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1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
d1d15184 11 (D) A deprecation (enabled by default).
00eb3f2b 12 (S) A severe warning (enabled by default).
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13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
75b44862 18The majority of messages from the first three classifications above
64977eb6 19(W, D & S) can be controlled using the C<warnings> pragma.
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20
21If a message can be controlled by the C<warnings> pragma, its warning
22category is included with the classification letter in the description
466416ed 23below. E.g. C<(W closed)> means a warning in the C<closed> category.
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24
25Optional warnings are enabled by using the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-w>
fa816bf3 26and B<-W> switches. Warnings may be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}>
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27to a reference to a routine that will be called on each warning instead
28of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
29
b7eceb5b 30Severe warnings are always enabled, unless they are explicitly disabled
e476b1b5 31with the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-X> switch.
4438c4b7 32
748a9306 33Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
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34L<perlfunc/eval>. In almost all cases, warnings may be selectively
35disabled or promoted to fatal errors using the C<warnings> pragma.
36See L<warnings>.
a0d0e21e 37
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38The messages are in alphabetical order, without regard to upper or
39lower-case. Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are
40denoted with a %s or other printf-style escape. These escapes are
41ignored by the alphabetical order, as are all characters other than
42letters. To look up your message, just ignore anything that is not a
43letter.
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44
45=over 4
46
6df41af2 47=item accept() on closed socket %s
33633739 48
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49(W closed) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget
50to check the return value of your socket() call? See
51L<perlfunc/accept>.
33633739 52
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53=item Aliasing via reference is experimental
54
55(S experimental::refaliasing) This warning is emitted if you use
56a reference constructor on the left-hand side of an assignment to
57alias one variable to another. Simply suppress the warning if you
58want to use the feature, but know that in doing so you are taking
59the risk of using an experimental feature which may change or be
60removed in a future Perl version:
61
62 no warnings "experimental::refaliasing";
63 use feature "refaliasing";
64 \$x = \$y;
65
de42a5a9 66=item Allocation too large: %x
a0d0e21e 67
6df41af2 68(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e 69
04f74579 70=item '%c' allowed only after types %s in %s
ef54e1a4 71
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72(F) The modifiers '!', '<' and '>' are allowed in pack() or unpack() only
73after certain types. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
ef54e1a4 74
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75=item alpha->numify() is lossy
76
77(W numeric) An alpha version can not be numified without losing
78information.
79
6df41af2 80=item Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
43192e07 81
75b44862 82(W ambiguous) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl
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83keyword, and you have used the name without qualification for calling
84one or the other. Perl decided to call the builtin because the
85subroutine is not imported.
43192e07 86
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87To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand
88before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.
89Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's
90imported with the C<use subs> pragma).
43192e07 91
6df41af2 92To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the C<CORE::> prefix
496a33f5 93on the operator (e.g. C<CORE::log($x)>) or declare the subroutine
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94to be an object method (see L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes"> or
95L<attributes>).
43192e07 96
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97=item Ambiguous range in transliteration operator
98
99(F) You wrote something like C<tr/a-z-0//> which doesn't mean anything at
100all. To include a C<-> character in a transliteration, put it either
101first or last. (In the past, C<tr/a-z-0//> was synonymous with
102C<tr/a-y//>, which was probably not what you would have expected.)
103
6df41af2 104=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
43192e07 105
7c7af292 106(S ambiguous) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
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107you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
108a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
a0d0e21e 109
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110=item Ambiguous use of -%s resolved as -&%s()
111
112(S ambiguous) You wrote something like C<-foo>, which might be the
113string C<"-foo">, or a call to the function C<foo>, negated. If you meant
114the string, just write C<"-foo">. If you meant the function call,
115write C<-foo()>.
116
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117=item Ambiguous use of %c resolved as operator %c
118
7c7af292 119(S ambiguous) C<%>, C<&>, and C<*> are both infix operators (modulus,
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120bitwise and, and multiplication) I<and> initial special characters
121(denoting hashes, subroutines and typeglobs), and you said something
122like C<*foo * foo> that might be interpreted as either of them. We
123assumed you meant the infix operator, but please try to make it more
124clear -- in the example given, you might write C<*foo * foo()> if you
125really meant to multiply a glob by the result of calling a function.
d8225693 126
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127=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s} resolved to %c%s
128
129(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<@{foo}>, which might be
130asking for the variable C<@foo>, or it might be calling a function
131named foo, and dereferencing it as an array reference. If you wanted
1cecf2c0 132the variable, you can just write C<@foo>. If you wanted to call the
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133function, write C<@{foo()}> ... or you could just not have a variable
134and a function with the same name, and save yourself a lot of trouble.
135
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136=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s[...]} resolved to %c%s[...]
137
138=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s{...}} resolved to %c%s{...}
4da60377 139
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140(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<${foo[2]}> (where foo represents
141the name of a Perl keyword), which might be looking for element number
1422 of the array named C<@foo>, in which case please write C<$foo[2]>, or you
143might have meant to pass an anonymous arrayref to the function named
144foo, and then do a scalar deref on the value it returns. If you meant
145that, write C<${foo([2])}>.
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146
147In regular expressions, the C<${foo[2]}> syntax is sometimes necessary
148to disambiguate between array subscripts and character classes.
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149C</$length[2345]/>, for instance, will be interpreted as C<$length> followed
150by the character class C<[2345]>. If an array subscript is what you
151want, you can avoid the warning by changing C</${length[2345]}/> to the
152unsightly C</${\$length[2345]}/>, by renaming your array to something
153that does not coincide with a built-in keyword, or by simply turning
154off warnings with C<no warnings 'ambiguous';>.
4da60377 155
6df41af2 156=item '|' and '<' may not both be specified on command line
a0d0e21e 157
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158(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
159redirection, and found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to
160redirect STDIN using '<'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
c9f97d15 161
6df41af2 162=item '|' and '>' may not both be specified on command line
1028017a 163
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164(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
165redirection, and thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and
166into a pipe to another command. You need to choose one or the other,
167though nothing's stopping you from piping into a program or Perl script
168which 'splits' output into two streams, such as
1028017a 169
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170 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
171 while (<STDIN>) {
172 print;
173 print OUT;
174 }
175 close OUT;
c9f97d15 176
6df41af2 177=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
eb6e2d6f 178
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179(W misc) The pattern match (C<//>), substitution (C<s///>), and
180transliteration (C<tr///>) operators work on scalar values. If you apply
be771a83 181one of them to an array or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to
ac036724 182a scalar value (the length of an array, or the population info of a
183hash) and then work on that scalar value. This is probably not what
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184you meant to do. See L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for
185alternatives.
eb6e2d6f 186
6df41af2 187=item Arg too short for msgsnd
76cd736e 188
6df41af2 189(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
76cd736e 190
f86702cc 191=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
a0d0e21e 192
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193(W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator
194that expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
195will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
a0d0e21e 196
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197Note that for the C<Inf> and C<NaN> (infinity and not-a-number) the
198definition of "numeric" is somewhat unusual: the strings themselves
199(like "Inf") are considered numeric, and anything following them is
200considered non-numeric.
201
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202=item Argument list not closed for PerlIO layer "%s"
203
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204(W layer) When pushing a layer with arguments onto the Perl I/O
205system you forgot the ) that closes the argument list. (Layers
206take care of transforming data between external and internal
207representations.) Perl stopped parsing the layer list at this
208point and did not attempt to push this layer. If your program
209didn't explicitly request the failing operation, it may be the
210result of the value of the environment variable PERLIO.
b4581f09 211
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212=item Argument "%s" treated as 0 in increment (++)
213
214(W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to the C<++>
215operator which expects either a number or a string matching
216C</^[a-zA-Z]*[0-9]*\z/>. See L<perlop/Auto-increment and
217Auto-decrement> for details.
218
637494ac 219=item Array passed to stat will be coerced to a scalar%s
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220
221(W syntax) You called stat() on an array, but the array will be
222coerced to a scalar - the number of elements in the array.
223
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224=item A signature parameter must start with '$', '@' or '%'
225
226(F) Each subroutine signature parameter declaration must start with a valid
227sigil; for example:
228
229 sub foo ($a, $, $b = 1, @c) {}
230
231=item A slurpy parameter may not have a default value
232
233(F) Only scalar subroutine signature parameters may have a default value;
234for example:
235
236 sub foo ($a = 1) {} # legal
237 sub foo (@a = (1)) {} # invalid
238 sub foo (%a = (a => b)) {} # invalid
239
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240=item assertion botched: %s
241
21b5e840 242(X) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
a0d0e21e 243
0eacef8e 244=item Assertion %s failed: file "%s", line %d
a0d0e21e 245
21b5e840 246(X) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
a0d0e21e 247
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248=item Assigned value is not a reference
249
250(F) You tried to assign something that was not a reference to an lvalue
251reference (e.g., C<\$x = $y>). If you meant to make $x an alias to $y, use
252C<\$x = \$y>.
253
254=item Assigned value is not %s reference
255
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256(F) You tried to assign a reference to a reference constructor, but the
257two references were not of the same type. You cannot alias a scalar to
258an array, or an array to a hash; the two types must match.
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259
260 \$x = \@y; # error
261 \@x = \%y; # error
262 $y = [];
263 \$x = $y; # error; did you mean \$y?
264
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265=item Assigning non-zero to $[ is no longer possible
266
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267(F) When the "array_base" feature is disabled (e.g., under C<use v5.16;>)
268the special variable C<$[>, which is deprecated, is now a fixed zero value.
82122228 269
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270=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
271
272(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
273must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
274know which context to supply to the right side.
275
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276=item Assuming NOT a POSIX class since %s in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
277
278(W regexp) You had something like these:
279
280 [[:alnum]]
281 [[:digit:xyz]
282
283They look like they might have been meant to be the POSIX classes
284C<[:alnum:]> or C<[:digit:]>. If so, they should be written:
285
286 [[:alnum:]]
287 [[:digit:]xyz]
288
289Since these aren't legal POSIX class specifications, but are legal
290bracketed character classes, Perl treats them as the latter. In the
291first example, it matches the characters C<":">, C<"[">, C<"a">, C<"l">,
292C<"m">, C<"n">, and C<"u">.
293
294If these weren't meant to be POSIX classes, this warning message is
295spurious, and can be suppressed by reordering things, such as
296
297 [[al:num]]
298
299or
300
301 [[:munla]]
302
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303=item <> at require-statement should be quotes
304
305(F) You wrote C<< require <file> >> when you should have written
306C<require 'file'>.
307
2393f1b9 308=item Attempt to access disallowed key '%s' in a restricted hash
1b1f1335 309
49293501 310(F) The failing code has attempted to get or set a key which is not in
2393f1b9 311the current set of allowed keys of a restricted hash.
49293501 312
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313=item Attempt to bless into a freed package
314
315(F) You wrote C<bless $foo> with one argument after somehow causing
316the current package to be freed. Perl cannot figure out what to
317do, so it throws up in hands in despair.
318
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319=item Attempt to bless into a reference
320
321(F) The CLASSNAME argument to the bless() operator is expected to be
57dedab9 322the name of the package to bless the resulting object into. You've
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323supplied instead a reference to something: perhaps you wrote
324
325 bless $self, $proto;
326
327when you intended
328
329 bless $self, ref($proto) || $proto;
330
331If you actually want to bless into the stringified version
332of the reference supplied, you need to stringify it yourself, for
333example by:
334
335 bless $self, "$proto";
336
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337=item Attempt to clear deleted array
338
339(S debugging) An array was assigned to when it was being freed.
340Freed values are not supposed to be visible to Perl code. This
341can also happen if XS code calls C<av_clear> from a custom magic
342callback on the array.
343
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344=item Attempt to delete disallowed key '%s' from a restricted hash
345
346(F) The failing code attempted to delete from a restricted hash a key
347which is not in its key set.
348
349=item Attempt to delete readonly key '%s' from a restricted hash
350
351(F) The failing code attempted to delete a key whose value has been
352declared readonly from a restricted hash.
353
de42a5a9 354=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%x
a0d0e21e 355
f84fe999 356(S internal) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas
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357that will be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be
358outside any of those arenas.
a0d0e21e 359
12578ffb 360=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string '%s'%s
bbce6d69 361
f84fe999 362(S internal) Perl maintains a reference-counted internal table of
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363strings to optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other
364strings. This indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count
365of a string that can no longer be found in the table.
bbce6d69 366
7d5b40b4 367=item Attempt to free temp prematurely: SV 0x%x
a0d0e21e 368
f84fe999 369(S debugging) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the
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370free_tmps() routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the
371SV before the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the
372free_tmps() routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does
373try to free it.
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374
375=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
376
f84fe999 377(S internal) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
a0d0e21e 378
7d5b40b4 379=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar: SV 0x%x
a0d0e21e 380
8f7e4d2c 381(S internal) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to
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382see if it would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0
383earlier, and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed.
384This could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or
385that SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was
386mortalized when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been
387corrupted.
a0d0e21e 388
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389=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
390
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391(W pack) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
392function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
393means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
394invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
395literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
396avoid this warning.
84902520 397
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398=item Attempt to reload %s aborted.
399
400(F) You tried to load a file with C<use> or C<require> that failed to
401compile once already. Perl will not try to compile this file again
402unless you delete its entry from %INC. See L<perlfunc/require> and
403L<perlvar/%INC>.
404
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405=item Attempt to set length of freed array
406
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FC
407(W misc) You tried to set the length of an array which has
408been freed. You can do this by storing a reference to the
409scalar representing the last index of an array and later
410assigning through that reference. For example
1b20cd17
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411
412 $r = do {my @a; \$#a};
413 $$r = 503
414
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415=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
416
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417(W substr) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr()
418used as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
419dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
b7a902f4 420
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421=item Attribute prototype(%s) discards earlier prototype attribute in same sub
422
423(W misc) A sub was declared as sub foo : prototype(A) : prototype(B) {}, for
424example. Since each sub can only have one prototype, the earlier
425declaration(s) are discarded while the last one is applied.
426
ccce04a4
FC
427=item av_reify called on tied array
428
429(S debugging) This indicates that something went wrong and Perl got I<very>
430confused about C<@_> or C<@DB::args> being tied.
431
de42a5a9 432=item Bad arg length for %s, is %u, should be %d
a0d0e21e 433
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434(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl()
435or shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 436S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
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437S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
438
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439=item Bad evalled substitution pattern
440
496a33f5 441(F) You've used the C</e> switch to evaluate the replacement for a
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442substitution, but perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate,
443most likely an unexpected right brace '}'.
444
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445=item Bad filehandle: %s
446
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447(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the
448symbol has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an
449open(), or did it in another package.
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450
451=item Bad free() ignored
452
be771a83 453(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had never
fa816bf3 454been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
9ea8bc6d 455setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 0.
33c8a3fe 456
9ea8bc6d 457This message can be seen quite often with DB_File on systems with "hard"
6903afa2 458dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of C<Berkeley DB>
be771a83 459which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving> system malloc().
a0d0e21e 460
aa689395
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461=item Bad hash
462
463(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
464
6df41af2
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465=item Badly placed ()'s
466
467(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
468of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
469Perl yourself.
470
a7cb8dae 471=item Bad name after %s
a0d0e21e 472
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473(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then
474didn't finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside
475of quotes, so
a0d0e21e
LW
476
477 $var = 'myvar';
478 $sym = mypack::$var;
479
480is not the same as
481
482 $var = 'myvar';
483 $sym = "mypack::$var";
484
88e1f1a2
JV
485=item Bad plugin affecting keyword '%s'
486
487(F) An extension using the keyword plugin mechanism violated the
488plugin API.
489
4ad56ec9
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490=item Bad realloc() ignored
491
6903afa2
FC
492(S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that
493had never been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can
494be disabled by setting the environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
4ad56ec9 495
a0d0e21e
LW
496=item Bad symbol for array
497
498(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
499wasn't a symbol table entry.
500
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501=item Bad symbol for dirhandle
502
503(P) An internal request asked to add a dirhandle entry to something
504that wasn't a symbol table entry.
505
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506=item Bad symbol for filehandle
507
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508(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something
509that wasn't a symbol table entry.
a0d0e21e
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510
511=item Bad symbol for hash
512
513(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
514wasn't a symbol table entry.
515
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FC
516=item Bad symbol for scalar
517
518(P) An internal request asked to add a scalar entry to something that
519wasn't a symbol table entry.
520
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521=item Bareword found in conditional
522
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523(W bareword) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a
524conditional, which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part
525of the last argument of the previous construct, for example:
34d09196
GS
526
527 open FOO || die;
528
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529It may also indicate a misspelled constant that has been interpreted as
530a bareword:
34d09196
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531
532 use constant TYPO => 1;
533 if (TYOP) { print "foo" }
534
535The C<strict> pragma is useful in avoiding such errors.
536
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NC
537=item Bareword in require contains "%s"
538
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NC
539=item Bareword in require maps to disallowed filename "%s"
540
09eb1f39 541=item Bareword in require maps to empty filename
5bad2b39 542
a52f2cce 543(F) The bareword form of require has been invoked with a filename which could
d4e5761f 544not have been generated by a valid bareword permitted by the parser. You
a52f2cce
NC
545shouldn't be able to get this error from Perl code, but XS code may throw it
546if it passes an invalid module name to C<Perl_load_module>.
547
5bad2b39
DM
548=item Bareword in require must not start with a double-colon: "%s"
549
550(F) In C<require Bare::Word>, the bareword is not allowed to start with a
d4e5761f 551double-colon. Write C<require ::Foo::Bar> as C<require Foo::Bar> instead.
5bad2b39 552
6df41af2
GS
553=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
554
555(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
be771a83
GS
556subroutine identifier, in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>"
557symbol. Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
6df41af2
GS
558
559=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
560
be771a83
GS
561(W bareword) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but the
562compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point. Perhaps
563you need to predeclare a package?
6df41af2 564
a0d0e21e
LW
565=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
566
be771a83
GS
567(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN
568subroutine. Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is
569exited.
a0d0e21e 570
68dc0745
PP
571=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
572
573(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
be771a83
GS
574implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had already
575occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}> could not
576be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code likely
577depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
68dc0745 578
c782d7ee 579=item \%d better written as $%d
6df41af2 580
be771a83
GS
581(W syntax) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables.
582The use of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
583substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
584because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better if
585there are more than 9 backreferences.
6df41af2 586
252aa082
JH
587=item Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable
588
e476b1b5 589(W portable) The binary number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
590(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
591L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 592
69282e91 593=item bind() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 594
be771a83
GS
595(W closed) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to
596check the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
a0d0e21e 597
c289d2f7
JH
598=item binmode() on closed filehandle %s
599
600(W unopened) You tried binmode() on a filehandle that was never opened.
4dcecea4 601Check your control flow and number of arguments.
c289d2f7 602
c5a0f51a
JH
603=item Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
604
e476b1b5 605(W portable) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is non-portable.
c5a0f51a 606
043c750c 607=item Bizarre copy of %s
4633a7c4 608
be771a83 609(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not
ab830aa0 610copiable.
4633a7c4 611
5a25739d
FC
612=item Bizarre SvTYPE [%d]
613
434f489b 614(P) When starting a new thread or returning values from a thread, Perl
5a25739d
FC
615encountered an invalid data type.
616
b927b7e9 617=item Both or neither range ends should be Unicode in regex; marked by
6e8a73f2 618S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
b927b7e9
KW
619
620(W regexp) (only under C<S<use re 'strict'>> or within C<(?[...])>)
621
622In a bracketed character class in a regular expression pattern, you
623had a range which has exactly one end of it specified using C<\N{}>, and
624the other end is specified using a non-portable mechanism. Perl treats
625the range as a Unicode range, that is, all the characters in it are
626considered to be the Unicode characters, and which may be different code
627points on some platforms Perl runs on. For example, C<[\N{U+06}-\x08]>
628is treated as if you had instead said C<[\N{U+06}-\N{U+08}]>, that is it
629matches the characters whose code points in Unicode are 6, 7, and 8.
630But that C<\x08> might indicate that you meant something different, so
631the warning gets raised.
632
f675dbe5
CB
633=item Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
634
be771a83
GS
635(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. While Perl was preparing to
636iterate over %ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition
637which was too long, so it was truncated to the string shown.
f675dbe5 638
a0d0e21e
LW
639=item Callback called exit
640
4929bf7b 641(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via call_sv()
a0d0e21e
LW
642exited by calling exit.
643
6df41af2 644=item %s() called too early to check prototype
f675dbe5 645
be771a83
GS
646(W prototype) You've called a function that has a prototype before the
647parser saw a definition or declaration for it, and Perl could not check
648that the call conforms to the prototype. You need to either add an
649early prototype declaration for the subroutine in question, or move the
650subroutine definition ahead of the call to get proper prototype
651checking. Alternatively, if you are certain that you're calling the
652function correctly, you may put an ampersand before the name to avoid
653the warning. See L<perlsub>.
f675dbe5 654
0c7df902
JH
655=item Cannot chr %f
656
657(F) You passed an invalid number (like an infinity or not-a-number) to C<chr>.
658
5dee29d4 659=item Cannot compress %f in pack
0c7df902 660
5dee29d4
JH
661(F) You tried compressing an infinity or not-a-number as an unsigned
662integer with BER, which makes no sense.
0c7df902 663
49704364 664=item Cannot compress integer in pack
0258719b 665
717feafc
JH
666(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was too large to compress.
667The BER compressed integer format can only be used with positive
668integers, and you attempted to compress a very large number (> 1e308).
669See L<perlfunc/pack>.
0258719b 670
49704364 671=item Cannot compress negative numbers in pack
0258719b
NC
672
673(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was negative. The BER compressed integer
674format can only be used with positive integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
675
5c1f4d79
NC
676=item Cannot convert a reference to %s to typeglob
677
6903afa2
FC
678(F) You manipulated Perl's symbol table directly, stored a reference
679in it, then tried to access that symbol via conventional Perl syntax.
680The access triggers Perl to autovivify that typeglob, but it there is
681no legal conversion from that type of reference to a typeglob.
5c1f4d79 682
4040665a 683=item Cannot copy to %s
ba2fdce6
NC
684
685(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy a value to an internal type that cannot
4dcecea4 686be directly assigned to.
ba2fdce6 687
b5d97229
RGS
688=item Cannot find encoding "%s"
689
690(S io) You tried to apply an encoding that did not exist to a filehandle,
691either with open() or binmode().
692
0c7df902
JH
693=item Cannot pack %f with '%c'
694
5dee29d4 695(F) You tried converting an infinity or not-a-number to an integer,
0c7df902
JH
696which makes no sense.
697
698=item Cannot printf %f with '%c'
699
700(F) You tried printing an infinity or not-a-number as a character (%c),
701which makes no sense. Maybe you meant '%s', or just stringifying it?
702
7355df7e
FC
703=item Cannot set tied @DB::args
704
705(F) C<caller> tried to set C<@DB::args>, but found it tied. Tying C<@DB::args>
706is not supported. (Before this error was added, it used to crash.)
707
ce65bc73
FC
708=item Cannot tie unreifiable array
709
710(P) You somehow managed to call C<tie> on an array that does not
711keep a reference count on its arguments and cannot be made to
712do so. Such arrays are not even supposed to be accessible to
713Perl code, but are only used internally.
714
46e58bd2
AC
715=item Cannot yet reorder sv_catpvfn() arguments from va_list
716
717(F) Some XS code tried to use C<sv_catpvfn()> or a related function with a
718format string that specifies explicit indexes for some of the elements, and
d4e5761f
FC
719using a C-style variable-argument list (a C<va_list>). This is not currently
720supported. XS authors wanting to do this must instead construct a C array
721of C<SV*> scalars containing the arguments.
46e58bd2 722
96ebfdd7
RK
723=item Can only compress unsigned integers in pack
724
725(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was not an integer. The BER compressed
726integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you attempted
727to compress something else. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
728
a0d0e21e
LW
729=item Can't bless non-reference value
730
731(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
732encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
733
dc57907a
RGS
734=item Can't "break" in a loop topicalizer
735
0d863452 736(F) You called C<break>, but you're in a C<foreach> block rather than
6903afa2 737a C<given> block. You probably meant to use C<next> or C<last>.
0d863452
RH
738
739=item Can't "break" outside a given block
dc57907a 740
0d863452
RH
741(F) You called C<break>, but you're not inside a C<given> block.
742
6df41af2
GS
743=item Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
744
745(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
746object reference or package name contains an undefined value. Something
747like this will reproduce the error:
6df41af2
GS
748
749 $BADREF = undef;
750 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
751 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
752
a0d0e21e
LW
753=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
754
54310121 755(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
be771a83
GS
756ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but you
757didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't an
758object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
759
760=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
761
762(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
763object reference or package name contains an expression that returns a
764defined value which is neither an object reference nor a package name.
72b5445b
GS
765Something like this will reproduce the error:
766
767 $BADREF = 42;
768 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
769 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
770
dfe378f1
FC
771=item Can't call mro_isa_changed_in() on anonymous symbol table
772
773(P) Perl got confused as to whether a hash was a plain hash or a
774symbol table hash when trying to update @ISA caches.
775
2bf7e7b2
FC
776=item Can't call mro_method_changed_in() on anonymous symbol table
777
778(F) An XS module tried to call C<mro_method_changed_in> on a hash that was
779not attached to the symbol table.
780
a0d0e21e
LW
781=item Can't chdir to %s
782
f703fc96 783(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but F</foo/bar> is not a directory
a0d0e21e
LW
784that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
785
0545a864 786=item Can't check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid
104d25b7 787
be771a83
GS
788(P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for
789nosuid.
104d25b7 790
22e74366 791=item Can't coerce %s to %s in %s
a0d0e21e
LW
792
793(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 794(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
a0d0e21e
LW
795say things like:
796
797 *foo += 1;
798
799You CAN say
800
801 $foo = *foo;
802 $foo += 1;
803
804but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
805
0d863452 806=item Can't "continue" outside a when block
dc57907a 807
0d863452
RH
808(F) You called C<continue>, but you're not inside a C<when>
809or C<default> block.
810
a0d0e21e
LW
811=item Can't create pipe mailbox
812
be771a83
GS
813(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted
814quotas or other plumbing problems.
a0d0e21e 815
eb64745e
GS
816=item Can't declare %s in "%s"
817
30c282f6
NC
818(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as "my", "our" or
819"state" variables. They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
a0d0e21e 820
fc7debfb
FC
821=item Can't "default" outside a topicalizer
822
823(F) You have used a C<default> block that is neither inside a
824C<foreach> loop nor a C<given> block. (Note that this error is
825issued on exit from the C<default> block, so you won't get the
826error if you use an explicit C<continue>.)
827
1e85b658
DM
828=item Can't determine class of operator %s, assuming BASEOP
829
830(S) This warning indicates something wrong in the internals of perl.
831Perl was trying to find the class (e.g. LISTOP) of a particular OP,
832and was unable to do so. This is likely to be due to a bug in the perl
833internals, or due to a bug in XS code which manipulates perl optrees.
834
a2162cd9
FC
835=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
836
837(S inplace) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as
838a file in /dev, a FIFO or an uneditable directory. The file was ignored.
839
840=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
841
842(S inplace) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated
843reason.
844
845=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
846
847(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try
848reading from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say
849C<-i.bak>, or some such.
850
851=item Can't do inplace edit: %s would not be unique
852
853(S inplace) Your filesystem does not support filenames longer than 14
854characters and Perl was unable to create a unique filename during
855inplace editing with the B<-i> switch. The file was ignored.
856
ab0b796c
KW
857=item Can't do %s("%s") on non-UTF-8 locale; resolved to "%s".
858
859(W locale) You are 1) running under "C<use locale>"; 2) the current
860locale is not a UTF-8 one; 3) you tried to do the designated case-change
861operation on the specified Unicode character; and 4) the result of this
862operation would mix Unicode and locale rules, which likely conflict.
863Mixing of different rule types is forbidden, so the operation was not
864done; instead the result is the indicated value, which is the best
865available that uses entirely Unicode rules. That turns out to almost
866always be the original character, unchanged.
867
868It is generally a bad idea to mix non-UTF-8 locales and Unicode, and
869this issue is one of the reasons why. This warning is raised when
870Unicode rules would normally cause the result of this operation to
871contain a character that is in the range specified by the locale,
8720..255, and hence is subject to the locale's rules, not Unicode's.
873
874If you are using locale purely for its characteristics related to things
875like its numeric and time formatting (and not C<LC_CTYPE>), consider
876using a restricted form of the locale pragma (see L<perllocale/The "use
877locale" pragma>) like "S<C<use locale ':not_characters'>>".
878
879Note that failed case-changing operations done as a result of
880case-insensitive C</i> regular expression matching will show up in this
881warning as having the C<fc> operation (as that is what the regular
882expression engine calls behind the scenes.)
883
a0d0e21e
LW
884=item Can't do waitpid with flags
885
be771a83
GS
886(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only
887waitpid() without flags is emulated.
a0d0e21e 888
a0d0e21e
LW
889=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
890
be771a83
GS
891(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this
892point. For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #!
893line.
a0d0e21e 894
1109a392
MHM
895=item Can't %s %s-endian %ss on this platform
896
897(F) Your platform's byte-order is neither big-endian nor little-endian,
898or it has a very strange pointer size. Packing and unpacking big- or
899little-endian floating point values and pointers may not be possible.
900See L<perlfunc/pack>.
901
a0d0e21e
LW
902=item Can't exec "%s": %s
903
d1be9408 904(W exec) A system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the
be771a83
GS
905named program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the
906permissions were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in
907C<$ENV{PATH}>, the executable in question was compiled for another
908architecture, or the #! line in a script points to an interpreter that
909can't be run for similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support
910#! at all.)
a0d0e21e
LW
911
912=item Can't exec %s
913
be771a83
GS
914(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because
915that's what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may
916need to mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
a0d0e21e
LW
917
918=item Can't execute %s
919
be771a83
GS
920(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute
921found in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
2a92aaa0 922
6df41af2 923=item Can't find an opnumber for "%s"
2a92aaa0 924
be771a83
GS
925(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but there
926is no builtin with the name C<word>.
6df41af2
GS
927
928=item Can't find label %s
929
be771a83
GS
930(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's
931possible for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2a92aaa0
GS
932
933=item Can't find %s on PATH
934
be771a83
GS
935(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
936found in the PATH.
a0d0e21e 937
6df41af2 938=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
a0d0e21e 939
be771a83
GS
940(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
941found in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The
942script exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
a0d0e21e
LW
943
944=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
945
be771a83
GS
946(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means
947that the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count
948nesting levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
a0d0e21e 949
fb73857a
PP
950 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
951
97b3d10f 952If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have
b6b8cb97
FC
953included unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag or there
954may not be a linebreak after it. A good programmer's editor will have
955a way to help you find these characters (or lack of characters). See
956L<perlop> for the full details on here-documents.
a0d0e21e 957
660a4616
ST
958=item Can't find Unicode property definition "%s"
959
29f52644
KW
960=item Can't find Unicode property definition "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
961
962(F) The named property which you specified via C<\p> or C<\P> is not one
963known to Perl. Perhaps you misspelled the name? See
e1b711da 964L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
29f52644
KW
965for a complete list of available official
966properties. If it is a
967L<user-defined property|perlunicode/User-Defined Character Properties>
968it must have been defined by the time the regular expression is
969matched.
970
971If you didn't mean to use a Unicode property, escape the C<\p>, either
972by C<\\p> (just the C<\p>) or by C<\Q\p> (the rest of the string, or
5f8ad6b6 973until C<\E>).
660a4616 974
b3647a36 975=item Can't fork: %s
a0d0e21e 976
be771a83
GS
977(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a
978pipeline.
a0d0e21e 979
b3647a36
SR
980=item Can't fork, trying again in 5 seconds
981
c973c02e 982(W pipe) A fork in a piped open failed with EAGAIN and will be retried
b3647a36
SR
983after five seconds.
984
748a9306
LW
985=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
986
be771a83
GS
987(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference
988between access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes.
989Under VMS, access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in
990the stat buffer, so that ACLs and other protections can be taken into
991account. Unfortunately, Perl assumes that the stat buffer contains all
992the necessary information, and passes it, instead of the filespec, to
2fe2bdfd 993the access-checking routine. It will try to retrieve the filespec using
be771a83
GS
994the device name and FID present in the stat buffer, but this works only
995if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat() routine,
996because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
2fe2bdfd
FC
997appears, the name lookup failed, and the access-checking routine gave up
998and returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access-checking
be771a83
GS
999routine knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you
1000shouldn't ever see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises
1001only if some internal code takes stat buffers lightly.)
748a9306 1002
a0d0e21e
LW
1003=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
1004
be771a83
GS
1005(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a
1006pipe, Perl can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
1007
1008=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
1009
748a9306
LW
1010(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
1011mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e 1012
6df41af2 1013=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
a0d0e21e 1014
be771a83
GS
1015(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a foreach
1016loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2
GS
1017
1018=item Can't "goto" out of a pseudo block
1019
be771a83
GS
1020(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look like
1021a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually occurs if
1022you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which is a no-no.
1023See L<perlfunc/goto>.
a0d0e21e 1024
5a25739d
FC
1025=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-%s
1026
1027(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval
1028"string" or block.
1029
9850bf21 1030=item Can't goto subroutine from a sort sub (or similar callback)
cd299c6e 1031
9850bf21
RH
1032(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of the
1033comparison sub for a sort(), or from a similar callback (such
1034as the reduce() function in List::Util).
1035
6df41af2
GS
1036=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
1037
be771a83
GS
1038(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one
1039subroutine call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole
1040cloth. In general you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD
1041routine anyway. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2 1042
0b5b802d
GS
1043=item Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default
1044
be771a83
GS
1045(W signal) Perl has detected that it is being run with the SIGCHLD
1046signal (sometimes known as SIGCLD) disabled. Since disabling this
1047signal will interfere with proper determination of exit status of child
1048processes, Perl has reset the signal to its default value. This
1049situation typically indicates that the parent program under which Perl
1050may be running (e.g. cron) is being very careless.
0b5b802d 1051
e2c0f81f
DG
1052=item Can't kill a non-numeric process ID
1053
1054(F) Process identifiers must be (signed) integers. It is a fatal error to
1055attempt to kill() an undefined, empty-string or otherwise non-numeric
1056process identifier.
1057
6df41af2 1058=item Can't "last" outside a loop block
4633a7c4 1059
6df41af2 1060(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
be771a83
GS
1061except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a current
1062block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a "loopish"
1063block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or grep(). You can
1064usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the
1065inner curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See
1066L<perlfunc/last>.
4633a7c4 1067
2c7d6b9c
RGS
1068=item Can't linearize anonymous symbol table
1069
1070(F) Perl tried to calculate the method resolution order (MRO) of a
1071package, but failed because the package stash has no name.
1072
b8170e59
JB
1073=item Can't load '%s' for module %s
1074
6903afa2
FC
1075(F) The module you tried to load failed to load a dynamic extension.
1076This may either mean that you upgraded your version of perl to one
1077that is incompatible with your old dynamic extensions (which is known
1078to happen between major versions of perl), or (more likely) that your
1079dynamic extension was built against an older version of the library
1080that is installed on your system. You may need to rebuild your old
1081dynamic extensions.
b8170e59 1082
748a9306
LW
1083=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
1084
2ba9eb46 1085(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
b7e4ecc1
FC
1086lexical variable using "my" or "state". This is not allowed. If you
1087want to localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with
1088the package name.
748a9306 1089
6df41af2 1090=item Can't localize through a reference
4727527e 1091
6df41af2
GS
1092(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
1093handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
be771a83 1094pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be sure
64977eb6 1095that $ref will still be a reference.
4727527e 1096
ea071790 1097=item Can't locate %s
ec889f3a 1098
fa816bf3
FC
1099(F) You said to C<do> (or C<require>, or C<use>) a file that couldn't be found.
1100Perl looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in @INC, unless
1101the file name included the full path to the file. Perhaps you need
1102to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where the
1103extra library is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name
be771a83
GS
1104to @INC. Or maybe you just misspelled the name of the file. See
1105L<perlfunc/require> and L<lib>.
a0d0e21e 1106
6df41af2
GS
1107=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
1108
be771a83
GS
1109(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows
1110autoload, but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes
1111are a misprint in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit>
1112the file, say, by doing C<make install>.
6df41af2 1113
b8170e59
JB
1114=item Can't locate loadable object for module %s in @INC
1115
1116(F) The module you loaded is trying to load an external library, like
d70d8e57 1117for example, F<foo.so> or F<bar.dll>, but the L<DynaLoader> module was
b8170e59
JB
1118unable to locate this library. See L<DynaLoader>.
1119
a0d0e21e
LW
1120=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
1121
1122(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
1123functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 1124method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e 1125
8af56b9d
FC
1126=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s" (perhaps you forgot
1127to load "%s"?)
1128
1129(F) You called a method on a class that did not exist, and the method
1130could not be found in UNIVERSAL. This often means that a method
1131requires a package that has not been loaded.
1132
a0d0e21e
LW
1133=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
1134
be771a83
GS
1135(W syntax) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that
1136doesn't seem to exist.
a0d0e21e 1137
2f7da168
RK
1138=item Can't locate PerlIO%s
1139
1140(F) You tried to use in open() a PerlIO layer that does not exist,
1141e.g. open(FH, ">:nosuchlayer", "somefile").
1142
f4ad53f4 1143=item Can't make list assignment to %ENV on this system
3e3baf6d 1144
be771a83
GS
1145(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably
1146VMS.
3e3baf6d 1147
cd40cd58
NC
1148=item Can't make loaded symbols global on this platform while loading %s
1149
ff9c1ae8 1150(S) A module passed the flag 0x01 to DynaLoader::dl_load_file() to request
cd40cd58
NC
1151that symbols from the stated file are made available globally within the
1152process, but that functionality is not available on this platform. Whilst
1153the module likely will still work, this may prevent the perl interpreter
1154from loading other XS-based extensions which need to link directly to
1155functions defined in the C or XS code in the stated file.
1156
a0d0e21e
LW
1157=item Can't modify %s in %s
1158
be771a83
GS
1159(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try
1160to change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 1161
54310121 1162=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
1163
1164(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
1165a NULL.
1166
0f948285 1167=item Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call of &%s
6df41af2
GS
1168
1169(F) Subroutines meant to be used in lvalue context should be declared as
2fe2bdfd 1170such. See L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
6df41af2 1171
cf6e1fa1
FC
1172=item Can't modify reference to %s in %s assignment
1173
1174(F) Only a limited number of constructs can be used as the argument to a
1175reference constructor on the left-hand side of an assignment, and what
1176you used was not one of them. See L<perlref/Assigning to References>.
1177
1178=item Can't modify reference to localized parenthesized array in list
1179assignment
1180
1181(F) Assigning to C<\local(@array)> or C<\(local @array)> is not supported, as
1182it is not clear exactly what it should do. If you meant to make @array
1183refer to some other array, use C<\@array = \@other_array>. If you want to
1184make the elements of @array aliases of the scalars referenced on the
1185right-hand side, use C<\(@array) = @scalar_refs>.
1186
1187=item Can't modify reference to parenthesized hash in list assignment
1188
1189(F) Assigning to C<\(%hash)> is not supported. If you meant to make %hash
1190refer to some other hash, use C<\%hash = \%other_hash>. If you want to
1191make the elements of %hash into aliases of the scalars referenced on the
1192right-hand side, use a hash slice: C<\@hash{@keys} = @those_scalar_refs>.
1193
5f05dabc 1194=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 1195
5f05dabc 1196(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
1197buffer.
1198
6df41af2
GS
1199=item Can't "next" outside a loop block
1200
1201(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
1202there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
be771a83
GS
1203count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or
1204grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1205though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that loops
1206once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
6df41af2 1207
a0d0e21e
LW
1208=item Can't open %s: %s
1209
c47ff5f1 1210(S inplace) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<< <> >>
08e9d68e 1211filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
46fa9b26
FC
1212switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually
1213this is because you don't have read permission for a file which
1214you named on the command line.
1215
1216(F) You tried to call perl with the B<-e> switch, but F</dev/null> (or
1217your operating system's equivalent) could not be opened.
a0d0e21e 1218
9a869a14
RGS
1219=item Can't open a reference
1220
1221(W io) You tried to open a scalar reference for reading or writing,
2fe2bdfd 1222using the 3-arg open() syntax:
9a869a14
RGS
1223
1224 open FH, '>', $ref;
1225
1226but your version of perl is compiled without perlio, and this form of
1227open is not supported.
1228
a0d0e21e
LW
1229=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
1230
be771a83
GS
1231(W pipe) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported.
1232You can try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such
1233as IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using
1234">", and then read it in under a different file handle.
a0d0e21e 1235
748a9306
LW
1236=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
1237
be771a83
GS
1238(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1239redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '2>' or '2>>' on
1240the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1241
1242=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
1243
be771a83
GS
1244(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1245redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '<' on the
1246command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
1247
1248=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
1249
be771a83
GS
1250(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1251redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '>' or '>>' on
1252the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1253
1254=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
1255
be771a83
GS
1256(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1257redirection, and couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined
1258for stdout.
748a9306 1259
3b1cf97d 1260=item Can't open perl script "%s": %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1261
1262(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
1263
fa3aa65a
JC
1264If you're debugging a script that uses #!, and normally relies on the
1265shell's $PATH search, the -S option causes perl to do that search, so
1266you don't have to type the path or C<`which $scriptname`>.
1267
6df41af2
GS
1268=item Can't read CRTL environ
1269
1270(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read an element of %ENV
1271from the CRTL's internal environment array and discovered the array was
1272missing. You need to figure out where your CRTL misplaced its environ
be771a83
GS
1273or define F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that environ is not
1274searched.
6df41af2 1275
f3106bc8
LM
1276=item Can't redeclare "%s" in "%s"
1277
1278(F) A "my", "our" or "state" declaration was found within another declaration,
1279such as C<my ($x, my($y), $z)> or C<our (my $x)>.
1280
6df41af2
GS
1281=item Can't "redo" outside a loop block
1282
1283(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
1284there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
1285count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map()
1286or grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1287though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that
1288loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
1289
64977eb6 1290=item Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file
10f9c03d 1291
be771a83
GS
1292(S inplace) You requested an inplace edit without creating a backup
1293file. Perl was unable to remove the original file to replace it with
1294the modified file. The file was left unmodified.
10f9c03d 1295
a0d0e21e
LW
1296=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
1297
e476b1b5 1298(S inplace) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason,
10f9c03d 1299probably because you don't have write permission to the directory.
a0d0e21e 1300
748a9306
LW
1301=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
1302
be771a83
GS
1303(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried
1304to reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
748a9306 1305
9415f659
KW
1306=item Can't represent character for Ox%X on this platform
1307
1308(F) There is a hard limit to how big a character code point can be due
1309to the fundamental properties of UTF-8, especially on EBCDIC
1310platforms. The given code point exceeds that. The only work-around is
1311to not use such a large code point.
1312
4f12ec0e
FC
1313=item Can't reset %ENV on this system
1314
1315(F) You called C<reset('E')> or similar, which tried to reset
1316all variables in the current package beginning with "E". In
1317the main package, that includes %ENV. Resetting %ENV is not
1318supported on some systems, notably VMS.
1319
fe13d51d 1320=item Can't resolve method "%s" overloading "%s" in package "%s"
6df41af2 1321
1fa582fa
FC
1322(F)(P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as
1323opposed to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the
1324package. If the method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
6df41af2 1325
cd06dffe
GS
1326=item Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine
1327
be771a83
GS
1328(F) Perl detected an attempt to return illegal lvalues (such as
1329temporary or readonly values) from a subroutine used as an lvalue. This
1330is not allowed.
cd06dffe 1331
96ebfdd7
RK
1332=item Can't return outside a subroutine
1333
1334(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
1335there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
1336
78f9721b
SM
1337=item Can't return %s to lvalue scalar context
1338
6903afa2
FC
1339(F) You tried to return a complete array or hash from an lvalue
1340subroutine, but you called the subroutine in a way that made Perl
1341think you meant to return only one value. You probably meant to
1342write parentheses around the call to the subroutine, which tell
1343Perl that the call should be in list context.
78f9721b 1344
a0d0e21e
LW
1345=item Can't stat script "%s"
1346
be771a83
GS
1347(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have it
1348open already. Bizarre.
a0d0e21e 1349
a0d0e21e
LW
1350=item Can't take log of %g
1351
fb73857a 1352(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
6903afa2 1353negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
be771a83
GS
1354standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for the
1355negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
1356
1357=item Can't take sqrt of %g
1358
1359(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a
PP
1360negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
1361with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
1362
1363=item Can't undef active subroutine
1364
1365(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
1366however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
1367redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
1368
c81225bc 1369=item Can't upgrade %s (%d) to %d
a0d0e21e 1370
be771a83
GS
1371(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making it
1372into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are so
1373specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This message
1374indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
a0d0e21e 1375
6651ba0b
FC
1376=item Can't use '%c' after -mname
1377
1378(F) You tried to call perl with the B<-m> switch, but you put something
1379other than "=" after the module name.
1380
1f1ec7b5
KW
1381=item Can't use a hash as a reference
1382
1383(F) You tried to use a hash as a reference, as in
66a1f5ec
FC
1384C<< %foo->{"bar"} >> or C<< %$ref->{"hello"} >>. Versions of perl
1385<= 5.22.0 used to allow this syntax, but shouldn't
1386have. This was deprecated in perl 5.6.1.
1f1ec7b5
KW
1387
1388=item Can't use an array as a reference
1389
1390(F) You tried to use an array as a reference, as in
66a1f5ec
FC
1391C<< @foo->[23] >> or C<< @$ref->[99] >>. Versions of perl <= 5.22.0
1392used to allow this syntax, but shouldn't have. This
1393was deprecated in perl 5.6.1.
1f1ec7b5 1394
1db89ea5
BS
1395=item Can't use anonymous symbol table for method lookup
1396
e27ad1f2 1397(F) The internal routine that does method lookup was handed a symbol
1db89ea5
BS
1398table that doesn't have a name. Symbol tables can become anonymous
1399for example by undefining stashes: C<undef %Some::Package::>.
1400
96ebfdd7
RK
1401=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
1402
1403(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
1404be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
1405
6df41af2
GS
1406=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
1407
be771a83
GS
1408(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1409references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 1410
90b75b61 1411=item Can't use %! because Errno.pm is not available
1d2dff63 1412
20561843 1413(F) The first time the C<%!> hash is used, perl automatically loads the
6903afa2 1414Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
1d2dff63
GS
1415provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
1416
1109a392
MHM
1417=item Can't use both '<' and '>' after type '%c' in %s
1418
1419(F) A type cannot be forced to have both big-endian and little-endian
1420byte-order at the same time, so this combination of modifiers is not
1421allowed. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1422
e35475de
KW
1423=item Can't use 'defined(@array)' (Maybe you should just omit the defined()?)
1424
1425(F) defined() is not useful on arrays because it
1426checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the
1427array is empty, just use C<if (@array) { # not empty }> for example.
1428
1429=item Can't use 'defined(%hash)' (Maybe you should just omit the defined()?)
1430
1431(F) C<defined()> is not usually right on hashes.
1432
1433Although C<defined %hash> is false on a plain not-yet-used hash, it
1434becomes true in several non-obvious circumstances, including iterators,
1435weak references, stash names, even remaining true after C<undef %hash>.
1436These things make C<defined %hash> fairly useless in practice, so it now
1437generates a fatal error.
1438
1439If a check for non-empty is what you wanted then just put it in boolean
1440context (see L<perldata/Scalar values>):
1441
1442 if (%hash) {
1443 # not empty
1444 }
1445
1446If you had C<defined %Foo::Bar::QUUX> to check whether such a package
1447variable exists then that's never really been reliable, and isn't
1448a good way to enquire about the features of a package, or whether
1449it's loaded, etc.
1450
6df41af2
GS
1451=item Can't use %s for loop variable
1452
c1f06047 1453(P) The parser got confused when trying to parse a C<foreach> loop.
6df41af2 1454
aab6a793 1455=item Can't use global %s in "%s"
6df41af2 1456
be771a83
GS
1457(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This
1458is not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location
1459(namely the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to
1460have variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
6df41af2
GS
1461weren't.
1462
6d3b25aa
RGS
1463=item Can't use '%c' in a group with different byte-order in %s
1464
1465(F) You attempted to force a different byte-order on a type
1466that is already inside a group with a byte-order modifier.
1467For example you cannot force little-endianness on a type that
1468is inside a big-endian group.
1469
c07a80fd
PP
1470=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
1471
1472(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
c47ff5f1 1473You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the <=> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd
PP
1474and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
1475Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
1476lexical variable.
1477
a0d0e21e
LW
1478=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
1479
1480(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
1481reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
1482test the type of the reference, if need be.
1483
748a9306 1484=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e 1485
5e634d20
FC
1486=item Can't use string ("%s"...) as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
1487
b41bf23f
FC
1488(F) You've told Perl to dereference a string, something which
1489C<use strict> blocks to prevent it happening accidentally. See
1490L<perlref/"Symbolic references">. This can be triggered by an C<@> or C<$>
1491in a double-quoted string immediately before interpolating a variable,
1492for example in C<"user @$twitter_id">, which says to treat the contents
1493of C<$twitter_id> as an array reference; use a C<\> to have a literal C<@>
1494symbol followed by the contents of C<$twitter_id>: C<"user \@$twitter_id">.
a0d0e21e 1495
748a9306
LW
1496=item Can't use subscript on %s
1497
1498(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
1499subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
209e7cf1 1500didn't look like a hash or array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
748a9306 1501
6df41af2
GS
1502=item Can't use \%c to mean $%c in expression
1503
75b44862
GS
1504(W syntax) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that
1505creates a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a
1506backreference to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular
be771a83
GS
1507expression pattern. Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a
1508value that prints out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form
1509instead.
6df41af2 1510
810b8aa5
GS
1511=item Can't weaken a nonreference
1512
1513(F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference. Only
1514references can be weakened.
1515
fc7debfb
FC
1516=item Can't "when" outside a topicalizer
1517
1518(F) You have used a when() block that is neither inside a C<foreach>
1519loop nor a C<given> block. (Note that this error is issued on exit
1520from the C<when> block, so you won't get the error if the match fails,
1521or if you use an explicit C<continue>.)
1522
5f05dabc 1523=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e 1524
be771a83
GS
1525(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value)
1526with an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
a0d0e21e
LW
1527Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
1528
a04e6aad 1529=item Character following "\c" must be printable ASCII
f9d13529 1530
7357bd17 1531(F) In C<\cI<X>>, I<X> must be a printable (non-control) ASCII character.
17a3df4c 1532
727b6379 1533Note that ASCII characters that don't map to control characters are
7357bd17 1534discouraged, and will generate the warning (when enabled)
d4360efa 1535L</""\c%c" is more clearly written simply as "%s"">.
f9d13529 1536
163a633c
KW
1537=item Character following \%c must be '{' or a single-character Unicode property name in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1538
1539(F) (In the above the C<%c> is replaced by either C<p> or C<P>.) You
1540specified something that isn't a legal Unicode property name. Most
1541Unicode properties are specified by C<\p{...}>. But if the name is a
1542single character one, the braces may be omitted.
1543
f337b084 1544=item Character in 'C' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1545
1546(W pack) You said
1547
1548 pack("C", $x)
1549
1550where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255; the C<"C"> format is
1551only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1552and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1553
1554 pack("C", $x & 255)
1555
1556If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1557instead.
1558
f337b084 1559=item Character in 'c' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1560
1561(W pack) You said
1562
1563 pack("c", $x)
1564
1565where $x is either less than -128 or more than 127; the C<"c"> format
1566is only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1567and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1568
1569 pack("c", $x & 255);
1570
1571If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1572instead.
1573
f337b084
TH
1574=item Character in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1575
1576(W unpack) You tried something like
1577
1578 unpack("H", "\x{2a1}")
1579
1a147d38 1580where the format expects to process a byte (a character with a value
6903afa2
FC
1581below 256), but a higher value was provided instead. Perl uses the
1582value modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
f337b084
TH
1583
1584 unpack("H", "\x{a1}")
1585
5a25739d
FC
1586=item Character in 'W' format wrapped in pack
1587
1588(W pack) You said
1589
1590 pack("U0W", $x)
1591
1592where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255. However, C<U0>-mode
1593expects all values to fall in the interval [0, 255], so Perl behaved
1594as if you meant:
1595
1596 pack("U0W", $x & 255)
1597
f337b084
TH
1598=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in pack
1599
1600(W pack) You tried something like
1601
1602 pack("u", "\x{1f3}b")
1603
1a147d38 1604where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
6903afa2 1605value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1606uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1607
1608 pack("u", "\x{f3}b")
1609
1610=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1611
1612(W unpack) You tried something like
1613
1614 unpack("s", "\x{1f3}b")
1615
1a147d38 1616where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
6903afa2 1617value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1618uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1619
1620 unpack("s", "\x{f3}b")
1621
f51551f7
FC
1622=item charnames alias definitions may not contain a sequence of multiple spaces
1623
1624(F) You defined a character name which had multiple space characters
1625in a row. Change them to single spaces. Usually these names are
1626defined in the C<:alias> import argument to C<use charnames>, but they
1627could be defined by a translator installed into C<$^H{charnames}>. See
1628L<charnames/CUSTOM ALIASES>.
1629
1630=item charnames alias definitions may not contain trailing white-space
1631
1632(F) You defined a character name which ended in a space
1633character. Remove the trailing space(s). Usually these names are
1634defined in the C<:alias> import argument to C<use charnames>, but they
1635could be defined by a translator installed into C<$^H{charnames}>.
1636See L<charnames/CUSTOM ALIASES>.
1637
60121127
TC
1638=item chdir() on unopened filehandle %s
1639
1640(W unopened) You tried chdir() on a filehandle that was never opened.
1641
d4360efa 1642=item "\c%c" is more clearly written simply as "%s"
f866a7cd 1643
d4360efa
S
1644(W syntax) The C<\cI<X>> construct is intended to be a way to specify
1645non-printable characters. You used it for a printable one, which
1646is better written as simply itself, perhaps preceded by a backslash
1647for non-word characters. Doing it the way you did is not portable
1648between ASCII and EBCDIC platforms.
f866a7cd 1649
6651ba0b
FC
1650=item Cloning substitution context is unimplemented
1651
1652(F) Creating a new thread inside the C<s///> operator is not supported.
1653
abc7ecad
SP
1654=item closedir() attempted on invalid dirhandle %s
1655
1656(W io) The dirhandle you tried to close is either closed or not really
1657a dirhandle. Check your control flow.
1658
5a25739d
FC
1659=item close() on unopened filehandle %s
1660
1661(W unopened) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
1662
541ed3a9
FC
1663=item Closure prototype called
1664
1665(F) If a closure has attributes, the subroutine passed to an attribute
1666handler is the prototype that is cloned when a new closure is created.
1667This subroutine cannot be called.
1668
74d1b2e4
FC
1669=item \C no longer supported in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
1670
1671(F) The \C character class used to allow a match of single byte
1672within a multi-byte utf-8 character, but was removed in v5.24 as
1673it broke encapsulation and its implementation was extremely buggy.
1674If you really need to process the individual bytes, you probably
1675want to convert your string to one where each underlying byte is
1676stored as a character, with utf8::encode().
1677
49704364
LW
1678=item Code missing after '/'
1679
6903afa2
FC
1680(F) You had a (sub-)template that ends with a '/'. There must be
1681another template code following the slash. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
49704364 1682
c0236afe
KW
1683=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, and not portable
1684
1685(S non_unicode) You had a code point that has never been in any
1686standard, so it is likely that languages other than Perl will NOT
1687understand it. At one time, it was legal in some standards to have code
1688points up to 0x7FFF_FFFF, but not higher, and this code point is higher.
1689
1690Acceptance of these code points is a Perl extension, and you should
1691expect that nothing other than Perl can handle them; Perl itself on
1692EBCDIC platforms before v5.24 does not handle them.
1693
1694Code points above 0xFFFF_FFFF require larger than a 32 bit word.
1695
1696Perl also makes no guarantees that the representation of these code
1697points won't change at some point in the future, say when machines
1698become available that have larger than a 64-bit word. At that time,
1699files written by an older Perl would require conversion before being
1700readable by a newer Perl.
1701
5a25739d
FC
1702=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, may not be portable
1703
2d88a86a 1704(S non_unicode) You had a code point above the Unicode maximum
1b64326b
FC
1705of U+10FFFF.
1706
c0236afe
KW
1707Perl allows strings to contain a superset of Unicode code points, but
1708these may not be accepted by other languages/systems. Further, even if
1709these languages/systems accept these large code points, they may have
1710chosen a different representation for them than the UTF-8-like one that
1711Perl has, which would mean files are not exchangeable between them and
1712Perl.
1713
1714On EBCDIC platforms, code points above 0x3FFF_FFFF have a different
1715representation in Perl v5.24 than before, so any file containing these
1716that was written before that version will require conversion before
1717being readable by a later Perl.
0876b9a0 1718
6df41af2
GS
1719=item %s: Command not found
1720
a892b81a 1721(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> or another shell
66a1f5ec
FC
1722instead of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
1723Perl yourself. The #! line at the top of your file could look like
8f721816 1724
3bcfc7b3
LM
1725 #!/usr/bin/perl
1726
1727=item %s: command not found
1728
1729(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<bash> or another shell
1730instead of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
1731Perl yourself. The #! line at the top of your file could look like
1732
1733 #!/usr/bin/perl
1734
1735=item %s: command not found: %s
1736
1737(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<zsh> or another shell
1738instead of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
1739Perl yourself. The #! line at the top of your file could look like
1740
1741 #!/usr/bin/perl
6df41af2 1742
7a2e2cd6
PP
1743=item Compilation failed in require
1744
1745(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
be771a83
GS
1746Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it
1747encountered were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
7a2e2cd6 1748
c3464db5
DD
1749=item Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
1750
be771a83
GS
1751(W regexp) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex
1752situations where back-tracking is required. Recursion depth is limited
1753to 32766, or perhaps less in architectures where the stack cannot grow
1754arbitrarily. ("Simple" and "medium" situations are handled without
1755recursion and are not subject to a limit.) Try shortening the string
1756under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with C<while>) rather than
1757in the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular expression so
c2e66d9e 1758that it is simpler or backtracks less. (See L<perlfaq2> for information
be771a83 1759on I<Mastering Regular Expressions>.)
c3464db5 1760
69282e91 1761=item connect() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1762
be771a83
GS
1763(W closed) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget
1764to check the return value of your socket() call? See
1765L<perlfunc/connect>.
a0d0e21e 1766
e21e7c6a
FC
1767=item Constant(%s): Call to &{$^H{%s}} did not return a defined value
1768
1769(F) The subroutine registered to handle constant overloading
1770(see L<overload>) or a custom charnames handler (see
1771L<charnames/CUSTOM TRANSLATORS>) returned an undefined value.
1772
1773=item Constant(%s): $^H{%s} is not defined
1774
1775(F) The parser found inconsistencies while attempting to define an
1776overloaded constant. Perhaps you forgot to load the corresponding
f738a371 1777L<overload> pragma?
e21e7c6a 1778
779c5bc9
GS
1779=item Constant is not %s reference
1780
1781(F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the C<use constant> pragma)
be771a83 1782is being dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference.
6903afa2 1783The message indicates the type of reference that was expected. This
be771a83 1784usually indicates a syntax error in dereferencing the constant value.
779c5bc9
GS
1785See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> and L<constant>.
1786
0ac016fc 1787=item Constants from lexical variables potentially modified elsewhere are
9840d1d6 1788deprecated. This will not be allowed in Perl 5.32
0ac016fc
FC
1789
1790(D deprecated) You wrote something like
1791
1792 my $var;
1793 $sub = sub () { $var };
1794
1795but $var is referenced elsewhere and could be modified after the C<sub>
1796expression is evaluated. Either it is explicitly modified elsewhere
1797(C<$var = 3>) or it is passed to a subroutine or to an operator like
1798C<printf> or C<map>, which may or may not modify the variable.
1799
1800Traditionally, Perl has captured the value of the variable at that
1801point and turned the subroutine into a constant eligible for inlining.
1802In those cases where the variable can be modified elsewhere, this
1803breaks the behavior of closures, in which the subroutine captures
1804the variable itself, rather than its value, so future changes to the
1805variable are reflected in the subroutine's return value.
1806
9840d1d6
A
1807This usage is deprecated, and will no longer be allowed in Perl 5.32,
1808making it possible to change the behavior in the future.
0ac016fc
FC
1809
1810If you intended for the subroutine to be eligible for inlining, then
1811make sure the variable is not referenced elsewhere, possibly by
1812copying it:
1813
1814 my $var2 = $var;
1815 $sub = sub () { $var2 };
1816
1817If you do want this subroutine to be a closure that reflects future
1818changes to the variable that it closes over, add an explicit C<return>:
1819
1820 my $var;
1821 $sub = sub () { return $var };
1822
4cee8e80
CS
1823=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
1824
aeb94125
FC
1825(W redefine)(S) You redefined a subroutine which had previously
1826been eligible for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions">
1827for commentary and workarounds.
4cee8e80 1828
9607fc9c
PP
1829=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
1830
be771a83
GS
1831(W misc) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible
1832for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1833workarounds.
9607fc9c 1834
5a25739d
FC
1835=item Constant(%s) unknown
1836
1837(F) The parser found inconsistencies either while attempting
1838to define an overloaded constant, or when trying to find the
1839character name specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you
3ee1a09c 1840forgot to load the corresponding L<overload> pragma?
5a25739d 1841
4a873d7a
FC
1842=item :const is experimental
1843
1844(S experimental::const_attr) The "const" attribute is experimental.
1845If you want to use the feature, disable the warning with C<no warnings
1846'experimental::const_attr'>, but know that in doing so you are taking
1847the risk that your code may break in a future Perl version.
1848
b77472f9
FC
1849=item :const is not permitted on named subroutines
1850
1851(F) The "const" attribute causes an anonymous subroutine to be run and
465068b9 1852its value captured at the time that it is cloned. Named subroutines are
b77472f9
FC
1853not cloned like this, so the attribute does not make sense on them.
1854
e7ea3e70
IZ
1855=item Copy method did not return a reference
1856
6903afa2 1857(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See
13a2d996 1858L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
e7ea3e70 1859
4aaa4757
FC
1860=item &CORE::%s cannot be called directly
1861
1862(F) You tried to call a subroutine in the C<CORE::> namespace
8d605c0d 1863with C<&foo> syntax or through a reference. Some subroutines
4aaa4757
FC
1864in this package cannot yet be called that way, but must be
1865called as barewords. Something like this will work:
1866
1867 BEGIN { *shove = \&CORE::push; }
1868 shove @array, 1,2,3; # pushes on to @array
1869
6798c92b
GS
1870=item CORE::%s is not a keyword
1871
1872(F) The CORE:: namespace is reserved for Perl keywords.
1873
675fa9ff
FC
1874=item Corrupted regexp opcode %d > %d
1875
1876(P) This is either an error in Perl, or, if you're using
1877one, your L<custom regular expression engine|perlreapi>. If not the
1878latter, report the problem through the L<perlbug> utility.
1879
a0d0e21e
LW
1880=item corrupted regexp pointers
1881
1882(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1883expression compiler gave it.
1884
1885=item corrupted regexp program
1886
be771a83
GS
1887(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without a
1888valid magic number.
a0d0e21e 1889
de42a5a9 1890=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%x at 0x%x
6df41af2
GS
1891
1892(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
1893
49704364
LW
1894=item Count after length/code in unpack
1895
1896(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string, but
1897you have also specified an explicit size for the string. See
1898L<perlfunc/pack>.
1899
3f645a4e
FC
1900=item Declaring references is experimental
1901
1902(S experimental::declared_refs) This warning is emitted if you use
1903a reference constructor on the right-hand side of C<my>, C<state>, C<our>, or
1904C<local>. Simply suppress the warning if you want to use the feature, but
1905know that in doing so you are taking the risk of using an experimental
1906feature which may change or be removed in a future Perl version:
1907
1908 no warnings "experimental::declared_refs";
1909 use feature "declared_refs";
1910 $fooref = my \$foo;
1911
f2cccb4c
KW
1912=for comment
1913The following are used in lib/diagnostics.t for testing two =items that
1914share the same description. Changes here need to be propagated to there
1915
6651ba0b
FC
1916=item Deep recursion on anonymous subroutine
1917
a0d0e21e
LW
1918=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
1919
be771a83
GS
1920(W recursion) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly)
1921100 times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an
1922infinite recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in
1923which case it indicates something else.
a0d0e21e 1924
aad1d01f
NC
1925This threshold can be changed from 100, by recompiling the F<perl> binary,
1926setting the C pre-processor macro C<PERL_SUB_DEPTH_WARN> to the desired value.
1927
e0e4a6e3
FC
1928=item (?(DEFINE)....) does not allow branches in regex; marked by
1929S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
bcb95744 1930
6903afa2 1931(F) You used something like C<(?(DEFINE)...|..)> which is illegal. The
bcb95744
FC
1932most likely cause of this error is that you left out a parenthesis inside
1933of the C<....> part.
1934
6e8a73f2 1935The S<<-- HERE> shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
bcb95744
FC
1936discovered.
1937
62658f4d
PM
1938=item %s defines neither package nor VERSION--version check failed
1939
1940(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but in the Module file
1941there are neither package declarations nor a C<$VERSION>.
1942
0ffcbc25
FC
1943=item delete argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice
1944
4a0af295 1945(F) The argument to C<delete> must be either a hash or array element,
0ffcbc25
FC
1946such as:
1947
1948 $foo{$bar}
1949 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
1950
1951or a hash or array slice, such as:
1952
1953 @foo[$bar, $baz, $xyzzy]
1954 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
1955
cc0776d6
DIM
1956or a hash key/value or array index/value slice, such as:
1957
1958 %foo[$bar, $baz, $xyzzy]
1959 %{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
1960
fc36a67e
PP
1961=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1962
be771a83
GS
1963(F) In a here document construct like C<<<FOO>, the label C<FOO> is too
1964long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously twisted to write code
1965that triggers this error.
fc36a67e 1966
c437f7ac 1967=item Deprecated use of my() in false conditional. This will be a fatal error in Perl 5.30
6d3b25aa 1968
fa816bf3
FC
1969(D deprecated) You used a declaration similar to C<my $x if 0>. There
1970has been a long-standing bug in Perl that causes a lexical variable
6d3b25aa 1971not to be cleared at scope exit when its declaration includes a false
6903afa2 1972conditional. Some people have exploited this bug to achieve a kind of
fa816bf3 1973static variable. Since we intend to fix this bug, we don't want people
6903afa2 1974relying on this behavior. You can achieve a similar static effect by
6d3b25aa 1975declaring the variable in a separate block outside the function, eg
36fb85f3 1976
6d3b25aa
RGS
1977 sub f { my $x if 0; return $x++ }
1978
1979becomes
1980
1981 { my $x; sub f { return $x++ } }
1982
ea9d9ebc 1983Beginning with perl 5.10.0, you can also use C<state> variables to have
fa816bf3 1984lexicals that are initialized only once (see L<feature>):
36fb85f3
RGS
1985
1986 sub f { state $x; return $x++ }
1987
c437f7ac
A
1988This use of C<my()> in a false conditional has been deprecated since
1989Perl 5.10, and it will become a fatal error in Perl 5.30.
1990
500ab966
RGS
1991=item DESTROY created new reference to dead object '%s'
1992
1993(F) A DESTROY() method created a new reference to the object which is
6903afa2
FC
1994just being DESTROYed. Perl is confused, and prefers to abort rather
1995than to create a dangling reference.
500ab966 1996
3cdd684c
TP
1997=item Did not produce a valid header
1998
3de20fbe 1999See L</500 Server error>.
3cdd684c 2000
6df41af2
GS
2001=item %s did not return a true value
2002
2003(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
2004it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
2005traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
2006do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
2007
cc507455 2008=item (Did you mean &%s instead?)
4633a7c4 2009
413ff9f6
FC
2010(W misc) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or
2011some such.
4633a7c4 2012
cc507455 2013=item (Did you mean "local" instead of "our"?)
33633739 2014
be771a83
GS
2015(W misc) Remember that "our" does not localize the declared global
2016variable. You have declared it again in the same lexical scope, which
2017seems superfluous.
33633739 2018
cc507455 2019=item (Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?)
a0d0e21e 2020
be771a83
GS
2021(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or
2022@hash{@keys}. On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got
2023carried away.
748a9306 2024
7e1af8bc 2025=item Died
5f05dabc
PP
2026
2027(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
075b00aa 2028you called it with no args and C<$@> was empty.
5f05dabc 2029
3cdd684c
TP
2030=item Document contains no data
2031
3de20fbe 2032See L</500 Server error>.
3cdd684c 2033
62658f4d
PM
2034=item %s does not define %s::VERSION--version check failed
2035
2036(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but the Module did not
943fc58e 2037define a C<$VERSION>.
62658f4d 2038
49704364
LW
2039=item '/' does not take a repeat count
2040
2041(F) You cannot put a repeat count of any kind right after the '/' code.
2042See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2043
1c99110e 2044=item do "%s" failed, '.' is no longer in @INC; did you mean do "./%s"?
2a0461a3 2045
b28683c9 2046(D deprecated) Previously C< do "somefile"; > would search the current
1c99110e
DM
2047directory for the specified file. Since perl v5.26.0, F<.> has been
2048removed from C<@INC> by default, so this is no longer true. To search the
2049current directory (and only the current directory) you can write
2050C< do "./somefile"; >.
2a0461a3 2051
95cb0d72
FC
2052=item Don't know how to get file name
2053
2054(P) C<PerlIO_getname>, a perl internal I/O function specific to VMS, was
2055somehow called on another platform. This should not happen.
2056
4021c788 2057=item Don't know how to handle magic of type \%o
a0d0e21e
LW
2058
2059(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
2060
2061=item do_study: out of memory
2062
2063(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
2064
6df41af2
GS
2065=item (Do you need to predeclare %s?)
2066
56da5a46
RGS
2067(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2068"%s found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
6df41af2
GS
2069name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
2070because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
be771a83
GS
2071"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're referencing
2072something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have to define the
2073subroutine or package before the current location. You can use an empty
2074"sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward" declaration.
6df41af2 2075
30b17cc1 2076=item dump() better written as CORE::dump(). dump() will no longer be available in Perl 5.30
ac206dc8 2077
30b17cc1
A
2078(D deprecated, misc) You used the obsolescent C<dump()> built-in function,
2079without fully qualifying it as C<CORE::dump()>. Maybe it's a typo.
2080
4fa40147 2081Use of a unqualified C<dump()> was deprecated in Perl 5.8.0, and this
30b17cc1
A
2082will not be available in Perl 5.30.
2083
2084See L<perlfunc/dump>.
ac206dc8 2085
84d78eb7
YO
2086=item dump is not supported
2087
2088(F) Your machine doesn't support dump/undump.
2089
a0d0e21e
LW
2090=item Duplicate free() ignored
2091
be771a83
GS
2092(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had
2093already been freed.
a0d0e21e 2094
1109a392
MHM
2095=item Duplicate modifier '%c' after '%c' in %s
2096
35f0cd76
FC
2097(W unpack) You have applied the same modifier more than once after a
2098type in a pack template. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1109a392 2099
4633a7c4
LW
2100=item elseif should be elsif
2101
fa816bf3
FC
2102(S syntax) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks
2103it's ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method
2104named "elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
4633a7c4
LW
2105unlikely to be what you want.
2106
c30c479a
KW
2107=item Empty \%c in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
2108
e0e4a6e3 2109=item Empty \%c{} in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
ab13f0c7 2110
af6f566e 2111(F) C<\p> and C<\P> are used to introduce a named Unicode property, as
6903afa2 2112described in L<perlunicode> and L<perlre>. You used C<\p> or C<\P> in
af6f566e 2113a regular expression without specifying the property name.
ab13f0c7 2114
ac641426 2115=item ${^ENCODING} is no longer supported. Its use will be fatal in Perl 5.28
a15a3d9b
FC
2116
2117(D deprecated) The special variable C<${^ENCODING}>, formerly used to implement
2118the C<encoding> pragma, is no longer supported as of Perl 5.26.0.
2119
ac641426
A
2120Setting this variable will become a fatal error in Perl 5.28.
2121
85ab1d1d 2122=item entering effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 2123
85ab1d1d 2124(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
2125effective uids or gids failed.
2126
c038024b
RGS
2127=item %ENV is aliased to %s
2128
2129(F) You're running under taint mode, and the C<%ENV> variable has been
2130aliased to another hash, so it doesn't reflect anymore the state of the
6903afa2 2131program's environment. This is potentially insecure.
c038024b 2132
748a9306
LW
2133=item Error converting file specification %s
2134
5f05dabc 2135(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306 2136specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
be771a83
GS
2137single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've passed
2138an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a case the
2139conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
748a9306 2140
ad19ef22 2141=item Eval-group in insecure regular expression
e4d48cc9 2142
be771a83
GS
2143(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
2144expression that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which
2145is unsafe. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
e4d48cc9 2146
ad19ef22 2147=item Eval-group not allowed at runtime, use re 'eval' in regex m/%s/
e4d48cc9 2148
be771a83
GS
2149(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the
2150C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the
f11307f5
FC
2151pattern contains interpolated values. Since that is a security risk,
2152it is not allowed. If you insist, you may still do this by using the
2153C<re 'eval'> pragma or by explicitly building the pattern from an
2154interpolated string at run time and using that in an eval(). See
2155L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
e4d48cc9 2156
ad19ef22 2157=item Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval' in regex m/%s/
6df41af2 2158
be771a83
GS
2159(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width
2160assertion, but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'>
2161pragma is in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
6df41af2 2162
e0e4a6e3
FC
2163=item EVAL without pos change exceeded limit in regex; marked by
2164S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
1a147d38
YO
2165
2166(F) You used a pattern that nested too many EVAL calls without consuming
6903afa2 2167any text. Restructure the pattern so that text is consumed.
1a147d38 2168
6e8a73f2 2169The S<<-- HERE> shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
1a147d38
YO
2170discovered.
2171
fc36a67e
PP
2172=item Excessively long <> operator
2173
2174(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
2175Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
2176filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
2177variable and glob that.
2178
ed9aa3b7
SG
2179=item exec? I'm not *that* kind of operating system
2180
af8bb25a 2181(F) The C<exec> function is not implemented on some systems, e.g., Symbian
6903afa2 2182OS. See L<perlport>.
ed9aa3b7 2183
c77da5ff 2184=item %sExecution of %s aborted due to compilation errors.
a0d0e21e
LW
2185
2186(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
2187
0ffcbc25
FC
2188=item exists argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or a subroutine
2189
4a0af295 2190(F) The argument to C<exists> must be a hash or array element or a
0ffcbc25
FC
2191subroutine with an ampersand, such as:
2192
2193 $foo{$bar}
2194 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
2195 &do_something
2196
2197=item exists argument is not a subroutine name
2198
ccfc2567
FC
2199(F) The argument to C<exists> for C<exists &sub> must be a subroutine name,
2200and not a subroutine call. C<exists &sub()> will generate this error.
0ffcbc25 2201
a0d0e21e
LW
2202=item Exiting eval via %s
2203
be771a83
GS
2204(W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as a
2205goto, or a loop control statement.
e476b1b5
GS
2206
2207=item Exiting format via %s
2208
9a2ff54b 2209(W exiting) You are exiting a format by unconventional means, such as a
be771a83 2210goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 2211
0a753a76
PP
2212=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
2213
be771a83
GS
2214(W exiting) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a
2215sort block or subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a
2216loop control statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
0a753a76 2217
a0d0e21e
LW
2218=item Exiting subroutine via %s
2219
be771a83
GS
2220(W exiting) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such
2221as a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
2222
2223=item Exiting substitution via %s
2224
be771a83
GS
2225(W exiting) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such
2226as a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 2227
e0e4a6e3 2228=item Expecting close bracket in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
c608e803 2229
675fa9ff 2230(F) You wrote something like
c608e803
KW
2231
2232 (?13
2233
2234to denote a capturing group of the form
2235L<C<(?I<PARNO>)>|perlre/(?PARNO) (?-PARNO) (?+PARNO) (?R) (?0)>,
2236but omitted the C<")">.
2237
e0e4a6e3 2238=item Expecting '(?flags:(?[...' in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
27350048 2239
8b6fbf55
FC
2240(F) The C<(?[...])> extended character class regular expression construct
2241only allows character classes (including character class escapes like
2242C<\d>), operators, and parentheses. The one exception is C<(?flags:...)>
2243containing at least one flag and exactly one C<(?[...])> construct.
27350048
FC
2244This allows a regular expression containing just C<(?[...])> to be
2245interpolated. If you see this error message, then you probably
2246have some other C<(?...)> construct inside your character class. See
2247L<perlrecharclass/Extended Bracketed Character Classes>.
2248
baabe3fb 2249=item Experimental aliasing via reference not enabled
1f8155a2 2250
baabe3fb 2251(F) To do aliasing via references, you must first enable the feature:
1f8155a2 2252
baabe3fb
FC
2253 no warnings "experimental::refaliasing";
2254 use feature "refaliasing";
1f8155a2
FC
2255 \$x = \$y;
2256
74d1b2e4
FC
2257=item Experimental %s on scalar is now forbidden
2258
2259(F) An experimental feature added in Perl 5.14 allowed C<each>, C<keys>,
2260C<push>, C<pop>, C<shift>, C<splice>, C<unshift>, and C<values> to be called with a
2261scalar argument. This experiment is considered unsuccessful, and
2262has been removed. The C<postderef> feature may meet your needs better.
2263
30d9c59b
Z
2264=item Experimental subroutine signatures not enabled
2265
2266(F) To use subroutine signatures, you must first enable them:
2267
caa35032 2268 no warnings "experimental::signatures";
30d9c59b
Z
2269 use feature "signatures";
2270 sub foo ($left, $right) { ... }
2271
7b8d334a
GS
2272=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
2273
be771a83
GS
2274(W misc) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
2275the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
2276usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target package,
2277e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');
7b8d334a 2278
6df41af2
GS
2279=item %s: Expression syntax
2280
be771a83
GS
2281(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
2282Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2
GS
2283
2284=item %s failed--call queue aborted
2285
3c10abe3
AG
2286(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a UNITCHECK,
2287CHECK, INIT, or END subroutine. Processing of the remainder of the
2288queue of such routines has been prematurely ended.
6df41af2 2289
502aca56
TC
2290=item Failed to close in-place edit file %s: %s
2291
2292(F) Closing an output file from in-place editing, as with the C<-i>
2293command-line switch, failed.
2294
e0e4a6e3 2295=item False [] range "%s" in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
73b437c8 2296
98d31c73 2297(W regexp)(F) A character class range must start and end at a literal
7253e4e3 2298character, not another character class like C<\d> or C<[:alpha:]>. The "-"
3c6ca74a
FC
2299in your false range is interpreted as a literal "-". In a C<(?[...])>
2300construct, this is an error, rather than a warning. Consider quoting
e0e4a6e3 2301the "-", "\-". The S<<-- HERE> shows whereabouts in the regular expression
3c6ca74a 2302the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
73b437c8 2303
1b1ee2ef 2304=item Fatal VMS error (status=%d) at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 2305
be771a83
GS
2306(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS
2307system service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more
2308details. The filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell
2309you which section of the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
2310
2311=item fcntl is not implemented
2312
2313(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
2314PDP-11 or something?
2315
22846ab4
AB
2316=item FETCHSIZE returned a negative value
2317
2318(F) A tied array claimed to have a negative number of elements, which
2319is not possible.
2320
f337b084
TH
2321=item Field too wide in 'u' format in pack
2322
d8b5cc61 2323(W pack) Each line in an uuencoded string starts with a length indicator
6903afa2
FC
2324which can't encode values above 63. So there is no point in asking for
2325a line length bigger than that. Perl will behave as if you specified
5c96f6f7 2326C<u63> as the format.
f337b084 2327
a0e213fc
A
2328=item File::Glob::glob() will disappear in perl 5.30. Use File::Glob::bsd_glob() instead.
2329
2330(D deprecated) C<< File::Glob >> has a function called C<< glob >>, which
2331just calls C<< bsd_glob >>. However, its prototype is different from the
2332prototype of C<< CORE::glob >>, and hence, C<< File::Glob::glob >> should
2333not be used.
2334
2335C<< File::Glob::glob() >> was deprecated in perl 5.8.0. A deprecation
2336message was issued from perl 5.26.0 onwards, and the function will
2337disappear in perl 5.30.0.
2338
2339Code using C<< File::Glob::glob() >> should call
2340C<< File::Glob::bsd_glob() >> instead.
2341
af8c498a 2342=item Filehandle %s opened only for input
a0d0e21e 2343
6c8d78fb
HS
2344(W io) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you intended
2345it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with "+<" or
2346"+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you intended only to
2347write the file, use ">" or ">>". See L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 2348
af8c498a 2349=item Filehandle %s opened only for output
a0d0e21e 2350
6c8d78fb
HS
2351(W io) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing, If
2352you intended it to be a read/write filehandle, you needed to open it
89a1bda8
FC
2353with "+<" or "+>" or "+>>" instead of with ">". If you intended only to
2354read from the file, use "<". See L<perlfunc/open>. Another possibility
2355is that you attempted to open filedescriptor 0 (also known as STDIN) for
2356output (maybe you closed STDIN earlier?).
97828cef
RGS
2357
2358=item Filehandle %s reopened as %s only for input
2359
2360(W io) You opened for reading a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
6903afa2 2361as STDOUT or STDERR. This occurred because you closed STDOUT or STDERR
97828cef
RGS
2362previously.
2363
2364=item Filehandle STDIN reopened as %s only for output
2365
2366(W io) You opened for writing a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
fa816bf3 2367as STDIN. This occurred because you closed STDIN previously.
a0d0e21e
LW
2368
2369=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
2370
2371(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
be771a83
GS
2372a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name that
2373happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or the
2374name.
a0d0e21e 2375
56e90b21
GS
2376=item flock() on closed filehandle %s
2377
be771a83 2378(W closed) The filehandle you're attempting to flock() got itself closed
c289d2f7 2379some time before now. Check your control flow. flock() operates on
be771a83
GS
2380filehandles. Are you attempting to call flock() on a dirhandle by the
2381same name?
56e90b21 2382
6df41af2
GS
2383=item Format not terminated
2384
2385(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
2386to the end of your file without finding such a line.
2387
a0d0e21e
LW
2388=item Format %s redefined
2389
e476b1b5 2390(W redefine) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
a0d0e21e
LW
2391
2392 {
271595cc 2393 no warnings 'redefine';
a0d0e21e
LW
2394 eval "format NAME =...";
2395 }
2396
a0d0e21e
LW
2397=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
2398
e476b1b5 2399(W syntax) You said
a0d0e21e
LW
2400
2401 if ($foo = 123)
2402
2403when you meant
2404
2405 if ($foo == 123)
2406
2407(or something like that).
2408
6df41af2
GS
2409=item %s found where operator expected
2410
56da5a46
RGS
2411(S syntax) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator.
2412If it sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an
be771a83
GS
2413operator, it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an
2414operator or delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
6df41af2 2415
a0d0e21e
LW
2416=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
2417
2418(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
2419
2420=item gethostent not implemented
2421
2422(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
2423because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
2424on the Internet.
2425
69282e91 2426=item get%sname() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2427
be771a83
GS
2428(W closed) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed
2429socket. Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
a0d0e21e 2430
748a9306
LW
2431=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
2432
2433(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
2434C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
2435
6df41af2
GS
2436=item getsockopt() on closed socket %s
2437
be771a83
GS
2438(W closed) You tried to get a socket option on a closed socket. Did you
2439forget to check the return value of your socket() call? See
6df41af2
GS
2440L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
2441
0f539b13
BF
2442=item given is experimental
2443
675fa9ff
FC
2444(S experimental::smartmatch) C<given> depends on smartmatch, which
2445is experimental, so its behavior may change or even be removed
2446in any future release of perl. See the explanation under
2447L<perlsyn/Experimental Details on given and when>.
0f539b13 2448
68567d27
FC
2449=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name (did you forget to
2450declare "my %s"?)
6df41af2 2451
a4edf47d 2452(F) You've said "use strict" or "use strict vars", which indicates
30c282f6 2453that all variables must either be lexically scoped (using "my" or "state"),
a4edf47d
GS
2454declared beforehand using "our", or explicitly qualified to say
2455which package the global variable is in (using "::").
6df41af2 2456
e476b1b5
GS
2457=item glob failed (%s)
2458
5ead438e 2459(S glob) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used
73c4e9dc
FC
2460for C<glob> and C<< <*.c> >>. Usually, this means that you supplied a C<glob>
2461pattern that caused the external program to fail and exit with a
be771a83 2462nonzero status. If the message indicates that the abnormal exit
73c4e9dc
FC
2463resulted in a coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C shell)
2464is broken. If so, you should change all of the csh-related variables
2465in config.sh: If you have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as
2466if it were csh (e.g. C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them
2467all empty (except that C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will
be771a83 2468think csh is missing. In either case, after editing config.sh, run
75b44862 2469C<./Configure -S> and rebuild Perl.
e476b1b5 2470
a0d0e21e
LW
2471=item Glob not terminated
2472
2473(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
be771a83
GS
2474a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and
2475not finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out
2476earlier in the line, and you really meant a "less than".
a0d0e21e 2477
b35b96b6
JH
2478=item gmtime(%f) failed
2479
2480(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with a number that it could not handle:
2481too large, too small, or NaN. The returned value is C<undef>.
2482
bcd05b94 2483=item gmtime(%f) too large
8b56d6ff 2484
e9200be3 2485(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with a number that was larger than
fc003d4b 2486it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong
6903afa2 2487date. This warning is also triggered with NaN (the special
fc003d4b
MS
2488not-a-number value).
2489
bcd05b94 2490=item gmtime(%f) too small
fc003d4b 2491
e9200be3 2492(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with a number that was smaller than
e7a1a147 2493it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong date.
8b56d6ff 2494
6df41af2 2495=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
a0d0e21e 2496
6df41af2
GS
2497(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
2498version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
a0d0e21e
LW
2499
2500=item goto must have label
2501
2502(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
2503unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2504
6651ba0b
FC
2505=item Goto undefined subroutine%s
2506
2507(F) You tried to call a subroutine with C<goto &sub> syntax, but
2508the indicated subroutine hasn't been defined, or if it was, it
2509has since been undefined.
2510
6fbc9859 2511=item Group name must start with a non-digit word character in regex; marked by
e0e4a6e3 2512S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
1f4f6bf1
YO
2513
2514(F) Group names must follow the rules for perl identifiers, meaning
f26c79ba
FC
2515they must start with a non-digit word character. A common cause of
2516this error is using (?&0) instead of (?0). See L<perlre>.
1f4f6bf1 2517
5a25739d
FC
2518=item ()-group starts with a count
2519
2520(F) A ()-group started with a count. A count is supposed to follow
2521something: a template character or a ()-group. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2522
fe13d51d 2523=item %s had compilation errors.
6df41af2
GS
2524
2525(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
2526
a0d0e21e
LW
2527=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
2528
be771a83
GS
2529(S internal) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought
2530to have existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be
2531created on an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
a0d0e21e 2532
6df41af2
GS
2533=item %s has too many errors
2534
2535(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
2536Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
2537
61e61fbc
JH
2538=item Hexadecimal float: exponent overflow
2539
d8f2b442 2540(W overflow) The hexadecimal floating point has a larger exponent
61e61fbc
JH
2541than the floating point supports.
2542
2543=item Hexadecimal float: exponent underflow
2544
d8f2b442 2545(W overflow) The hexadecimal floating point has a smaller exponent
b6d9b423
JH
2546than the floating point supports. With the IEEE 754 floating point,
2547this may also mean that the subnormals (formerly known as denormals)
2548are being used, which may or may not be an error.
61e61fbc 2549
5488d373 2550=item Hexadecimal float: internal error (%s)
cf4f6003
JH
2551
2552(F) Something went horribly bad in hexadecimal float handling.
2553
61e61fbc
JH
2554=item Hexadecimal float: mantissa overflow
2555
2556(W overflow) The hexadecimal floating point literal had more bits in
2557the mantissa (the part between the 0x and the exponent, also known as
2558the fraction or the significand) than the floating point supports.
2559
40bca5ae
JH
2560=item Hexadecimal float: precision loss
2561
2562(W overflow) The hexadecimal floating point had internally more
2563digits than could be output. This can be caused by unsupported
2564long double formats, or by 64-bit integers not being available
2565(needed to retrieve the digits under some configurations).
2566
2567=item Hexadecimal float: unsupported long double format
2568
2569(F) You have configured Perl to use long doubles but
d8f2b442 2570the internals of the long double format are unknown;
40bca5ae
JH
2571therefore the hexadecimal float output is impossible.
2572
252aa082
JH
2573=item Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
2574
e476b1b5 2575(W portable) The hexadecimal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
2576(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
2577L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 2578
8903cb82
PP
2579=item Identifier too long
2580
2581(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e 2582about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
be771a83
GS
2583names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future versions
2584of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 2585
e0e4a6e3
FC
2586=item Ignoring zero length \N{} in character class in regex; marked by
2587S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
fc8cd66c 2588
f3ba6905 2589(W regexp) Named Unicode character escapes (C<\N{...}>) may return a
0f44b2a5
FC
2590zero-length sequence. When such an escape is used in a character
2591class its behavior is not well defined. Check that the correct
2592escape has been used, and the correct charname handler is in scope.
fc8cd66c 2593
6df41af2 2594=item Illegal binary digit %s
f675dbe5 2595
6df41af2 2596(F) You used a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
f675dbe5 2597
6df41af2 2598=item Illegal binary digit %s ignored
a0d0e21e 2599
be771a83
GS
2600(W digit) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a
2601binary number. Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the
2602offending digit.
a0d0e21e 2603
6597eb22
FC
2604=item Illegal character after '_' in prototype for %s : %s
2605
e4d150f1
FC
2606(W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype
2607declaration. The '_' in a prototype must be followed by a ';',
2608indicating the rest of the parameters are optional, or one of '@'
2609or '%', since those two will accept 0 or more final parameters.
6597eb22 2610
b913d0b8
FC
2611=item Illegal character \%o (carriage return)
2612
2613(F) Perl normally treats carriage returns in the program text as
2614it would any other whitespace, which means you should never see
2615this error when Perl was built using standard options. For some
2616reason, your version of Perl appears to have been built without
2617this support. Talk to your Perl administrator.
2618
bb6b75cd 2619=item Illegal character following sigil in a subroutine signature
d3d9da4a
DM
2620
2621(F) A parameter in a subroutine signature contained an unexpected character
d4e5761f
FC
2622following the C<$>, C<@> or C<%> sigil character. Normally the sigil
2623should be followed by the variable name or C<=> etc. Perhaps you are
d3d9da4a
DM
2624trying use a prototype while in the scope of C<use feature 'signatures'>?
2625For example:
2626
2627 sub foo ($$) {} # legal - a prototype
2628
2629 use feature 'signatures;
2630 sub foo ($$) {} # illegal - was expecting a signature
2631 sub foo ($a, $b)
2632 :prototype($$) {} # legal
2633
2634
d37a9538
ST
2635=item Illegal character in prototype for %s : %s
2636
197afce1 2637(W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype declaration.
2e9cc7ef 2638Legal characters in prototypes are $, @, %, *, ;, [, ], &, \, and +.
30d9c59b
Z
2639Perhaps you were trying to write a subroutine signature but didn't enable
2640that feature first (C<use feature 'signatures'>), so your signature was
2641instead interpreted as a bad prototype.
d37a9538 2642
904d85c5
RGS
2643=item Illegal declaration of anonymous subroutine
2644
2645(F) When using the C<sub> keyword to construct an anonymous subroutine,
6903afa2 2646you must always specify a block of code. See L<perlsub>.
904d85c5 2647
8e742a20
MHM
2648=item Illegal declaration of subroutine %s
2649
6903afa2 2650(F) A subroutine was not declared correctly. See L<perlsub>.
8e742a20 2651
a0d0e21e
LW
2652=item Illegal division by zero
2653
be771a83
GS
2654(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in
2655your logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against
2656meaningless input.
a0d0e21e 2657
6df41af2
GS
2658=item Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
2659
be771a83
GS
2660(W digit) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or
2661A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal
2662number stopped before the illegal character.
6df41af2 2663
a0d0e21e
LW
2664=item Illegal modulus zero
2665
be771a83
GS
2666(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most
2667numbers don't take to this kindly.
a0d0e21e 2668
6df41af2 2669=item Illegal number of bits in vec
399388f4 2670
6df41af2
GS
2671(F) The number of bits in vec() (the third argument) must be a power of
2672two from 1 to 32 (or 64, if your platform supports that).
399388f4
GS
2673
2674=item Illegal octal digit %s
a0d0e21e 2675
d1be9408 2676(F) You used an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
a0d0e21e 2677
399388f4 2678=item Illegal octal digit %s ignored
748a9306 2679
d1be9408 2680(W digit) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
75b44862 2681Interpretation of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
748a9306 2682
e0e4a6e3 2683=item Illegal pattern in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
c608e803 2684
675fa9ff 2685(F) You wrote something like
c608e803
KW
2686
2687 (?+foo)
2688
2689The C<"+"> is valid only when followed by digits, indicating a
2690capturing group. See
2691L<C<(?I<PARNO>)>|perlre/(?PARNO) (?-PARNO) (?+PARNO) (?R) (?0)>.
2692
375ed12a
JH
2693=item Illegal suidscript
2694
2695(F) The script run under suidperl was somehow illegal.
2696
fe13d51d 2697=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: -%c
6ff81951 2698
6df41af2 2699(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
646ca9b2 2700following switches: B<-[CDIMUdmtw]>.
6ff81951 2701
4003ea29
KW
2702=item Illegal user-defined property name
2703
2704(F) You specified a Unicode-like property name in a regular expression
2705pattern (using C<\p{}> or C<\P{}>) that Perl knows isn't an official
2706Unicode property, and was likely meant to be a user-defined property
2707name, but it can't be one of those, as they must begin with either C<In>
2708or C<Is>. Check the spelling. See also
2709L</Can't find Unicode property definition "%s">.
2710
6df41af2 2711=item Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
81e118e0 2712
75b44862 2713(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the CRTL's
be771a83
GS
2714internal environ array, and encountered an element without the C<=>
2715delimiter used to separate keys from values. The element is ignored.
09bef843 2716
6df41af2 2717=item Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
54310121 2718
be771a83
GS
2719(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read a logical
2720name or CLI symbol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and
2721didn't see the expected delimiter between key and value, so the line was
2722ignored.
54310121 2723
6df41af2 2724=item (in cleanup) %s
9607fc9c 2725
be771a83
GS
2726(W misc) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised
2727the indicated exception. Since destructors are usually called by the
2728system at arbitrary points during execution, and often a vast number of
2729times, the warning is issued only once for any number of failures that
2730would otherwise result in the same message being repeated.
6df41af2 2731
be771a83
GS
2732Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the C<G_KEEPERR> flag could
2733also result in this warning. See L<perlcall/G_KEEPERR>.
9607fc9c 2734
e0e4a6e3
FC
2735=item Incomplete expression within '(?[ ])' in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE>
2736in m/%s/
0d0b4b3b 2737
675fa9ff 2738(F) There was a syntax error within the C<(?[ ])>. This can happen if the
0d0b4b3b
KW
2739expression inside the construct was completely empty, or if there are
2740too many or few operands for the number of operators. Perl is not smart
2741enough to give you a more precise indication as to what is wrong.
2742
6fbc9859
MH
2743=item Inconsistent hierarchy during C3 merge of class '%s': merging failed on
2744parent '%s'
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2745
2746(F) The method resolution order (MRO) of the given class is not
2747C3-consistent, and you have enabled the C3 MRO for this class. See the C3
2748documentation in L<mro> for more information.
2749
cdd6375d
MH
2750=item Indentation on line %d of here-doc doesn't match delimiter
2751
2752(F) You have an indented here-document where one or more of its lines
2753have whitespace at the beginning that does not match the closing
2754delimiter.
2755
2756For example, line 2 below is wrong because it does not have at least
27572 spaces, but lines 1 and 3 are fine because they have at least 2:
2758
2759 if ($something) {
2760 print <<~EOF;
2761 Line 1
2762 Line 2 not
2763 Line 3
2764 EOF
2765 }
2766
2767Note that tabs and spaces are compared strictly, meaning 1 tab will
2768not match 8 spaces.
2769
6a2ed79a 2770=item Infinite recursion in regex
1a147d38
YO
2771
2772(F) You used a pattern that references itself without consuming any input
6903afa2 2773text. You should check the pattern to ensure that recursive patterns
1a147d38
YO
2774either consume text or fail.
2775
6dbe9451
NC
2776=item Initialization of state variables in list context currently forbidden
2777
dca6023d 2778(F) C<state> only permits initializing a single scalar variable, in scalar
4c9eaea6
FC
2779context. So C<state $a = 42> is allowed, but not C<state ($a) = 42>. To apply
2780state semantics to a hash or array, store a hash or array reference in a
2781scalar variable.
6dbe9451 2782
2186f873
FC
2783=item %%s[%s] in scalar context better written as $%s[%s]
2784
2785(W syntax) In scalar context, you've used an array index/value slice
2786(indicated by %) to select a single element of an array. Generally
2787it's better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by $). The difference
2788is that C<$foo[&bar]> always behaves like a scalar, both in the value it
2789returns and when evaluating its argument, while C<%foo[&bar]> provides
2790a list context to its subscript, which can do weird things if you're
2791expecting only one subscript. When called in list context, it also
2792returns the index (what C<&bar> returns) in addition to the value.
2793
2794=item %%s{%s} in scalar context better written as $%s{%s}
2795
2796(W syntax) In scalar context, you've used a hash key/value slice
2797(indicated by %) to select a single element of a hash. Generally it's
2798better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by $). The difference
2799is that C<$foo{&bar}> always behaves like a scalar, both in the value
2800it returns and when evaluating its argument, while C<@foo{&bar}> and
2801provides a list context to its subscript, which can do weird things
2802if you're expecting only one subscript. When called in list context,
2803it also returns the key in addition to the value.
2804
a0d0e21e
LW
2805=item Insecure dependency in %s
2806
8b1a09fc 2807(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
be771a83
GS
2808The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or
2809setgid, or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The
2810tainting mechanism labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly
2811from the user, who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any
2812such data is used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See
2813L<perlsec> for more information.
a0d0e21e
LW
2814
2815=item Insecure directory in %s
2816
be771a83
GS
2817(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
2818setgid script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by
df98f984
RGS
2819the world. Also, the PATH must not contain any relative directory.
2820See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2821
62f468fc 2822=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2823
2824(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc 2825setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
332d5f78
SR
2826C<$ENV{ENV}>, C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> or C<$ENV{TERM}> are derived from data
2827supplied (or potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set
2828the path to a known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2829
0e9be77f
DM
2830=item Insecure user-defined property %s
2831
2832(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
2833expression that contains a call to a user-defined character property
2834function, i.e. C<\p{IsFoo}> or C<\p{InFoo}>.
2835See L<perlunicode/User-Defined Character Properties> and L<perlsec>.
2836
b9ef414d
FC
2837=item Integer overflow in format string for %s
2838
2839(F) The indexes and widths specified in the format string of C<printf()>
2840or C<sprintf()> are too large. The numbers must not overflow the size of
2841integers for your architecture.
2842
a7ae9550
GS
2843=item Integer overflow in %s number
2844
35928bc5 2845(S overflow) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have specified
be771a83
GS
2846either as a literal or as an argument to hex() or oct() is too big for
2847your architecture, and has been converted to a floating point number.
2848On a 32-bit architecture the largest hexadecimal, octal or binary number
9e24b6e2
JH
2849representable without overflow is 0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or
28500b11111111111111111111111111111111 respectively. Note that Perl
2851transparently promotes all numbers to a floating point representation
2852internally--subject to loss of precision errors in subsequent
2853operations.
bbce6d69 2854
fc89ca81
FC
2855=item Integer overflow in srand
2856
2857(S overflow) The number you have passed to srand is too big to fit
2858in your architecture's integer representation. The number has been
2859replaced with the largest integer supported (0xFFFFFFFF on 32-bit
2860architectures). This means you may be getting less randomness than
2861you expect, because different random seeds above the maximum will
2862return the same sequence of random numbers.
2863
46314c13
JP
2864=item Integer overflow in version
2865
18da5252
FC
2866=item Integer overflow in version %d
2867
784d71ed
FC
2868(W overflow) Some portion of a version initialization is too large for
2869the size of integers for your architecture. This is not a warning
f084e84f 2870because there is no rational reason for a version to try and use an
784d71ed
FC
2871element larger than typically 2**32. This is usually caused by trying
2872to use some odd mathematical operation as a version, like 100/9.
46314c13 2873
e0e4a6e3 2874=item Internal disaster in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2875
2876(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
e0e4a6e3 2877The S<<-- HERE> shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
b45f050a
JF
2878discovered.
2879
748a9306
LW
2880=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
2881
be771a83
GS
2882(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number of times
2883you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine whether the current call
2884to C<exec> should affect the current script or a subprocess (see
2885L<perlvms/"exec LIST">). Somehow, this count has become scrambled, so
2886Perl is making a guess and treating this C<exec> as a request to
2887terminate the Perl script and execute the specified command.
748a9306 2888
870978ae
FC
2889=item internal %<num>p might conflict with future printf extensions
2890
2891(S internal) Perl's internal routine that handles C<printf> and C<sprintf>
2892formatting follows a slightly different set of rules when called from
2893C or XS code. Specifically, formats consisting of digits followed
2894by "p" (e.g., "%7p") are reserved for future use. If you see this
2895message, then an XS module tried to call that routine with one such
2896reserved format.
2897
e0e4a6e3 2898=item Internal urp in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
b45f050a 2899
fa816bf3 2900(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser. The
e0e4a6e3 2901S<<-- HERE> shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
7253e4e3 2902discovered.
a0d0e21e 2903
6df41af2
GS
2904=item %s (...) interpreted as function
2905
75b44862 2906(W syntax) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator
be771a83 2907followed by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list
64977eb6 2908operators arguments found inside the parentheses. See
13a2d996 2909L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
6df41af2 2910
f51551f7
FC
2911=item In '(?...)', the '(' and '?' must be adjacent in regex;
2912marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
2913
2914(F) The two-character sequence C<"(?"> in this context in a regular
2915expression pattern should be an indivisible token, with nothing
2916intervening between the C<"("> and the C<"?">, but you separated them
2917with whitespace.
2918
09bef843
SB
2919=item Invalid %s attribute: %s
2920
a4a4c9e2 2921(F) The indicated attribute for a subroutine or variable was not recognized
09bef843
SB
2922by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
2923
2924=item Invalid %s attributes: %s
2925
a4a4c9e2 2926(F) The indicated attributes for a subroutine or variable were not
be771a83 2927recognized by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2928
e0e4a6e3
FC
2929=item Invalid character in charnames alias definition; marked by
2930S<<-- HERE> in '%s
225fb84f
KW
2931
2932(F) You tried to create a custom alias for a character name, with
2933the C<:alias> option to C<use charnames> and the specified character in
2934the indicated name isn't valid. See L<charnames/CUSTOM ALIASES>.
2935
c8028aa6
TC
2936=item Invalid \0 character in %s for %s: %s\0%s
2937
fa3234e3
FC
2938(W syscalls) Embedded \0 characters in pathnames or other system call
2939arguments produce a warning as of 5.20. The parts after the \0 were
2940formerly ignored by system calls.
c8028aa6 2941
e0e4a6e3 2942=item Invalid character in \N{...}; marked by S<<-- HERE> in \N{%s}
a690c7c4
FC
2943
2944(F) Only certain characters are valid for character names. The
2945indicated one isn't. See L<charnames/CUSTOM ALIASES>.
2946
c635e13b
PP
2947=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
2948
be771a83
GS
2949(W printf) Perl does not understand the given format conversion. See
2950L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
c635e13b 2951
e0e4a6e3
FC
2952=item Invalid escape in the specified encoding in regex; marked by
2953S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
9e08bc66 2954
98d31c73 2955(W regexp)(F) The numeric escape (for example C<\xHH>) of value < 256
9e08bc66
ST
2956didn't correspond to a single character through the conversion
2957from the encoding specified by the encoding pragma.
98d31c73
FC
2958The escape was replaced with REPLACEMENT CHARACTER (U+FFFD)
2959instead, except within S<C<(?[ ])>>, where it is a fatal error.
e0e4a6e3 2960The S<<-- HERE> shows whereabouts in the regular expression the
9e08bc66
ST
2961escape was discovered.
2962
8149aa9f
FC
2963=item Invalid hexadecimal number in \N{U+...}
2964
e0e4a6e3
FC
2965=item Invalid hexadecimal number in \N{U+...} in regex; marked by
2966S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
aec0ef10 2967
8149aa9f 2968(F) The character constant represented by C<...> is not a valid hexadecimal
74f8e9e3
FC
2969number. Either it is empty, or you tried to use a character other than
29700 - 9 or A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number.
8149aa9f 2971
6651ba0b
FC
2972=item Invalid module name %s with -%c option: contains single ':'
2973
2974(F) The module argument to perl's B<-m> and B<-M> command-line options
2975cannot contain single colons in the module name, but only in the
2976arguments after "=". In other words, B<-MFoo::Bar=:baz> is ok, but
2977B<-MFoo:Bar=baz> is not.
2978
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2979=item Invalid mro name: '%s'
2980
162a3e34
FC
2981(F) You tried to C<mro::set_mro("classname", "foo")> or C<use mro 'foo'>,
2982where C<foo> is not a valid method resolution order (MRO). Currently,
2983the only valid ones supported are C<dfs> and C<c3>, unless you have loaded
2984a module that is a MRO plugin. See L<mro> and L<perlmroapi>.
2c7d6b9c 2985
40e4140b
FC
2986=item Invalid negative number (%s) in chr
2987
2988(W utf8) You passed a negative number to C<chr>. Negative numbers are
abc0aa9d 2989not valid character numbers, so it returns the Unicode replacement
40e4140b
FC
2990character (U+FFFD).
2991
74d1b2e4
FC
2992=item Invalid number '%s' for -C option.
2993
2994(F) You supplied a number to the -C option that either has extra leading
2995zeroes or overflows perl's unsigned integer representation.
2996
6651ba0b
FC
2997=item invalid option -D%c, use -D'' to see choices
2998
8ff21bfe
FC
2999(S debugging) Perl was called with invalid debugger flags. Call perl
3000with the B<-D> option with no flags to see the list of acceptable values.
982c4ecb 3001See also L<perlrun/-Dletters>.
6651ba0b 3002
6e8a73f2 3003=item Invalid quantifier in {,} in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
35cd12d1
HS
3004
3005(F) The pattern looks like a {min,max} quantifier, but the min or max
3006could not be parsed as a valid number - either it has leading zeroes,
3007or it represents too big a number to cope with. The S<<-- HERE> shows
3008where in the regular expression the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
3009
e0e4a6e3 3010=item Invalid [] range "%s" in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
3011
3012(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
7253e4e3
RK
3013greater than the maximum character. One possibility is that you forgot the
3014C<{}> from your ending C<\x{}> - C<\x> without the curly braces can go only
e0e4a6e3 3015up to C<ff>. The S<<-- HERE> shows whereabouts in the regular expression the
7253e4e3 3016problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 3017
d1573ac7 3018=item Invalid range "%s" in transliteration operator
c2e66d9e
GS
3019
3020(F) The range specified in the tr/// or y/// operator had a minimum
3021character greater than the maximum character. See L<perlop>.
3022
09bef843
SB
3023=item Invalid separator character %s in attribute list
3024
0120eecf 3025(F) Something other than a colon or whitespace was seen between the
be771a83
GS
3026elements of an attribute list. If the previous attribute had a
3027parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that list was terminated too soon.
3028See L<attributes>.
09bef843 3029
b4581f09
JH
3030=item Invalid separator character %s in PerlIO layer specification %s
3031
2bfc5f71
FC
3032(W layer) When pushing layers onto the Perl I/O system, something other
3033than a colon or whitespace was seen between the elements of a layer list.
b4581f09
JH
3034If the previous attribute had a parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that
3035list was terminated too soon.
3036
2c86d456
DG
3037=item Invalid strict version format (%s)
3038
fa816bf3 3039(F) A version number did not meet the "strict" criteria for versions.
2c86d456
DG
3040A "strict" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
3041decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
3042v-string with a leading 'v' character and at least three components.
a6485a24 3043The parenthesized text indicates which criteria were not met.
2c86d456
DG
3044See the L<version> module for more details on allowed version formats.
3045
49704364 3046=item Invalid type '%s' in %s
96e4d5b1 3047
49704364
LW
3048(F) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type.
3049See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6728c851 3050
49704364 3051(W) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type but used to be
75b44862 3052silently ignored.
96e4d5b1 3053
2c86d456
DG
3054=item Invalid version format (%s)
3055
fa816bf3 3056(F) A version number did not meet the "lax" criteria for versions.
2c86d456
DG
3057A "lax" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
3058decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
fa816bf3
FC
3059v-string. If the v-string has fewer than three components, it
3060must have a leading 'v' character. Otherwise, the leading 'v' is
3061optional. Both decimal and dotted-decimal versions may have a
3062trailing "alpha" component separated by an underscore character
3063after a fractional or dotted-decimal component. The parenthesized
3064text indicates which criteria were not met. See the L<version> module
3065for more details on allowed version formats.
46314c13 3066
798ae1b7
DG
3067=item Invalid version object
3068
fa816bf3
FC
3069(F) The internal structure of the version object was invalid.
3070Perhaps the internals were modified directly in some way or
3071an arbitrary reference was blessed into the "version" class.
798ae1b7 3072
cd209d9d 3073=item In '(*VERB...)', the '(' and '*' must be adjacent in regex;
e0e4a6e3 3074marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
675fa9ff 3075
cd209d9d 3076(F) The two-character sequence C<"(*"> in
675fa9ff
FC
3077this context in a regular expression pattern should be an
3078indivisible token, with nothing intervening between the C<"(">
cd209d9d 3079and the C<"*">, but you separated them.
675fa9ff 3080
a0d0e21e
LW
3081=item ioctl is not implemented
3082
3083(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
3084strange for a machine that supports C.
3085
c289d2f7
JH
3086=item ioctl() on unopened %s
3087
3088(W unopened) You tried ioctl() on a filehandle that was never opened.
34b6fd5e 3089Check your control flow and number of arguments.
c289d2f7 3090
fe13d51d 3091=item IO layers (like '%s') unavailable
363c40c4
SB
3092
3093(F) Your Perl has not been configured to have PerlIO, and therefore
34b6fd5e 3094you cannot use IO layers. To have PerlIO, Perl must be configured
363c40c4
SB
3095with 'useperlio'.
3096
80cbd5ad
JH
3097=item IO::Socket::atmark not implemented on this architecture
3098
3099(F) Your machine doesn't implement the sockatmark() functionality,
34b6fd5e 3100neither as a system call nor an ioctl call (SIOCATMARK).
80cbd5ad 3101
6e8a73f2 3102=item '%s' is an unknown bound type in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
64935bc6
KW
3103
3104(F) You used C<\b{...}> or C<\B{...}> and the C<...> is not known to
3105Perl. The current valid ones are given in
3106L<perlrebackslash/\b{}, \b, \B{}, \B>.
3107
1972ac5c 3108=item %s() is deprecated on :utf8 handles. This will be a fatal error in Perl 5.30
74d1b2e4 3109
dd6d5da4 3110(D deprecated) The sysread(), recv(), syswrite() and send() operators are
74d1b2e4
FC
3111deprecated on handles that have the C<:utf8> layer, either explicitly, or
3112implicitly, eg., with the C<:encoding(UTF-16LE)> layer.
3113
3114Both sysread() and recv() currently use only the C<:utf8> flag for the stream,
3115ignoring the actual layers. Since sysread() and recv() do no UTF-8
3116validation they can end up creating invalidly encoded scalars.
3117
3118Similarly, syswrite() and send() use only the C<:utf8> flag, otherwise ignoring
3119any layers. If the flag is set, both write the value UTF-8 encoded, even if
3120the layer is some different encoding, such as the example above.
3121
3122Ideally, all of these operators would completely ignore the C<:utf8> state,
3123working only with bytes, but this would result in silently breaking existing
1972ac5c
A
3124code.
3125
3126In Perl 5.30, it will no longer be possible to use sysread(), recv(),
3127syswrite() or send() to read or send bytes from/to :utf8 handles.
74d1b2e4 3128
d4360efa 3129=item "%s" is more clearly written simply as "%s" in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
acdfc3b6 3130
d4360efa 3131(W regexp) (only under C<S<use re 'strict'>> or within C<(?[...])>)
30b17cc1
A
3132
3133You specified a character that has the given plainer way of writing it,
3134and which is also portable to platforms running with different character
d4360efa 3135sets.
acdfc3b6 3136
37398dc1 3137=item $* is no longer supported. Its use will be fatal in Perl 5.30
a678626e
A
3138
3139(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$*>, deprecated in older
3140perls, has been removed as of 5.10.0 and is no longer supported. In
3141previous versions of perl the use of C<$*> enabled or disabled multi-line
3142matching within a string.
3143
3144Instead of using C<$*> you should use the C</m> (and maybe C</s>) regexp
3145modifiers. You can enable C</m> for a lexical scope (even a whole file)
3146with C<use re '/m'>. (In older versions: when C<$*> was set to a true value
3147then all regular expressions behaved as if they were written using C</m>.)
3148
37398dc1
A
3149Use of this variable will be a fatal error in Perl 5.30.
3150
3151=item $# is no longer supported. Its use will be fatal in Perl 5.30
a678626e
A
3152
3153(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$#>, deprecated in older
3154perls, has been removed as of 5.10.0 and is no longer supported. You
3155should use the printf/sprintf functions instead.
3156
37398dc1
A
3157Use of this variable will be a fatal error in Perl 5.30.
3158
ccf3535a 3159=item '%s' is not a code reference
6ad11d81 3160
6903afa2
FC
3161(W overload) The second (fourth, sixth, ...) argument of
3162overload::constant needs to be a code reference. Either
3163an anonymous subroutine, or a reference to a subroutine.
6ad11d81 3164
ccf3535a 3165=item '%s' is not an overloadable type
6ad11d81 3166
04a80ee0
RGS
3167(W overload) You tried to overload a constant type the overload package is
3168unaware of.
6ad11d81 3169
5a25739d
FC
3170=item -i used with no filenames on the command line, reading from STDIN
3171
3172(S inplace) The C<-i> option was passed on the command line, indicating
3173that the script is intended to edit files in place, but no files were
3174given. This is usually a mistake, since editing STDIN in place doesn't
3175make sense, and can be confusing because it can make perl look like
3176it is hanging when it is really just trying to read from STDIN. You
3177should either pass a filename to edit, or remove C<-i> from the command
3178line. See L<perlrun> for more details.
3179
aec0ef10 3180=item Junk on end of regexp in regex m/%s/
a0d0e21e
LW
3181
3182(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
3183
3184=item Label not found for "last %s"
3185
be771a83
GS
3186(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a loop
3187of that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
3188L<perlfunc/last>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3189
3190=item Label not found for "next %s"
3191
3192(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
3193that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
3194L<perlfunc/last>.
3195
3196=item Label not found for "redo %s"
3197
3198(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
3199that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
3200L<perlfunc/last>.
3201
85ab1d1d 3202=item leaving effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 3203
85ab1d1d 3204(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
3205effective uids or gids failed.
3206
49704364
LW
3207=item length/code after end of string in unpack
3208
d7f8936a 3209(F) While unpacking, the string buffer was already used up when an unpack
6903afa2
FC
3210length/code combination tried to obtain more data. This results in
3211an undefined value for the length. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
49704364 3212
25e26107 3213=item length() used on %s (did you mean "scalar(%s)"?)
e508c8a4 3214
0d46a4e7
FC
3215(W syntax) You used length() on either an array or a hash when you
3216probably wanted a count of the items.
e508c8a4
MH
3217
3218Array size can be obtained by doing:
3219
3220 scalar(@array);
3221
3222The number of items in a hash can be obtained by doing:
3223
3224 scalar(keys %hash);
3225
f0e67a1d
Z
3226=item Lexing code attempted to stuff non-Latin-1 character into Latin-1 input
3227
d4fe7078
RS
3228(F) An extension is attempting to insert text into the current parse
3229(using L<lex_stuff_pvn|perlapi/lex_stuff_pvn> or similar), but tried to insert a character that
3230couldn't be part of the current input. This is an inherent pitfall
3231of the stuffing mechanism, and one of the reasons to avoid it. Where
6903afa2 3232it is necessary to stuff, stuffing only plain ASCII is recommended.
f0e67a1d
Z
3233
3234=item Lexing code internal error (%s)
3235
3236(F) Lexing code supplied by an extension violated the lexer's API in a
3237detectable way.
3238
69282e91 3239=item listen() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 3240
be771a83
GS
3241(W closed) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget
3242to check the return value of your socket() call? See
3243L<perlfunc/listen>.
a0d0e21e 3244
6651ba0b
FC
3245=item List form of piped open not implemented
3246
3247(F) On some platforms, notably Windows, the three-or-more-arguments
3248form of C<open> does not support pipes, such as C<open($pipe, '|-', @args)>.
3249Use the two-argument C<open($pipe, '|prog arg1 arg2...')> form instead.
3250
dc6bb7ba
FC
3251=item %s: loadable library and perl binaries are mismatched (got handshake key %p, needed %p)
3252
3253(P) A dynamic loading library C<.so> or C<.dll> was being loaded into the
3254process that was built against a different build of perl than the
3255said library was compiled against. Reinstalling the XS module will
3256likely fix this error.
3257
8c6180a9
KW
3258=item Locale '%s' may not work well.%s
3259
780fcc9f 3260(W locale) You are using the named locale, which is a non-UTF-8 one, and
dae67c56
KW
3261which perl has determined is not fully compatible with what it can
3262handle. The second C<%s> gives a reason.
8c6180a9
KW
3263
3264By far the most common reason is that the locale has characters in it
3265that are represented by more than one byte. The only such locales that
3266Perl can handle are the UTF-8 locales. Most likely the specified locale
3267is a non-UTF-8 one for an East Asian language such as Chinese or
3268Japanese. If the locale is a superset of ASCII, the ASCII portion of it
780fcc9f 3269may work in Perl.
8c6180a9
KW
3270
3271Some essentially obsolete locales that aren't supersets of ASCII, mainly
3272those in ISO 646 or other 7-bit locales, such as ASMO 449, can also have
3273problems, depending on what portions of the ASCII character set get
3274changed by the locale and are also used by the program.
3275The warning message lists the determinable conflicting characters.
3276
780fcc9f
KW
3277Note that not all incompatibilities are found.
3278
3279If this happens to you, there's not much you can do except switch to use a
3280different locale or use L<Encode> to translate from the locale into
3281UTF-8; if that's impracticable, you have been warned that some things
3282may break.
3283
3284This message is output once each time a bad locale is switched into
3285within the scope of C<S<use locale>>, or on the first possibly-affected
3286operation if the C<S<use locale>> inherits a bad one. It is not raised
3287for any operations from the L<POSIX> module.
3288
a2162cd9
FC
3289=item localtime(%f) failed
3290
3291(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with a number that it could not handle:
3292too large, too small, or NaN. The returned value is C<undef>.
3293
3294=item localtime(%f) too large
3295
3296(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with a number that was larger
3297than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
3298wrong date. This warning is also triggered with NaN (the special
3299not-a-number value).
3300
3301=item localtime(%f) too small
3302
3303(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with a number that was smaller
3304than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
3305wrong date.
3306
58e23c8d 3307=item Lookbehind longer than %d not implemented in regex m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
3308
3309(F) There is currently a limit on the length of string which lookbehind can
6903afa2 3310handle. This restriction may be eased in a future release.
2e50fd82 3311
b88df990
NC
3312=item Lost precision when %s %f by 1
3313
e63e8a91
FC
3314(W imprecision) The value you attempted to increment or decrement by one
3315is too large for the underlying floating point representation to store
3316accurately, hence the target of C<++> or C<--> is unchanged. Perl issues this
3317warning because it has already switched from integers to floating point
3318when values are too large for integers, and now even floating point is
3319insufficient. You may wish to switch to using L<Math::BigInt> explicitly.
b88df990 3320
93fad930 3321=item lstat() on filehandle%s
2f7da168
RK
3322
3323(W io) You tried to do an lstat on a filehandle. What did you mean
3324by that? lstat() makes sense only on filenames. (Perl did a fstat()
3325instead on the filehandle.)
3326
345d70e3 3327=item lvalue attribute %s already-defined subroutine
bb3abb05 3328
345d70e3
FC
3329(W misc) Although L<attributes.pm|attributes> allows this, turning the lvalue
3330attribute on or off on a Perl subroutine that is already defined
3331does not always work properly. It may or may not do what you
3332want, depending on what code is inside the subroutine, with exact
3333details subject to change between Perl versions. Only do this
3334if you really know what you are doing.
bb3abb05 3335
885ef6f5
GG
3336=item lvalue attribute ignored after the subroutine has been defined
3337
345d70e3
FC
3338(W misc) Using the C<:lvalue> declarative syntax to make a Perl
3339subroutine an lvalue subroutine after it has been defined is
3340not permitted. To make the subroutine an lvalue subroutine,
3341add the lvalue attribute to the definition, or put the C<sub
3342foo :lvalue;> declaration before the definition.
3343
3344See also L<attributes.pm|attributes>.
885ef6f5 3345
6f1b3ab0
FC
3346=item Magical list constants are not supported
3347
3348(F) You assigned a magical array to a stash element, and then tried
3349to use the subroutine from the same slot. You are asking Perl to do
3350something it cannot do, details subject to change between Perl versions.
3351
2db62bbc 3352=item Malformed integer in [] in pack
49704364 3353
2db62bbc 3354(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
49704364
LW
3355are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3356
3357=item Malformed integer in [] in unpack
3358
2db62bbc 3359(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
49704364
LW
3360are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3361
6df41af2
GS
3362=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
3363
3364(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
3365
3366 prefix1;prefix2
3367
3368or
6df41af2
GS
3369 prefix1 prefix2
3370
be771a83
GS
3371with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix of
3372a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error may
3373appear if components are not found, or are too long. See
fecfaeb8 3374"PERLLIB_PREFIX" in L<perlos2>.
6df41af2 3375
2f758a16
ST
3376=item Malformed prototype for %s: %s
3377
d37a9538
ST
3378(F) You tried to use a function with a malformed prototype. The
3379syntax of function prototypes is given a brief compile-time check for
3380obvious errors like invalid characters. A more rigorous check is run
3381when the function is called.
30d9c59b
Z
3382Perhaps the function's author was trying to write a subroutine signature
3383but didn't enable that feature first (C<use feature 'signatures'>),
3384so the signature was instead interpreted as a bad prototype.
2f758a16 3385
2b5e7bc2