
be771a83
GS
1462is being dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference.
1463The message indicates the type of reference that was expected. This
1464usually indicates a syntax error in dereferencing the constant value.
779c5bc9
GS
1465See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> and L<constant>.
1466
4cee8e80
CS
1467=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
1468
bb028877 1469(S) You redefined a subroutine which had previously been
be771a83
GS
1470eligible for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for
1471commentary and workarounds.
4cee8e80 1472
9607fc9c 1473=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
1474
be771a83
GS
1475(W misc) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible
1476for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1477workarounds.
9607fc9c 1478
e7ea3e70
IZ
1479=item Copy method did not return a reference
1480
64977eb6 1481(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See
13a2d996 1482L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
e7ea3e70 1483
6798c92b
GS
1484=item CORE::%s is not a keyword
1485
1486(F) The CORE:: namespace is reserved for Perl keywords.
1487
a0d0e21e
LW
1488=item corrupted regexp pointers
1489
1490(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1491expression compiler gave it.
1492
1493=item corrupted regexp program
1494
be771a83
GS
1495(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without a
1496valid magic number.
a0d0e21e 1497
de42a5a9 1498=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%x at 0x%x
6df41af2
GS
1499
1500(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
1501
49704364
WL
1502=item Count after length/code in unpack
1503
1504(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string, but
1505you have also specified an explicit size for the string. See
1506L<perlfunc/pack>.
1507
a0d0e21e
LW
1508=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
1509
be771a83
GS
1510(W recursion) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly)
1511100 times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an
1512infinite recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in
1513which case it indicates something else.
a0d0e21e 1514
aad1d01f
NC
1515This threshold can be changed from 100, by recompiling the F<perl> binary,
1516setting the C pre-processor macro C<PERL_SUB_DEPTH_WARN> to the desired value.
1517
f10b0346 1518=item defined(@array) is deprecated
69794302 1519
be771a83
GS
1520(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on arrays because it
1521checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the
64977eb6 1522array is empty, just use C<if (@array) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1523
f10b0346 1524=item defined(%hash) is deprecated
69794302 1525
be771a83
GS
1526(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on hashes because it
1527checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the hash
64977eb6 1528is empty, just use C<if (%hash) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1529
62658f4d
PM
1530=item %s defines neither package nor VERSION--version check failed
1531
1532(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but in the Module file
1533there are neither package declarations nor a C<$VERSION>.
1534
fc36a67e 1535=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1536
be771a83
GS
1537(F) In a here document construct like C<<<FOO>, the label C<FOO> is too
1538long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously twisted to write code
1539that triggers this error.
fc36a67e 1540
4a68bf9d 1541=item Deprecated character in \N{...}; marked by <-- HERE in \N{%s<-- HERE %s
cb233ae3
KW
1542
1543(D deprecated) Just about anything is legal for the C<...> in C<\N{...}>.
5fca8acb
FC
1544But starting in 5.12, non-reasonable ones that don't look like names
1545are deprecated. A reasonable name begins with an alphabetic character
1546and continues with any combination of alphanumerics, dashes, spaces,
1547parentheses or colons.
cb233ae3 1548
6d3b25aa
RGS
1549=item Deprecated use of my() in false conditional
1550
1551(D deprecated) You used a declaration similar to C<my $x if 0>.
1552There has been a long-standing bug in Perl that causes a lexical variable
1553not to be cleared at scope exit when its declaration includes a false
1554conditional. Some people have exploited this bug to achieve a kind of
1555static variable. Since we intend to fix this bug, we don't want people
1556relying on this behavior. You can achieve a similar static effect by
1557declaring the variable in a separate block outside the function, eg
36fb85f3 1558
6d3b25aa
RGS
1559 sub f { my $x if 0; return $x++ }
1560
1561becomes
1562
1563 { my $x; sub f { return $x++ } }
1564
36fb85f3
RGS
1565Beginning with perl 5.9.4, you can also use C<state> variables to
1566have lexicals that are initialized only once (see L<feature>):
1567
1568 sub f { state $x; return $x++ }
1569
500ab966
RGS
1570=item DESTROY created new reference to dead object '%s'
1571
1572(F) A DESTROY() method created a new reference to the object which is
1573just being DESTROYed. Perl is confused, and prefers to abort rather than
1574to create a dangling reference.
1575
3cdd684c
TP
1576=item Did not produce a valid header
1577
1578See Server error.
1579
6df41af2
GS
1580=item %s did not return a true value
1581
1582(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
1583it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
1584traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
1585do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
1586
cc507455 1587=item (Did you mean &%s instead?)
4633a7c4 1588
413ff9f6
FC
1589(W misc) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or
1590some such.
4633a7c4 1591
cc507455 1592=item (Did you mean "local" instead of "our"?)
33633739 1593
be771a83
GS
1594(W misc) Remember that "our" does not localize the declared global
1595variable. You have declared it again in the same lexical scope, which
1596seems superfluous.
33633739 1597
cc507455 1598=item (Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?)
a0d0e21e 1599
be771a83
GS
1600(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or
1601@hash{@keys}. On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got
1602carried away.
748a9306 1603
7e1af8bc 1604=item Died
5f05dabc 1605
1606(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
075b00aa 1607you called it with no args and C<$@> was empty.
5f05dabc 1608
3cdd684c
TP
1609=item Document contains no data
1610
1611See Server error.
1612
62658f4d
PM
1613=item %s does not define %s::VERSION--version check failed
1614
1615(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but the Module did not
1616define a C<$VERSION.>
1617
49704364
WL
1618=item '/' does not take a repeat count
1619
1620(F) You cannot put a repeat count of any kind right after the '/' code.
1621See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1622
a0d0e21e
LW
1623=item Don't know how to handle magic of type '%s'
1624
1625(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
1626
1627=item do_study: out of memory
1628
1629(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
1630
6df41af2
GS
1631=item (Do you need to predeclare %s?)
1632
56da5a46
RGS
1633(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
1634"%s found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
6df41af2
GS
1635name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
1636because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
be771a83
GS
1637"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're referencing
1638something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have to define the
1639subroutine or package before the current location. You can use an empty
1640"sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward" declaration.
6df41af2 1641
ac206dc8
RGS
1642=item dump() better written as CORE::dump()
1643
1644(W misc) You used the obsolescent C<dump()> built-in function, without fully
1645qualifying it as C<CORE::dump()>. Maybe it's a typo. See L<perlfunc/dump>.
1646
84d78eb7
YO
1647=item dump is not supported
1648
1649(F) Your machine doesn't support dump/undump.
1650
a0d0e21e
LW
1651=item Duplicate free() ignored
1652
be771a83
GS
1653(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had
1654already been freed.
a0d0e21e 1655
1109a392
MHM
1656=item Duplicate modifier '%c' after '%c' in %s
1657
1658(W) You have applied the same modifier more than once after a type
1659in a pack template. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1660
4633a7c4
LW
1661=item elseif should be elsif
1662
56da5a46
RGS
1663(S syntax) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks it's
1664ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method named
be771a83 1665"elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
4633a7c4
LW
1666unlikely to be what you want.
1667
ab13f0c7
JH
1668=item Empty %s
1669
af6f566e
HS
1670(F) C<\p> and C<\P> are used to introduce a named Unicode property, as
1671described in L<perlunicode> and L<perlre>. You used C<\p> or C<\P> in
1672a regular expression without specifying the property name.
ab13f0c7 1673
85ab1d1d 1674=item entering effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1675
85ab1d1d 1676(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1677effective uids or gids failed.
1678
c038024b
RGS
1679=item %ENV is aliased to %s
1680
1681(F) You're running under taint mode, and the C<%ENV> variable has been
1682aliased to another hash, so it doesn't reflect anymore the state of the
1683program's environment. This is potentially insecure.
1684
748a9306
LW
1685=item Error converting file specification %s
1686
5f05dabc 1687(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306 1688specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
be771a83
GS
1689single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've passed
1690an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a case the
1691conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
748a9306 1692
e4d48cc9
GS
1693=item %s: Eval-group in insecure regular expression
1694
be771a83
GS
1695(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
1696expression that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which
1697is unsafe. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
e4d48cc9 1698
fc8f615e 1699=item %s: Eval-group not allowed at runtime, use re 'eval'
e4d48cc9 1700
be771a83
GS
1701(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the
1702C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the
f11307f5
FC
1703pattern contains interpolated values. Since that is a security risk,
1704it is not allowed. If you insist, you may still do this by using the
1705C<re 'eval'> pragma or by explicitly building the pattern from an
1706interpolated string at run time and using that in an eval(). See
1707L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
e4d48cc9 1708
6df41af2
GS
1709=item %s: Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval'
1710
be771a83
GS
1711(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width
1712assertion, but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'>
1713pragma is in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
6df41af2 1714
1a147d38
YO
1715=item EVAL without pos change exceeded limit in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1716
1717(F) You used a pattern that nested too many EVAL calls without consuming
1718any text. Restructure the pattern so that text is consumed.
1719
1720The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
1721discovered.
1722
fc36a67e 1723=item Excessively long <> operator
1724
1725(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
1726Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
1727filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
1728variable and glob that.
1729
ed9aa3b7
SG
1730=item exec? I'm not *that* kind of operating system
1731
af8bb25a
FC
1732(F) The C<exec> function is not implemented on some systems, e.g., Symbian
1733OS. See L<perlport>.
ed9aa3b7 1734
fe13d51d 1735=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors.
a0d0e21e
LW
1736
1737(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
1738
1739=item Exiting eval via %s
1740
be771a83
GS
1741(W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as a
1742goto, or a loop control statement.
e476b1b5
GS
1743
1744=item Exiting format via %s
1745
9a2ff54b 1746(W exiting) You are exiting a format by unconventional means, such as a
be771a83 1747goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1748
0a753a76 1749=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
1750
be771a83
GS
1751(W exiting) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a
1752sort block or subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a
1753loop control statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
0a753a76 1754
a0d0e21e
LW
1755=item Exiting subroutine via %s
1756
be771a83
GS
1757(W exiting) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such
1758as a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
1759
1760=item Exiting substitution via %s
1761
be771a83
GS
1762(W exiting) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such
1763as a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1764
7b8d334a
GS
1765=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
1766
be771a83
GS
1767(W misc) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
1768the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
1769usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target package,
1770e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');
7b8d334a 1771
6df41af2
GS
1772=item %s: Expression syntax
1773
be771a83
GS
1774(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1775Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2
GS
1776
1777=item %s failed--call queue aborted
1778
3c10abe3
AG
1779(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a UNITCHECK,
1780CHECK, INIT, or END subroutine. Processing of the remainder of the
1781queue of such routines has been prematurely ended.
6df41af2 1782
7253e4e3 1783=item False [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
73b437c8 1784
be771a83 1785(W regexp) A character class range must start and end at a literal
7253e4e3
RK
1786character, not another character class like C<\d> or C<[:alpha:]>. The "-"
1787in your false range is interpreted as a literal "-". Consider quoting the
1788"-", "\-". The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
1789problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
73b437c8 1790
1b1ee2ef 1791=item Fatal VMS error (status=%d) at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 1792
be771a83
GS
1793(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS
1794system service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more
1795details. The filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell
1796you which section of the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
1797
1798=item fcntl is not implemented
1799
1800(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
1801PDP-11 or something?
1802
22846ab4
AB
1803=item FETCHSIZE returned a negative value
1804
1805(F) A tied array claimed to have a negative number of elements, which
1806is not possible.
1807
f337b084
TH
1808=item Field too wide in 'u' format in pack
1809
1810(W pack) Each line in an uuencoded string start with a length indicator
1811which can't encode values above 63. So there is no point in asking for
1812a line length bigger than that. Perl will behave as if you specified
5c96f6f7 1813C<u63> as the format.
f337b084 1814
af8c498a 1815=item Filehandle %s opened only for input
a0d0e21e 1816
6c8d78fb
HS
1817(W io) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you intended
1818it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with "+<" or
1819"+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you intended only to
1820write the file, use ">" or ">>". See L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 1821
af8c498a 1822=item Filehandle %s opened only for output
a0d0e21e 1823
6c8d78fb
HS
1824(W io) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing, If
1825you intended it to be a read/write filehandle, you needed to open it
89a1bda8
FC
1826with "+<" or "+>" or "+>>" instead of with ">". If you intended only to
1827read from the file, use "<". See L<perlfunc/open>. Another possibility
1828is that you attempted to open filedescriptor 0 (also known as STDIN) for
1829output (maybe you closed STDIN earlier?).
97828cef
RGS
1830
1831=item Filehandle %s reopened as %s only for input
1832
1833(W io) You opened for reading a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
d7f8936a 1834as STDOUT or STDERR. This occurred because you closed STDOUT or STDERR
97828cef
RGS
1835previously.
1836
1837=item Filehandle STDIN reopened as %s only for output
1838
1839(W io) You opened for writing a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
d7f8936a 1840as STDIN. This occurred because you closed STDIN previously.
a0d0e21e
LW
1841
1842=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
1843
1844(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
be771a83
GS
1845a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name that
1846happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or the
1847name.
a0d0e21e 1848
56e90b21
GS
1849=item flock() on closed filehandle %s
1850
be771a83 1851(W closed) The filehandle you're attempting to flock() got itself closed
c289d2f7 1852some time before now. Check your control flow. flock() operates on
be771a83
GS
1853filehandles. Are you attempting to call flock() on a dirhandle by the
1854same name?
56e90b21 1855
6df41af2
GS
1856=item Format not terminated
1857
1858(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
1859to the end of your file without finding such a line.
1860
a0d0e21e
LW
1861=item Format %s redefined
1862
e476b1b5 1863(W redefine) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
a0d0e21e
LW
1864
1865 {
271595cc 1866 no warnings 'redefine';
a0d0e21e
LW
1867 eval "format NAME =...";
1868 }
1869
a0d0e21e
LW
1870=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
1871
e476b1b5 1872(W syntax) You said
a0d0e21e
LW
1873
1874 if ($foo = 123)
1875
1876when you meant
1877
1878 if ($foo == 123)
1879
1880(or something like that).
1881
6df41af2
GS
1882=item %s found where operator expected
1883
56da5a46
RGS
1884(S syntax) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator.
1885If it sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an
be771a83
GS
1886operator, it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an
1887operator or delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
6df41af2 1888
a0d0e21e
LW
1889=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
1890
1891(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
1892
1893=item gethostent not implemented
1894
1895(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
1896because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
1897on the Internet.
1898
69282e91 1899=item get%sname() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1900
be771a83
GS
1901(W closed) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed
1902socket. Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
a0d0e21e 1903
748a9306
LW
1904=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
1905
1906(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
1907C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
1908
6df41af2
GS
1909=item getsockopt() on closed socket %s
1910
be771a83
GS
1911(W closed) You tried to get a socket option on a closed socket. Did you
1912forget to check the return value of your socket() call? See
6df41af2
GS
1913L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
1914
1915=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
1916
a4edf47d 1917(F) You've said "use strict" or "use strict vars", which indicates
30c282f6 1918that all variables must either be lexically scoped (using "my" or "state"),
a4edf47d
GS
1919declared beforehand using "our", or explicitly qualified to say
1920which package the global variable is in (using "::").
6df41af2 1921
e476b1b5
GS
1922=item glob failed (%s)
1923
be771a83
GS
1924(W glob) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used for
1925C<glob> and C<< <*.c> >>. Usually, this means that you supplied a
1926C<glob> pattern that caused the external program to fail and exit with a
1927nonzero status. If the message indicates that the abnormal exit
1928resulted in a coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C shell) is
1929broken. If so, you should change all of the csh-related variables in
1930config.sh: If you have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as if it
1931were csh (e.g. C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them all
1932empty (except that C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will
1933think csh is missing. In either case, after editing config.sh, run
75b44862 1934C<./Configure -S> and rebuild Perl.
e476b1b5 1935
a0d0e21e
LW
1936=item Glob not terminated
1937
1938(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
be771a83
GS
1939a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and
1940not finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out
1941earlier in the line, and you really meant a "less than".
a0d0e21e 1942
bcd05b94 1943=item gmtime(%f) too large
8b56d6ff 1944
e9200be3 1945(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with a number that was larger than
fc003d4b
MS
1946it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong
1947date. This warning is also triggered with nan (the special
1948not-a-number value).
1949
bcd05b94 1950=item gmtime(%f) too small
fc003d4b 1951
e9200be3 1952(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with a number that was smaller than
fc003d4b
MS
1953it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong
1954date. This warning is also triggered with nan (the special
1955not-a-number value).
8b56d6ff 1956
6df41af2 1957=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
a0d0e21e 1958
6df41af2
GS
1959(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
1960version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
a0d0e21e
LW
1961
1962=item goto must have label
1963
1964(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
1965unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
1966
49704364 1967=item ()-group starts with a count
18529408 1968
bca4a986
FC
1969(F) A ()-group started with a count. A count is supposed to follow
1970something: a template character or a ()-group. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
18529408 1971
fe13d51d 1972=item %s had compilation errors.
6df41af2
GS
1973
1974(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
1975
a0d0e21e
LW
1976=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
1977
be771a83
GS
1978(S internal) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought
1979to have existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be
1980created on an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
a0d0e21e
LW
1981
1982=item Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
1983
be771a83
GS
1984(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some
1985spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
a0d0e21e 1986
6df41af2
GS
1987=item %s has too many errors
1988
1989(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
1990Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
1991
e6897b1a
KW
1992=item Having no space between pattern and following word is deprecated
1993
1994(D syntax)
1995
1996You had a word that isn't a regex modifier immediately following a pattern
1997without an intervening space. For example, the two constructs:
1998
1999 $a =~ m/$foo/sand $bar
2000 $a =~ m/$foo/s and $bar
2001
21356872
FC
2002both currently mean the same thing, but it is planned to disallow the first
2003form in Perl 5.16. And,
e6897b1a
KW
2004
2005 $a =~ m/$foo/and $bar
2006
2007will be disallowed too.
2008
252aa082
JH
2009=item Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
2010
e476b1b5 2011(W portable) The hexadecimal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
2012(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
2013L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 2014
8903cb82 2015=item Identifier too long
2016
2017(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e 2018about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
be771a83
GS
2019names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future versions
2020of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 2021
c3c41406 2022=item Ignoring zero length \N{} in character class
fc8cd66c 2023
ff3f963a
KW
2024(W) Named Unicode character escapes (\N{...}) may return a
2025zero length sequence. When such an escape is used in a character class
1a147d38 2026its behaviour is not well defined. Check that the correct escape has
fc8cd66c
YO
2027been used, and the correct charname handler is in scope.
2028
6df41af2 2029=item Illegal binary digit %s
f675dbe5 2030
6df41af2 2031(F) You used a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
f675dbe5 2032
6df41af2 2033=item Illegal binary digit %s ignored
a0d0e21e 2034
be771a83
GS
2035(W digit) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a
2036binary number. Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the
2037offending digit.
a0d0e21e 2038
78d0fecf 2039=item Illegal character \%o (carriage return)
4fdae800 2040
d5898338 2041(F) Perl normally treats carriage returns in the program text as it
be771a83
GS
2042would any other whitespace, which means you should never see this error
2043when Perl was built using standard options. For some reason, your
2044version of Perl appears to have been built without this support. Talk
2045to your Perl administrator.
4fdae800 2046
d37a9538
ST
2047=item Illegal character in prototype for %s : %s
2048
197afce1 2049(W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype declaration.
2e9cc7ef 2050Legal characters in prototypes are $, @, %, *, ;, [, ], &, \, and +.
d37a9538 2051
904d85c5
RGS
2052=item Illegal declaration of anonymous subroutine
2053
2054(F) When using the C<sub> keyword to construct an anonymous subroutine,
2055you must always specify a block of code. See L<perlsub>.
2056
8e742a20
MHM
2057=item Illegal declaration of subroutine %s
2058
2059(F) A subroutine was not declared correctly. See L<perlsub>.
2060
a0d0e21e
LW
2061=item Illegal division by zero
2062
be771a83
GS
2063(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in
2064your logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against
2065meaningless input.
a0d0e21e 2066
6df41af2
GS
2067=item Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
2068
be771a83
GS
2069(W digit) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or
2070A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal
2071number stopped before the illegal character.
6df41af2 2072
a0d0e21e
LW
2073=item Illegal modulus zero
2074
be771a83
GS
2075(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most
2076numbers don't take to this kindly.
a0d0e21e 2077
6df41af2 2078=item Illegal number of bits in vec
399388f4 2079
6df41af2
GS
2080(F) The number of bits in vec() (the third argument) must be a power of
2081two from 1 to 32 (or 64, if your platform supports that).
399388f4
GS
2082
2083=item Illegal octal digit %s
a0d0e21e 2084
d1be9408 2085(F) You used an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
a0d0e21e 2086
399388f4 2087=item Illegal octal digit %s ignored
748a9306 2088
d1be9408 2089(W digit) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
75b44862 2090Interpretation of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
748a9306 2091
fe13d51d 2092=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: -%c
6ff81951 2093
6df41af2 2094(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
646ca9b2 2095following switches: B<-[CDIMUdmtw]>.
6ff81951 2096
6df41af2 2097=item Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
81e118e0 2098
75b44862 2099(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the CRTL's
be771a83
GS
2100internal environ array, and encountered an element without the C<=>
2101delimiter used to separate keys from values. The element is ignored.
09bef843 2102
6df41af2 2103=item Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
54310121 2104
be771a83
GS
2105(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read a logical
2106name or CLI symbol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and
2107didn't see the expected delimiter between key and value, so the line was
2108ignored.
54310121 2109
6df41af2 2110=item (in cleanup) %s
9607fc9c 2111
be771a83
GS
2112(W misc) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised
2113the indicated exception. Since destructors are usually called by the
2114system at arbitrary points during execution, and often a vast number of
2115times, the warning is issued only once for any number of failures that
2116would otherwise result in the same message being repeated.
6df41af2 2117
be771a83
GS
2118Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the C<G_KEEPERR> flag could
2119also result in this warning. See L<perlcall/G_KEEPERR>.
9607fc9c 2120
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2121=item Inconsistent hierarchy during C3 merge of class '%s': merging failed on parent '%s'
2122
2123(F) The method resolution order (MRO) of the given class is not
2124C3-consistent, and you have enabled the C3 MRO for this class. See the C3
2125documentation in L<mro> for more information.
2126
979699d9
JH
2127=item In EBCDIC the v-string components cannot exceed 2147483647
2128
2129(F) An error peculiar to EBCDIC. Internally, v-strings are stored as
2130Unicode code points, and encoded in EBCDIC as UTF-EBCDIC. The UTF-EBCDIC
2131encoding is limited to code points no larger than 2147483647 (0x7FFFFFFF).
2132
1a147d38
YO
2133=item Infinite recursion in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2134
2135(F) You used a pattern that references itself without consuming any input
2136text. You should check the pattern to ensure that recursive patterns
2137either consume text or fail.
2138
2139The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
2140discovered.
2141
6dbe9451
NC
2142=item Initialization of state variables in list context currently forbidden
2143
2144(F) Currently the implementation of "state" only permits the initialization
2145of scalar variables in scalar context. Re-write C<state ($a) = 42> as
2146C<state $a = 42> to change from list to scalar context. Constructions such
2147as C<state (@a) = foo()> will be supported in a future perl release.
2148
a0d0e21e
LW
2149=item Insecure dependency in %s
2150
8b1a09fc 2151(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
be771a83
GS
2152The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or
2153setgid, or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The
2154tainting mechanism labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly
2155from the user, who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any
2156such data is used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See
2157L<perlsec> for more information.
a0d0e21e
LW
2158
2159=item Insecure directory in %s
2160
be771a83
GS
2161(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
2162setgid script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by
df98f984
RGS
2163the world. Also, the PATH must not contain any relative directory.
2164See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2165
62f468fc 2166=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2167
2168(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc 2169setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
332d5f78
SR
2170C<$ENV{ENV}>, C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> or C<$ENV{TERM}> are derived from data
2171supplied (or potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set
2172the path to a known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2173
b9ef414d
FC
2174=item Integer overflow in format string for %s
2175
2176(F) The indexes and widths specified in the format string of C<printf()>
2177or C<sprintf()> are too large. The numbers must not overflow the size of
2178integers for your architecture.
2179
a7ae9550
GS
2180=item Integer overflow in %s number
2181
75b44862 2182(W overflow) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have specified
be771a83
GS
2183either as a literal or as an argument to hex() or oct() is too big for
2184your architecture, and has been converted to a floating point number.
2185On a 32-bit architecture the largest hexadecimal, octal or binary number
9e24b6e2
JH
2186representable without overflow is 0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or
21870b11111111111111111111111111111111 respectively. Note that Perl
2188transparently promotes all numbers to a floating point representation
2189internally--subject to loss of precision errors in subsequent
2190operations.
bbce6d69 2191
46314c13
JP
2192=item Integer overflow in version
2193
2194(F) Some portion of a version initialization is too large for the
2195size of integers for your architecture. This is not a warning
2196because there is no rational reason for a version to try and use a
2197element larger than typically 2**32. This is usually caused by
2198trying to use some odd mathematical operation as a version, like
2199100/9.
2200
7253e4e3 2201=item Internal disaster in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2202
2203(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
7253e4e3 2204The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
b45f050a
JF
2205discovered.
2206
748a9306
LW
2207=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
2208
be771a83
GS
2209(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number of times
2210you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine whether the current call
2211to C<exec> should affect the current script or a subprocess (see
2212L<perlvms/"exec LIST">). Somehow, this count has become scrambled, so
2213Perl is making a guess and treating this C<exec> as a request to
2214terminate the Perl script and execute the specified command.
748a9306 2215
7253e4e3 2216=item Internal urp in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a 2217
7253e4e3
RK
2218(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser. The
2219<-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
2220discovered.
a0d0e21e 2221
6df41af2
GS
2222=item %s (...) interpreted as function
2223
75b44862 2224(W syntax) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator
be771a83 2225followed by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list
64977eb6 2226operators arguments found inside the parentheses. See
13a2d996 2227L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
6df41af2 2228
09bef843
SB
2229=item Invalid %s attribute: %s
2230
a4a4c9e2 2231(F) The indicated attribute for a subroutine or variable was not recognized
09bef843
SB
2232by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
2233
2234=item Invalid %s attributes: %s
2235
a4a4c9e2 2236(F) The indicated attributes for a subroutine or variable were not
be771a83 2237recognized by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2238
c635e13b 2239=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
2240
be771a83
GS
2241(W printf) Perl does not understand the given format conversion. See
2242L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
c635e13b 2243
9e08bc66
TS
2244=item Invalid escape in the specified encoding in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2245
2246(W regexp) The numeric escape (for example C<\xHH>) of value < 256
2247didn't correspond to a single character through the conversion
2248from the encoding specified by the encoding pragma.
2249The escape was replaced with REPLACEMENT CHARACTER (U+FFFD) instead.
2250The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
2251escape was discovered.
2252
8149aa9f
FC
2253=item Invalid hexadecimal number in \N{U+...}
2254
2255(F) The character constant represented by C<...> is not a valid hexadecimal
74f8e9e3
FC
2256number. Either it is empty, or you tried to use a character other than
22570 - 9 or A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number.
8149aa9f 2258
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2259=item Invalid mro name: '%s'
2260
162a3e34
FC
2261(F) You tried to C<mro::set_mro("classname", "foo")> or C<use mro 'foo'>,
2262where C<foo> is not a valid method resolution order (MRO). Currently,
2263the only valid ones supported are C<dfs> and C<c3>, unless you have loaded
2264a module that is a MRO plugin. See L<mro> and L<perlmroapi>.
2c7d6b9c 2265
7253e4e3 2266=item Invalid [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2267
2268(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
7253e4e3
RK
2269greater than the maximum character. One possibility is that you forgot the
2270C<{}> from your ending C<\x{}> - C<\x> without the curly braces can go only
2271up to C<ff>. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
2272problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 2273
d1573ac7 2274=item Invalid range "%s" in transliteration operator
c2e66d9e
GS
2275
2276(F) The range specified in the tr/// or y/// operator had a minimum
2277character greater than the maximum character. See L<perlop>.
2278
09bef843
SB
2279=item Invalid separator character %s in attribute list
2280
0120eecf 2281(F) Something other than a colon or whitespace was seen between the
be771a83
GS
2282elements of an attribute list. If the previous attribute had a
2283parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that list was terminated too soon.
2284See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2285
b4581f09
JH
2286=item Invalid separator character %s in PerlIO layer specification %s
2287
2bfc5f71
FC
2288(W layer) When pushing layers onto the Perl I/O system, something other
2289than a colon or whitespace was seen between the elements of a layer list.
b4581f09
JH
2290If the previous attribute had a parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that
2291list was terminated too soon.
2292
2c86d456
DG
2293=item Invalid strict version format (%s)
2294
2295(F) A version number did not meet the "strict" criteria for versions.
2296A "strict" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2297decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
2298v-string with a leading 'v' character and at least three components.
a6485a24 2299The parenthesized text indicates which criteria were not met.
2c86d456
DG
2300See the L<version> module for more details on allowed version formats.
2301
49704364 2302=item Invalid type '%s' in %s
96e4d5b1 2303
49704364
WL
2304(F) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type.
2305See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2306(W) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type but used to be
75b44862 2307silently ignored.
96e4d5b1 2308
2c86d456
DG
2309=item Invalid version format (%s)
2310
2311(F) A version number did not meet the "lax" criteria for versions.
2312A "lax" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2313decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
9da2b86b
FC
2314v-string. If the v-string has fewer than three components, it must
2315have a leading 'v' character. Otherwise, the leading 'v' is optional.
2316Both decimal and dotted-decimal versions may have a trailing "alpha"
2c86d456
DG
2317component separated by an underscore character after a fractional or
2318dotted-decimal component. The parenthesized text indicates which
a6485a24 2319criteria were not met. See the L<version> module for more details on
2c86d456 2320allowed version formats.
46314c13 2321
798ae1b7
DG
2322=item Invalid version object
2323
2324(F) The internal structure of the version object was invalid. Perhaps
2325the internals were modified directly in some way or an arbitrary reference
2326was blessed into the "version" class.
2327
a0d0e21e
LW
2328=item ioctl is not implemented
2329
2330(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
2331strange for a machine that supports C.
2332
c289d2f7
JH
2333=item ioctl() on unopened %s
2334
2335(W unopened) You tried ioctl() on a filehandle that was never opened.
34b6fd5e 2336Check your control flow and number of arguments.
c289d2f7 2337
fe13d51d 2338=item IO layers (like '%s') unavailable
363c40c4
SB
2339
2340(F) Your Perl has not been configured to have PerlIO, and therefore
34b6fd5e 2341you cannot use IO layers. To have PerlIO, Perl must be configured
363c40c4
SB
2342with 'useperlio'.
2343
80cbd5ad
JH
2344=item IO::Socket::atmark not implemented on this architecture
2345
2346(F) Your machine doesn't implement the sockatmark() functionality,
34b6fd5e 2347neither as a system call nor an ioctl call (SIOCATMARK).
80cbd5ad 2348
b4581f09
JH
2349=item $* is no longer supported
2350
a58ac25e
FC
2351(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$*>, deprecated in older
2352perls, has been removed as of 5.9.0 and is no longer supported. In
2353previous versions of perl the use of C<$*> enabled or disabled multi-line
2354matching within a string.
4fd19576
B
2355
2356Instead of using C<$*> you should use the C</m> (and maybe C</s>) regexp
570dedd4
FC
2357modifiers. You can enable C</m> for a lexical scope (even a whole file)
2358with C<use re '/m'>. (In older versions: when C<$*> was set to a true value
2359then all regular expressions behaved as if they were written using C</m>.)
b4581f09 2360
8ae1fe26
RGS
2361=item $# is no longer supported
2362
a58ac25e
FC
2363(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$#>, deprecated in older
2364perls, has been removed as of 5.9.3 and is no longer supported. You
2365should use the printf/sprintf functions instead.
8ae1fe26 2366
6ad11d81
JH
2367=item `%s' is not a code reference
2368
04a80ee0
RGS
2369(W overload) The second (fourth, sixth, ...) argument of overload::constant
2370needs to be a code reference. Either an anonymous subroutine, or a reference
6ad11d81
JH
2371to a subroutine.
2372
2373=item `%s' is not an overloadable type
2374
04a80ee0
RGS
2375(W overload) You tried to overload a constant type the overload package is
2376unaware of.
6ad11d81 2377
a0d0e21e
LW
2378=item junk on end of regexp
2379
2380(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
2381
2382=item Label not found for "last %s"
2383
be771a83
GS
2384(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a loop
2385of that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2386L<perlfunc/last>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2387
2388=item Label not found for "next %s"
2389
2390(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
2391that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2392L<perlfunc/last>.
2393
2394=item Label not found for "redo %s"
2395
2396(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
2397that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2398L<perlfunc/last>.
2399
85ab1d1d 2400=item leaving effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 2401
85ab1d1d 2402(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
2403effective uids or gids failed.
2404
49704364
WL
2405=item length/code after end of string in unpack
2406
d7f8936a 2407(F) While unpacking, the string buffer was already used up when an unpack
49704364
WL
2408length/code combination tried to obtain more data. This results in
2409an undefined value for the length. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2410
f0e67a1d
Z
2411=item Lexing code attempted to stuff non-Latin-1 character into Latin-1 input
2412
2413(F) An extension is attempting to insert text into the current parse
d35a2c71
FC
2414(using L<lex_stuff_pvn_flags|perlapi/lex_stuff_pvn_flags> or similar), but tried to insert a character
2415that couldn't be part of the current input. This is an inherent pitfall
2416of the stuffing mechanism, and one of the reasons to avoid it. Where it
2417is necessary to stuff, stuffing only plain ASCII is recommended.
f0e67a1d
Z
2418
2419=item Lexing code internal error (%s)
2420
2421(F) Lexing code supplied by an extension violated the lexer's API in a
2422detectable way.
2423
69282e91 2424=item listen() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2425
be771a83
GS
2426(W closed) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget
2427to check the return value of your socket() call? See
2428L<perlfunc/listen>.
a0d0e21e 2429
bcd05b94 2430=item localtime(%f) too large
8b56d6ff 2431
e9200be3 2432(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with a number that was larger
fc003d4b
MS
2433than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
2434wrong date. This warning is also triggered with nan (the special
2435not-a-number value).
2436
bcd05b94 2437=item localtime(%f) too small
fc003d4b 2438
e9200be3 2439(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with a number that was smaller
fc003d4b
MS
2440than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
2441wrong date. This warning is also triggered with nan (the special
2442not-a-number value).
8b56d6ff 2443
58e23c8d 2444=item Lookbehind longer than %d not implemented in regex m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
2445
2446(F) There is currently a limit on the length of string which lookbehind can
58e23c8d 2447handle. This restriction may be eased in a future release.
2e50fd82 2448
b88df990
NC
2449=item Lost precision when %s %f by 1
2450
2451(W) The value you attempted to increment or decrement by one is too large
2452for the underlying floating point representation to store accurately,
2453hence the target of C<++> or C<--> is unchanged. Perl issues this warning
2454because it has already switched from integers to floating point when values
2455are too large for integers, and now even floating point is insufficient.
2456You may wish to switch to using L<Math::BigInt> explicitly.
2457
2f7da168
RK
2458=item lstat() on filehandle %s
2459
2460(W io) You tried to do an lstat on a filehandle. What did you mean
2461by that? lstat() makes sense only on filenames. (Perl did a fstat()
2462instead on the filehandle.)
2463
885ef6f5
GG
2464=item lvalue attribute ignored after the subroutine has been defined
2465
963d9ce9 2466(W misc) Making a subroutine an lvalue subroutine after it has been defined
d9159685
RS
2467by declaring the subroutine with an lvalue attribute is not
2468possible. To make the subroutine an lvalue subroutine add the
e2bd2e2b 2469lvalue attribute to the definition, or put the declaration before
885ef6f5
GG
2470the definition.
2471
96ebfdd7
RK
2472=item Lvalue subs returning %s not implemented yet
2473
2474(F) Due to limitations in the current implementation, array and hash
2475values cannot be returned in subroutines used in lvalue context. See
2476L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
2477
2db62bbc 2478=item Malformed integer in [] in pack
49704364 2479
2db62bbc 2480(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
49704364
WL
2481are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2482
2483=item Malformed integer in [] in unpack
2484
2db62bbc 2485(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
49704364
WL
2486are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2487
6df41af2
GS
2488=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
2489
2490(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
2491
2492 prefix1;prefix2
2493
2494or
6df41af2
GS
2495 prefix1 prefix2
2496
be771a83
GS
2497with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix of
2498a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error may
2499appear if components are not found, or are too long. See
fecfaeb8 2500"PERLLIB_PREFIX" in L<perlos2>.
6df41af2 2501
2f758a16
ST
2502=item Malformed prototype for %s: %s
2503
d37a9538
ST
2504(F) You tried to use a function with a malformed prototype. The
2505syntax of function prototypes is given a brief compile-time check for
2506obvious errors like invalid characters. A more rigorous check is run
2507when the function is called.
2f758a16 2508
ba210ebe
JH
2509=item Malformed UTF-8 character (%s)
2510
2575c402
JW
2511(S utf8) (F) Perl detected a string that didn't comply with UTF-8
2512encoding rules, even though it had the UTF8 flag on.
ba210ebe 2513
2575c402
JW
2514One possible cause is that you set the UTF8 flag yourself for data that
2515you thought to be in UTF-8 but it wasn't (it was for example legacy
25168-bit data). To guard against this, you can use Encode::decode_utf8.
2517
2518If you use the C<:encoding(UTF-8)> PerlIO layer for input, invalid byte
2519sequences are handled gracefully, but if you use C<:utf8>, the flag is
2520set without validating the data, possibly resulting in this error
2521message.
2522
2523See also L<Encode/"Handling Malformed Data">.
901b21bf 2524
ff3f963a
KW
2525=item Malformed UTF-8 returned by \N
2526
2527(F) The charnames handler returned malformed UTF-8.
2528
4a5d3a93
FC
2529=item Malformed UTF-8 string in '%c' format in unpack
2530
2531(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2532rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2533
f337b084
TH
2534=item Malformed UTF-8 string in pack
2535
2536(F) You tried to pack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2537rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2538
2539=item Malformed UTF-8 string in unpack
2540
2541(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2542rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2543
4a5d3a93 2544=item Malformed UTF-16 surrogate
f337b084 2545
4a5d3a93
FC
2546(F) Perl thought it was reading UTF-16 encoded character data but while
2547doing it Perl met a malformed Unicode surrogate.
2548
2549=item %s matches null string many times in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2550
2551(W regexp) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
2552regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. The <-- HERE
2553shows in the regular expression about where the problem was discovered.
2554See L<perlre>.
f337b084 2555
de42a5a9 2556=item Maximal count of pending signals (%u) exceeded
2563cec5 2557
2db62bbc 2558(F) Perl aborted due to too high a number of signals pending. This
2563cec5
IZ
2559usually indicates that your operating system tried to deliver signals
2560too fast (with a very high priority), starving the perl process from
2561resources it would need to reach a point where it can process signals
2562safely. (See L<perlipc/"Deferred Signals (Safe Signals)">.)
2563
25f58aea
PN
2564=item "%s" may clash with future reserved word
2565
2566(W) This warning may be due to running a perl5 script through a perl4
2567interpreter, especially if the word that is being warned about is
2568"use" or "my".
2569
49704364 2570=item % may not be used in pack
6df41af2
GS
2571
2572(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
be771a83
GS
2573checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other way.
2574See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
6df41af2 2575
a0d0e21e
LW
2576=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
2577
2578(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
e7ea3e70 2579doesn't resolve to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 2580
3cdd684c
TP
2581=item Method %s not permitted
2582
2583See Server error.
2584
a0d0e21e
LW
2585=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
2586
2587(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
2588by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
2589ended earlier on the current line.
2590
2591=item Misplaced _ in number
2592
d4ced10d
JH
2593(W syntax) An underscore (underbar) in a numeric constant did not
2594separate two digits.
a0d0e21e 2595
7baa4690
HS
2596=item Missing argument in %s
2597
2598(W uninitialized) A printf-type format required more arguments than were
2599supplied.
2600
9e81e6a1
RGS
2601=item Missing argument to -%c
2602
2603(F) The argument to the indicated command line switch must follow
2604immediately after the switch, without intervening spaces.
2605
ff3f963a 2606=item Missing braces on \N{}
423cee85 2607
4a2d328f 2608(F) Wrong syntax of character name literal C<\N{charname}> within
532cb70d
FC
2609double-quotish context. This can also happen when there is a space
2610(or comment) between the C<\N> and the C<{> in a regex with the C</x> modifier.
2611This modifier does not change the requirement that the brace immediately
2612follow the C<\N>.
423cee85 2613
f0a2b745
KW
2614=item Missing braces on \o{}
2615
2616(F) A C<\o> must be followed immediately by a C<{> in double-quotish context.
2617
a0d0e21e
LW
2618=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
2619
2620(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
2621"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
2622
06eaf0bc
GS
2623=item Missing command in piped open
2624
be771a83
GS
2625(W pipe) You used the C<open(FH, "| command")> or
2626C<open(FH, "command |")> construction, but the command was missing or
2627blank.
06eaf0bc 2628
961ce445
RGS
2629=item Missing control char name in \c
2630
2631(F) A double-quoted string ended with "\c", without the required control
2632character name.
2633
6df41af2
GS
2634=item Missing name in "my sub"
2635
be771a83
GS
2636(F) The reserved syntax for lexically scoped subroutines requires that
2637they have a name with which they can be found.
6df41af2
GS
2638
2639=item Missing $ on loop variable
2640
be771a83
GS
2641(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables
2642are always mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it
2643can vary from one line to the next.
6df41af2 2644
cc507455 2645=item (Missing operator before %s?)
748a9306 2646
56da5a46
RGS
2647(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2648"%s found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
748a9306 2649
ab13f0c7
JH
2650=item Missing right brace on %s
2651
ff3f963a
KW
2652(F) Missing right brace in C<\x{...}>, C<\p{...}>, C<\P{...}>, or C<\N{...}>.
2653
4a68bf9d 2654=item Missing right brace on \N{} or unescaped left brace after \N
ff3f963a 2655
d32207c9
FC
2656(F) C<\N> has two meanings.
2657
2658The traditional one has it followed by a name enclosed in braces,
2659meaning the character (or sequence of characters) given by that
2660name. Thus C<\N{ASTERISK}> is another way of writing C<*>, valid in both
2661double-quoted strings and regular expression patterns. In patterns,
2662it doesn't have the meaning an unescaped C<*> does.
2663
2664Starting in Perl 5.12.0, C<\N> also can have an additional meaning (only)
2665in patterns, namely to match a non-newline character. (This is short
2666for C<[^\n]>, and like C<.> but is not affected by the C</s> regex modifier.)
2667
2668This can lead to some ambiguities. When C<\N> is not followed immediately
2669by a left brace, Perl assumes the C<[^\n]> meaning. Also, if the braces
2670form a valid quantifier such as C<\N{3}> or C<\N{5,}>, Perl assumes that this
2671means to match the given quantity of non-newlines (in these examples,
26723; and 5 or more, respectively). In all other case, where there is a
2673C<\N{> and a matching C<}>, Perl assumes that a character name is desired.
2674
2675However, if there is no matching C<}>, Perl doesn't know if it was
2676mistakenly omitted, or if C<[^\n]{> was desired, and raises this error.
2677If you meant the former, add the right brace; if you meant the latter,
2678escape the brace with a backslash, like so: C<\N\{>
ab13f0c7 2679
d98d5fff 2680=item Missing right curly or square bracket
a0d0e21e 2681
be771a83
GS
2682(F) The lexer counted more opening curly or square brackets than closing
2683ones. As a general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place you
2684were last editing.
a0d0e21e 2685
6df41af2
GS
2686=item (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
2687
56da5a46
RGS
2688(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2689"%s found where operator expected". Don't automatically put a semicolon on
6df41af2
GS
2690the previous line just because you saw this message.
2691
a0d0e21e
LW
2692=item Modification of a read-only value attempted
2693
2694(F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
5f05dabc 2695constant. You didn't, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
a0d0e21e
LW
2696catches that. But an easy way to do the same thing is:
2697
2698 sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
2699 mod(2);
2700
2701Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.
2702
c5674021
PDF
2703Yet another way is to assign to a C<foreach> loop I<VAR> when I<VAR>
2704is aliased to a constant in the look I<LIST>:
2705
2706 $x = 1;
2707 foreach my $n ($x, 2) {
2708 $n *= 2; # modifies the $x, but fails on attempt to modify the 2
64977eb6 2709 }
c5674021 2710
7a4340ed 2711=item Modification of non-creatable array value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2712
2713(F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
2714subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the array
2715backwards.
2716
7a4340ed 2717=item Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e 2718
be771a83
GS
2719(P) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it
2720couldn't be created for some peculiar reason.
a0d0e21e
LW
2721
2722=item Module name must be constant
2723
2724(F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".
2725
be98fb35 2726=item Module name required with -%c option
6df41af2 2727
be98fb35
GS
2728(F) The C<-M> or C<-m> options say that Perl should load some module, but
2729you omitted the name of the module. Consult L<perlrun> for full details
2730about C<-M> and C<-m>.
6df41af2 2731
fe13d51d 2732=item More than one argument to '%s' open
ed9aa3b7
SG
2733
2734(F) The C<open> function has been asked to open multiple files. This
2735can happen if you are trying to open a pipe to a command that takes a
2736list of arguments, but have forgotten to specify a piped open mode.
2737See L<perlfunc/open> for details.
2738
a0d0e21e
LW
2739=item msg%s not implemented
2740
2741(F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.
2742
2743=item Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
2744
75b44862
GS
2745(W syntax) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like C<$foo[1,2,3]>.
2746They're written like C<$foo[1][2][3]>, as in C.
8b1a09fc 2747
49704364 2748=item '/' must follow a numeric type in unpack
6df41af2 2749
49704364
WL
2750(F) You had an unpack template that contained a '/', but this did not
2751follow some unpack specification producing a numeric value.
2752See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6df41af2
GS
2753
2754=item "my sub" not yet implemented
2755
be771a83
GS
2756(F) Lexically scoped subroutines are not yet implemented. Don't try
2757that yet.
6df41af2 2758
fd1b7234 2759=item "my" variable %s can't be in a package
6df41af2 2760
be771a83
GS
2761(F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make
2762sense to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the front. Use
2763local() if you want to localize a package variable.
09bef843 2764
8149aa9f
FC
2765=item Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
2766
2767(W once) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable names.
2768If you had a good reason for having a unique name, then just mention it
2769again somehow to suppress the message. The C<our> declaration is
2770provided for this purpose.
2771
2772NOTE: This warning detects symbols that have been used only once so $c, @c,
2773%c, *c, &c, sub c{}, c(), and c (the filehandle or format) are considered
2774the same; if a program uses $c only once but also uses any of the others it
2775will not trigger this warning.
2776
4a68bf9d 2777=item \N in a character class must be a named character: \N{...}
ff3f963a 2778
c3c41406 2779(F) The new (5.12) meaning of C<\N> as C<[^\n]> is not valid in a bracketed
f4e361c7
FC
2780character class, for the same reason that C<.> in a character class loses
2781its specialness: it matches almost everything, which is probably not
2782what you want.
c3c41406 2783
4a68bf9d 2784=item \N{NAME} must be resolved by the lexer
c3c41406 2785
f4e361c7
FC
2786(F) When compiling a regex pattern, an unresolved named character or
2787sequence was encountered. This can happen in any of several ways that
2788bypass the lexer, such as using single-quotish context, or an extra
7fae04b9 2789backslash in double-quotish:
c3c41406
KW
2790
2791 $re = '\N{SPACE}'; # Wrong!
b09c05e6 2792 $re = "\\N{SPACE}"; # Wrong!
c3c41406
KW
2793 /$re/;
2794
b09c05e6 2795Instead, use double-quotes with a single backslash:
c3c41406
KW
2796
2797 $re = "\N{SPACE}"; # ok
2798 /$re/;
2799
2800The lexer can be bypassed as well by creating the pattern from smaller
2801components:
2802
2803 $re = '\N';
2804 /${re}{SPACE}/; # Wrong!
2805
2806It's not a good idea to split a construct in the middle like this, and it
2807doesn't work here. Instead use the solution above.
2808
2809Finally, the message also can happen under the C</x> regex modifier when the
2810C<\N> is separated by spaces from the C<{>, in which case, remove the spaces.
2811
2812 /\N {SPACE}/x; # Wrong!
2813 /\N{SPACE}/x; # ok
ff3f963a 2814
49704364
WL
2815=item Negative '/' count in unpack
2816
2817(F) The length count obtained from a length/code unpack operation was
2818negative. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2819
a0d0e21e
LW
2820=item Negative length
2821
be771a83
GS
2822(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer
2823length that is less than 0. This is difficult to imagine.
a0d0e21e 2824
ed9aa3b7
SG
2825=item Negative offset to vec in lvalue context
2826
2827(F) When C<vec> is called in an lvalue context, the second argument must be
2828greater than or equal to zero.
2829
7253e4e3 2830=item Nested quantifiers in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 2831
b45f050a 2832(F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses. So
7253e4e3 2833things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal. The <-- HERE shows in the regular
b45f050a 2834expression about where the problem was discovered.
a0d0e21e 2835
7253e4e3 2836Note that the minimal matching quantifiers, C<*?>, C<+?>, and
be771a83 2837C<??> appear to be nested quantifiers, but aren't. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 2838
6df41af2 2839=item %s never introduced
a0d0e21e 2840
be771a83
GS
2841(S internal) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of
2842scope before it could possibly have been used.
a0d0e21e 2843
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2844=item next::method/next::can/maybe::next::method cannot find enclosing method
2845
2846(F) C<next::method> needs to be called within the context of a
2847real method in a real package, and it could not find such a context.
2848See L<mro>.
2849
a0d0e21e
LW
2850=item No %s allowed while running setuid
2851
be771a83
GS
2852(F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or
2853setgid script to even be allowed to attempt. Generally speaking there
2854will be another way to do what you want that is, if not secure, at least
2855securable. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2856
a0d0e21e
LW
2857=item No comma allowed after %s
2858
2859(F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is not
2860allowed to have a comma between that and the following arguments.
2861Otherwise it'd be just another one of the arguments.
2862
0a753a76 2863One possible cause for this is that you expected to have imported a
2864constant to your name space with B<use> or B<import> while no such
2865importing took place, it may for example be that your operating system
2866does not support that particular constant. Hopefully you did use an
f7af5ce1 2867explicit import list for the constants you expect to see; please see
0a753a76 2868L<perlfunc/use> and L<perlfunc/import>. While an explicit import list
2869would probably have caught this error earlier it naturally does not
2870remedy the fact that your operating system still does not support that
2871constant. Maybe you have a typo in the constants of the symbol import
2872list of B<use> or B<import> or in the constant name at the line where
2873this error was triggered?
2874
748a9306
LW
2875=item No command into which to pipe on command line
2876
be771a83
GS
2877(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2878redirection, and found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it
2879doesn't know where you want to pipe the output from this command.
748a9306 2880
a0d0e21e
LW
2881=item No DB::DB routine defined
2882
be771a83 2883(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
f7af5ce1 2884for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
ccafdc96
RGS
2885module) didn't define a routine to be called at the beginning of each
2886statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
2887
2888=item No dbm on this machine
2889
2890(P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine should
5f05dabc 2891supply dbm nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM. See L<SDBM_File>.
a0d0e21e 2892
ccafdc96 2893=item No DB::sub routine defined
a0d0e21e 2894
ccafdc96
RGS
2895(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
2896for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
2897module) didn't define a C<DB::sub> routine to be called at the beginning
2898of each ordinary subroutine call.
a0d0e21e 2899
96ebfdd7
RK
2900=item No B<-e> allowed in setuid scripts
2901
2902(F) A setuid script can't be specified by the user.
2903
c47ff5f1 2904=item No error file after 2> or 2>> on command line
748a9306 2905
be771a83
GS
2906(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2907redirection, and found a '2>' or a '2>>' on the command line, but can't
2908find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stderr.
748a9306 2909
49704364
WL
2910=item No group ending character '%c' found in template
2911
2912(F) A pack or unpack template has an opening '(' or '[' without its
2913matching counterpart. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2914
c47ff5f1 2915=item No input file after < on command line
748a9306 2916
be771a83
GS
2917(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2918redirection, and found a '<' on the command line, but can't find the
2919name of the file from which to read data for stdin.
748a9306 2920
6df41af2
GS
2921=item No #! line
2922
2923(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
2924even on machines that don't support the #! construct.
2925
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2926=item No next::method '%s' found for %s
2927
2928(F) C<next::method> found no further instances of this method name
2929in the remaining packages of the MRO of this class. If you don't want
2930it throwing an exception, use C<maybe::next::method>
2931or C<next::can>. See L<mro>.
2932
6df41af2
GS
2933=item "no" not allowed in expression
2934
be771a83
GS
2935(F) The "no" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and
2936returns no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
6df41af2 2937
c47ff5f1 2938=item No output file after > on command line
748a9306 2939
be771a83
GS
2940(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2941redirection, and found a lone '>' at the end of the command line, so it
2942doesn't know where you wanted to redirect stdout.
748a9306 2943
c47ff5f1 2944=item No output file after > or >> on command line
748a9306 2945
be771a83
GS
2946(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2947redirection, and found a '>' or a '>>' on the command line, but can't
2948find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stdout.
748a9306 2949
1ec3e8de
GS
2950=item No package name allowed for variable %s in "our"
2951
be771a83
GS
2952(F) Fully qualified variable names are not allowed in "our"
2953declarations, because that doesn't make much sense under existing
2954semantics. Such syntax is reserved for future extensions.
1ec3e8de 2955
a0d0e21e
LW
2956=item No Perl script found in input
2957
2958(F) You called C<perl -x>, but no line was found in the file beginning
2959with #! and containing the word "perl".
2960
2961=item No setregid available
2962
2963(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setregid() call for
2964your system.
2965
2966=item No setreuid available
2967
2968(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setreuid() call for
2969your system.
2970
6df41af2
GS
2971=item No %s specified for -%c
2972
2973(F) The indicated command line switch needs a mandatory argument, but
2974you haven't specified one.
f7af5ce1 2975
e75d1f10
RD
2976=item No such class field "%s" in variable %s of type %s
2977
2978(F) You tried to access a key from a hash through the indicated typed variable
2979but that key is not allowed by the package of the same type. The indicated
2980package has restricted the set of allowed keys using the L<fields> pragma.
2981
2c692339
RGS
2982=item No such class %s
2983
dc7e5945
FC
2984(F) You provided a class qualifier in a "my", "our" or "state"
2985declaration, but this class doesn't exist at this point in your program.
2c692339 2986
3c20a832
SP
2987=item No such hook: %s
2988
dc7e5945
FC
2989(F) You specified a signal hook that was not recognized by Perl.
2990Currently, Perl accepts C<__DIE__> and C<__WARN__> as valid signal hooks.
3c20a832 2991
6df41af2
GS
2992=item No such pipe open
2993
2994(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The internal routine my_pclose() tried to
be771a83
GS
2995close a pipe which hadn't been opened. This should have been caught
2996earlier as an attempt to close an unopened filehandle.
6df41af2 2997
a0d0e21e
LW
2998=item No such signal: SIG%s
2999
be771a83
GS
3000(W signal) You specified a signal name as a subscript to %SIG that was
3001not recognized. Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal
3002names on your system.
a0d0e21e
LW
3003
3004=item Not a CODE reference
3005
3006(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
3007subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
3008use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
3009also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3010
3011=item Not a format reference
3012
3013(F) I'm not sure how you managed to generate a reference to an anonymous
3014format, but this indicates you did, and that it didn't exist.
3015
3016=item Not a GLOB reference
3017
be771a83
GS
3018(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a "typeglob" (that is, a
3019symbol table entry that looks like C<*foo>), but found a reference to
3020something else instead. You can use the ref() function to find out what
3021kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3022
3023=item Not a HASH reference
3024
be771a83
GS
3025(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a hash value, but found a
3026reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function to
3027find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 3028
6df41af2
GS
3029=item Not an ARRAY reference
3030
be771a83
GS
3031(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to an array value, but found
3032a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
3033to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 3034
a0d0e21e
LW
3035=item Not a perl script
3036
3037(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
3038even on machines that don't support the #! construct. The line must
3039mention perl.
3040
3041=item Not a SCALAR reference
3042
be771a83
GS
3043(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a scalar value, but found
3044a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
3045to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3046
3047=item Not a subroutine reference
3048
3049(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
3050subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
3051use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
3052also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 3053
e7ea3e70 3054=item Not a subroutine reference in overload table
a0d0e21e
LW
3055
3056(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
8b1a09fc 3057doesn't somehow point to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 3058
a0d0e21e
LW
3059=item Not enough arguments for %s
3060
3061(F) The function requires more arguments than you specified.
3062
6df41af2
GS
3063=item Not enough format arguments
3064
be771a83
GS
3065(W syntax) A format specified more picture fields than the next line
3066supplied. See L<perlform>.
6df41af2
GS
3067
3068=item %s: not found
3069
be771a83
GS
3070(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell instead
3071of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl
3072yourself.
6df41af2
GS
3073
3074=item no UTC offset information; assuming local time is UTC
a0d0e21e 3075
6df41af2
GS
3076(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl was unable to find the local
3077timezone offset, so it's assuming that local system time is equivalent
be771a83
GS
3078to UTC. If it's not, define the logical name
3079F<SYS$TIMEZONE_DIFFERENTIAL> to translate to the number of seconds which
3080need to be added to UTC to get local time.
a0d0e21e 3081
f0a2b745
KW
3082=item Non-octal character '%c'. Resolved as "%s"
3083
5493e060
FC
3084(W digit) In parsing an octal numeric constant, a character was
3085unexpectedly encountered that isn't octal. The resulting value is as
3086indicated.
f0a2b745 3087
4ef2275c
GA
3088=item Non-string passed as bitmask
3089
3090(W misc) A number has been passed as a bitmask argument to select().
3091Use the vec() function to construct the file descriptor bitmasks for
bc4b151d 3092select. See L<perlfunc/select>.
4ef2275c 3093
a0d0e21e
LW
3094=item Null filename used
3095
be771a83
GS
3096(F) You can't require the null filename, especially because on many
3097machines that means the current directory! See L<perlfunc/require>.
a0d0e21e 3098
6df41af2
GS
3099=item NULL OP IN RUN
3100
be771a83
GS
3101(P debugging) Some internal routine called run() with a null opcode
3102pointer.
6df41af2 3103
55497cff 3104=item Null picture in formline
3105
3106(F) The first argument to formline must be a valid format picture
3107specification. It was found to be empty, which probably means you
3108supplied it an uninitialized value. See L<perlform>.
3109
a0d0e21e
LW
3110=item Null realloc
3111
3112(P) An attempt was made to realloc NULL.
3113
3114=item NULL regexp argument
3115
5f05dabc 3116(P) The internal pattern matching routines blew it big time.
a0d0e21e
LW
3117
3118=item NULL regexp parameter
3119
3120(P) The internal pattern matching routines are out of their gourd.
3121
fc36a67e 3122=item Number too long
3123
be771a83 3124(F) Perl limits the representation of decimal numbers in programs to
da75cd15 3125about 250 characters. You've exceeded that length. Future
be771a83
GS
3126versions of Perl are likely to eliminate this arbitrary limitation. In
3127the meantime, try using scientific notation (e.g. "1e6" instead of
3128"1_000_000").
fc36a67e 3129
f0a2b745
KW
3130=item Number with no digits
3131
1043934d
FC
3132(F) Perl was looking for a number but found nothing that looked like
3133a number. This happens, for example with C<\o{}>, with no number between
3134the braces.
f0a2b745 3135
6df41af2
GS
3136=item Octal number in vector unsupported
3137
be771a83
GS
3138(F) Numbers with a leading C<0> are not currently allowed in vectors.
3139The octal number interpretation of such numbers may be supported in a
3140future version.
6df41af2 3141
252aa082
JH
3142=item Octal number > 037777777777 non-portable
3143
75b44862 3144(W portable) The octal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
be771a83
GS
3145(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
3146L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082
JH
3147
3148See also L<perlport> for writing portable code.
3149
6ad11d81
JH
3150=item Odd number of arguments for overload::constant
3151
04a80ee0
RGS
3152(W overload) The call to overload::constant contained an odd number of
3153arguments. The arguments should come in pairs.
6ad11d81 3154
b21befc1
MG
3155=item Odd number of elements in anonymous hash
3156
3157(W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash,
3158which is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
3159
1930e939 3160=item Odd number of elements in hash assignment
a0d0e21e 3161
be771a83
GS
3162(W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash,
3163which is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
a0d0e21e 3164
bbce6d69 3165=item Offset outside string
3166
a4a4c9e2 3167(F|W layer) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv/seek operation
42bc49da 3168with an offset pointing outside the buffer. This is difficult to
f5a7294f
JH
3169imagine. The sole exceptions to this are that zero padding will
3170take place when going past the end of the string when either
3171C<sysread()>ing a file, or when seeking past the end of a scalar opened
1a7a2554
MB
3172for I/O (in anticipation of future reads and to imitate the behaviour
3173with real files).
bbce6d69 3174
c289d2f7 3175=item %s() on unopened %s
2dd78f96
JH
3176
3177(W unopened) An I/O operation was attempted on a filehandle that was
3178never initialized. You need to do an open(), a sysopen(), or a socket()
3179call, or call a constructor from the FileHandle package.
3180
96ebfdd7
RK
3181=item -%s on unopened filehandle %s
3182
3183(W unopened) You tried to invoke a file test operator on a filehandle
3184that isn't open. Check your control flow. See also L<perlfunc/-X>.
3185
a0d0e21e
LW
3186=item oops: oopsAV
3187
e476b1b5 3188(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e
LW
3189
3190=item oops: oopsHV
3191
e476b1b5 3192(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e 3193
abc718f2
RGS
3194=item Opening dirhandle %s also as a file
3195
a4a4c9e2 3196(W io, deprecated) You used open() to associate a filehandle to
abc718f2
RGS
3197a symbol (glob or scalar) that already holds a dirhandle.
3198Although legal, this idiom might render your code confusing
3199and is deprecated.
3200
3201=item Opening filehandle %s also as a directory
3202
a4a4c9e2 3203(W io, deprecated) You used opendir() to associate a dirhandle to
abc718f2
RGS
3204a symbol (glob or scalar) that already holds a filehandle.
3205Although legal, this idiom might render your code confusing
3206and is deprecated.
3207
a0288114 3208=item Operation "%s": no method found, %s
44a8e56a 3209
be771a83
GS
3210(F) An attempt was made to perform an overloaded operation for which no
3211handler was defined. While some handlers can be autogenerated in terms
3212of other handlers, there is no default handler for any operation, unless
3213C<fallback> overloading key is specified to be true. See L<overload>.
44a8e56a 3214
9ae3ac1a
KW
3215=item Operation "%s" returns its argument for UTF-16 surrogate U+%X
3216
3217(W) You performed an operation requiring Unicode semantics on a Unicode
3218surrogate. Unicode frowns upon the use of surrogates for anything but
3219storing strings in UTF-16, but semantics are (reluctantly) defined for
3220the surrogates, and they are to do nothing for this operation. Because
3221the use of surrogates can be dangerous, Perl warns.
3222
3223If the operation shown is "ToFold", it means that case-insensitive
3224matching in a regular expression was done on the code point.
3225
3226If you know what you are doing you can turn off this warning by
3227C<no warnings 'utf8';>.
3228
3229=item Operation "%s" returns its argument for non-Unicode code point 0x%X
3230
3231(W) You performed an operation requiring Unicode semantics on a code
3232point that is not in Unicode, so what it should do is not defined. Perl
3233has chosen to have it do nothing, and warn you.
3234
3235If the operation shown is "ToFold", it means that case-insensitive
3236matching in a regular expression was done on the code point.
3237
3238If you know what you are doing you can turn off this warning by
3239C<no warnings 'utf8';>.
3240
748a9306
LW
3241=item Operator or semicolon missing before %s
3242
be771a83
GS
3243(S ambiguous) You used a variable or subroutine call where the parser
3244was expecting an operator. The parser has assumed you really meant to
3245use an operator, but this is highly likely to be incorrect. For
3246example, if you say "*foo *foo" it will be interpreted as if you said
3247"*foo * 'foo'".
748a9306 3248
6df41af2
GS
3249=item "our" variable %s redeclared
3250
be771a83
GS
3251(W misc) You seem to have already declared the same global once before
3252in the current lexical scope.
6df41af2 3253
a80b8354
GS
3254=item Out of memory!
3255
3256(X) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
be771a83
GS
3257remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. Perl has
3258no option but to exit immediately.
a80b8354 3259
19a52907
JH
3260At least in Unix you may be able to get past this by increasing your
3261process datasize limits: in csh/tcsh use C<limit> and
3262C<limit datasize n> (where C<n> is the number of kilobytes) to check
3263the current limits and change them, and in ksh/bash/zsh use C<ulimit -a>
3264and C<ulimit -d n>, respectively.
3265
6d3b25aa
RGS
3266=item Out of memory during %s extend
3267
3268(X) An attempt was made to extend an array, a list, or a string beyond
3269the largest possible memory allocation.
3270
6df41af2 3271=item Out of memory during "large" request for %s
a0d0e21e 3272
6df41af2
GS
3273(F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
3274remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. However,
be771a83
GS
3275the request was judged large enough (compile-time default is 64K), so a
3276possibility to shut down by trapping this error is granted.
a0d0e21e 3277
1b979e0a 3278=item Out of memory during request for %s
a0d0e21e 3279
be771a83
GS
3280(X|F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was
3281insufficient remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the
3282request.
eff9c6e2
CS
3283
3284The request was judged to be small, so the possibility to trap it
3285depends on the way perl was compiled. By default it is not trappable.
be771a83
GS
3286However, if compiled for this, Perl may use the contents of C<$^M> as an
3287emergency pool after die()ing with this message. In this case the error
b022d2d2
IZ
3288is trappable I<once>, and the error message will include the line and file
3289where the failed request happened.
55497cff 3290
1b979e0a
IZ
3291=item Out of memory during ridiculously large request
3292
3293(F) You can't allocate more than 2^31+"small amount" bytes. This error
be771a83
GS
3294is most likely to be caused by a typo in the Perl program. e.g.,
3295C<$arr[time]> instead of C<$arr[$time]>.
1b979e0a 3296
6df41af2
GS
3297=item Out of memory for yacc stack
3298
be771a83
GS
3299(F) The yacc parser wanted to grow its stack so it could continue
3300parsing, but realloc() wouldn't give it more memory, virtual or
3301otherwise.
6df41af2 3302
28be1210
TH
3303=item '.' outside of string in pack
3304
3305(F) The argument to a '.' in your template tried to move the working
3306position to before the start of the packed string being built.
3307
49704364 3308=item '@' outside of string in unpack
6df41af2 3309
49704364 3310(F) You had a template that specified an absolute position outside
6df41af2
GS
3311the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3312
f337b084
TH
3313=item '@' outside of string with malformed UTF-8 in unpack
3314
3315(F) You had a template that specified an absolute position outside
3316the string being unpacked. The string being unpacked was also invalid
3317UTF-8. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3318
7cb0cfe6
BM
3319=item Overloaded dereference did not return a reference
3320
3321(F) An object with an overloaded dereference operator was dereferenced,
3322but the overloaded operation did not return a reference. See
3323L<overload>.
3324
3325=item Overloaded qr did not return a REGEXP
3326
3327(F) An object with a C<qr> overload was used as part of a match, but the
3328overloaded operation didn't return a compiled regexp. See L<overload>.
3329
6df41af2
GS
3330=item %s package attribute may clash with future reserved word: %s
3331
be771a83
GS
3332(W reserved) A lowercase attribute name was used that had a
3333package-specific handler. That name might have a meaning to Perl itself
3334some day, even though it doesn't yet. Perhaps you should use a
3335mixed-case attribute name, instead. See L<attributes>.
6df41af2 3336
fb2e24cd
KW
3337=item \p{} uses Unicode rules, not locale rules
3338
3339(W) You compiled a regular expression that contained a Unicode property
3340match (C<\p> or C<\P>), but the regular expression is also being told to
f7f5e97b
KW
3341use the run-time locale, not Unicode. Instead, use a POSIX character
3342class, which should know about the locale's rules.
3343(See L<perlrecharclass/POSIX Character Classes>.)
3344
3345Even if the run-time locale is ISO 8859-1 (Latin1), which is a subset of
3346Unicode, some properties will give results that are not valid for that
3347subset.
3348
3349Here are a couple of examples to help you see what's going on. If the
3350locale is ISO 8859-7, the character at code point 0xD7 is the "GREEK
3351CAPITAL LETTER CHI". But in Unicode that code point means the
3352"MULTIPLICATION SIGN" instead, and C<\p> always uses the Unicode
3353meaning. That means that C<\p{Alpha}> won't match, but C<[[:alpha:]]>
3354should. Only in the Latin1 locale are all the characters in the same
3355positions as they are in Unicode. But, even here, some properties give
3356incorrect results. An example is C<\p{Changes_When_Uppercased}> which
3357is true for "LATIN SMALL LETTER Y WITH DIAERESIS", but since the upper
3358case of that character is not in Latin1, in that locale it doesn't
3359change when upper cased.