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typo fix for ebcdic pod
[perl5.git] / pod / perlebcdic.pod
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1=encoding utf8
2
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3=head1 NAME
4
5perlebcdic - Considerations for running Perl on EBCDIC platforms
6
7=head1 DESCRIPTION
8
9An exploration of some of the issues facing Perl programmers
eaf8b9b9 10on EBCDIC based computers. We do not cover localization,
8a50e6a3 11internationalization, or multi-byte character set issues other
395f5a0c 12than some discussion of UTF-8 and UTF-EBCDIC.
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13
14Portions that are still incomplete are marked with XXX.
15
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16Perl used to work on EBCDIC machines, but there are now areas of the code where
17it doesn't. If you want to use Perl on an EBCDIC machine, please let us know
18by sending mail to perlbug@perl.org
19
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20=head1 COMMON CHARACTER CODE SETS
21
22=head2 ASCII
23
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24The American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII or US-ASCII) is a
25set of
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26integers running from 0 to 127 (decimal) that imply character
27interpretation by the display and other systems of computers.
28The range 0..127 can be covered by setting the bits in a 7-bit binary
29digit, hence the set is sometimes referred to as "7-bit ASCII".
30ASCII was described by the American National Standards Institute
31document ANSI X3.4-1986. It was also described by ISO 646:1991
32(with localization for currency symbols). The full ASCII set is
33given in the table below as the first 128 elements. Languages that
34can be written adequately with the characters in ASCII include
35English, Hawaiian, Indonesian, Swahili and some Native American
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36languages.
37
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38There are many character sets that extend the range of integers
39from 0..2**7-1 up to 2**8-1, or 8 bit bytes (octets if you prefer).
40One common one is the ISO 8859-1 character set.
41
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42=head2 ISO 8859
43
eaf8b9b9 44The ISO 8859-$n are a collection of character code sets from the
5d9fe53c 45International Organization for Standardization (ISO), each of which
eaf8b9b9 46adds characters to the ASCII set that are typically found in European
5d9fe53c 47languages, many of which are based on the Roman, or Latin, alphabet.
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48
49=head2 Latin 1 (ISO 8859-1)
50
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51A particular 8-bit extension to ASCII that includes grave and acute
52accented Latin characters. Languages that can employ ISO 8859-1
53include all the languages covered by ASCII as well as Afrikaans,
54Albanian, Basque, Catalan, Danish, Faroese, Finnish, Norwegian,
55Portuguese, Spanish, and Swedish. Dutch is covered albeit without
56the ij ligature. French is covered too but without the oe ligature.
d396a558 57German can use ISO 8859-1 but must do so without German-style
eaf8b9b9 58quotation marks. This set is based on Western European extensions
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59to ASCII and is commonly encountered in world wide web work.
60In IBM character code set identification terminology ISO 8859-1 is
51b5cecb 61also known as CCSID 819 (or sometimes 0819 or even 00819).
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62
63=head2 EBCDIC
64
eaf8b9b9 65The Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code refers to a
8a50e6a3 66large collection of single- and multi-byte coded character sets that are
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67different from ASCII or ISO 8859-1 and are all slightly different from each
68other; they typically run on host computers. The EBCDIC encodings derive from
8a50e6a3 698-bit byte extensions of Hollerith punched card encodings. The layout on the
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70cards was such that high bits were set for the upper and lower case alphabet
71characters [a-z] and [A-Z], but there were gaps within each Latin alphabet
72range.
d396a558 73
eaf8b9b9 74Some IBM EBCDIC character sets may be known by character code set
2c09a866 75identification numbers (CCSID numbers) or code page numbers.
51b5cecb 76
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77Perl can be compiled on platforms that run any of three commonly used EBCDIC
78character sets, listed below.
79
d5924ca6 80=head3 The 13 variant characters
1e054b24 81
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82Among IBM EBCDIC character code sets there are 13 characters that
83are often mapped to different integer values. Those characters
84are known as the 13 "variant" characters and are:
d396a558 85
eaf8b9b9 86 \ [ ] { } ^ ~ ! # | $ @ `
d396a558 87
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88When Perl is compiled for a platform, it looks at some of these characters to
89guess which EBCDIC character set the platform uses, and adapts itself
90accordingly to that platform. If the platform uses a character set that is not
91one of the three Perl knows about, Perl will either fail to compile, or
92mistakenly and silently choose one of the three.
93They are:
94
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95=over
96
97=item B<0037>
d396a558 98
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99Character code set ID 0037 is a mapping of the ASCII plus Latin-1
100characters (i.e. ISO 8859-1) to an EBCDIC set. 0037 is used
101in North American English locales on the OS/400 operating system
102that runs on AS/400 computers. CCSID 0037 differs from ISO 8859-1
51b5cecb 103in 237 places, in other words they agree on only 19 code point values.
d396a558 104
d5924ca6 105=item B<1047>
d396a558 106
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107Character code set ID 1047 is also a mapping of the ASCII plus
108Latin-1 characters (i.e. ISO 8859-1) to an EBCDIC set. 1047 is
109used under Unix System Services for OS/390 or z/OS, and OpenEdition
395f5a0c 110for VM/ESA. CCSID 1047 differs from CCSID 0037 in eight places.
d396a558 111
d5924ca6 112=item B<POSIX-BC>
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113
114The EBCDIC code page in use on Siemens' BS2000 system is distinct from
1151047 and 0037. It is identified below as the POSIX-BC set.
116
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117=back
118
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119=head2 Unicode code points versus EBCDIC code points
120
121In Unicode terminology a I<code point> is the number assigned to a
122character: for example, in EBCDIC the character "A" is usually assigned
123the number 193. In Unicode the character "A" is assigned the number 65.
124This causes a problem with the semantics of the pack/unpack "U", which
125are supposed to pack Unicode code points to characters and back to numbers.
126The problem is: which code points to use for code points less than 256?
127(for 256 and over there's no problem: Unicode code points are used)
128In EBCDIC, for the low 256 the EBCDIC code points are used. This
129means that the equivalences
130
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131 pack("U", ord($character)) eq $character
132 unpack("U", $character) == ord $character
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133
134will hold. (If Unicode code points were applied consistently over
135all the possible code points, pack("U",ord("A")) would in EBCDIC
136equal I<A with acute> or chr(101), and unpack("U", "A") would equal
13765, or I<non-breaking space>, not 193, or ord "A".)
138
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139=head2 Remaining Perl Unicode problems in EBCDIC
140
141=over 4
142
143=item *
144
2bbc8d55 145Many of the remaining problems seem to be related to case-insensitive matching
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146
147=item *
148
149The extensions Unicode::Collate and Unicode::Normalized are not
150supported under EBCDIC, likewise for the encoding pragma.
151
152=back
153
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154=head2 Unicode and UTF
155
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156UTF stands for C<Unicode Transformation Format>.
157UTF-8 is an encoding of Unicode into a sequence of 8-bit byte chunks, based on
158ASCII and Latin-1.
159The length of a sequence required to represent a Unicode code point
160depends on the ordinal number of that code point,
161with larger numbers requiring more bytes.
162UTF-EBCDIC is like UTF-8, but based on EBCDIC.
163
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164You may see the term C<invariant> character or code point.
165This simply means that the character has the same numeric
166value when encoded as when not.
42bde815 167(Note that this is a very different concept from L</The 13 variant characters>
2bbc8d55 168mentioned above.)
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169For example, the ordinal value of 'A' is 193 in most EBCDIC code pages,
170and also is 193 when encoded in UTF-EBCDIC.
e1b711da 171All variant code points occupy at least two bytes when encoded.
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172In UTF-8, the code points corresponding to the lowest 128
173ordinal numbers (0 - 127: the ASCII characters) are invariant.
174In UTF-EBCDIC, there are 160 invariant characters.
2bbc8d55 175(If you care, the EBCDIC invariants are those characters
fe749c9a 176which have ASCII equivalents, plus those that correspond to
2bbc8d55 177the C1 controls (80..9f on ASCII platforms).)
fe749c9a 178
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179A string encoded in UTF-EBCDIC may be longer (but never shorter) than
180one encoded in UTF-8.
395f5a0c 181
8704cfd1 182=head2 Using Encode
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183
184Starting from Perl 5.8 you can use the standard new module Encode
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185to translate from EBCDIC to Latin-1 code points.
186Encode knows about more EBCDIC character sets than Perl can currently
187be compiled to run on.
8f94de01 188
c72e675e 189 use Encode 'from_to';
8f94de01 190
c72e675e 191 my %ebcdic = ( 176 => 'cp37', 95 => 'cp1047', 106 => 'posix-bc' );
8f94de01 192
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193 # $a is in EBCDIC code points
194 from_to($a, $ebcdic{ord '^'}, 'latin1');
195 # $a is ISO 8859-1 code points
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196
197and from Latin-1 code points to EBCDIC code points
198
c72e675e 199 use Encode 'from_to';
8f94de01 200
c72e675e 201 my %ebcdic = ( 176 => 'cp37', 95 => 'cp1047', 106 => 'posix-bc' );
8f94de01 202
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203 # $a is ISO 8859-1 code points
204 from_to($a, 'latin1', $ebcdic{ord '^'});
205 # $a is in EBCDIC code points
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206
207For doing I/O it is suggested that you use the autotranslating features
208of PerlIO, see L<perluniintro>.
209
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210Since version 5.8 Perl uses the new PerlIO I/O library. This enables
211you to use different encodings per IO channel. For example you may use
212
213 use Encode;
214 open($f, ">:encoding(ascii)", "test.ascii");
215 print $f "Hello World!\n";
216 open($f, ">:encoding(cp37)", "test.ebcdic");
217 print $f "Hello World!\n";
218 open($f, ">:encoding(latin1)", "test.latin1");
219 print $f "Hello World!\n";
220 open($f, ">:encoding(utf8)", "test.utf8");
221 print $f "Hello World!\n";
222
2c09a866 223to get four files containing "Hello World!\n" in ASCII, CP 0037 EBCDIC,
2bbc8d55 224ISO 8859-1 (Latin-1) (in this example identical to ASCII since only ASCII
eaf8b9b9 225characters were printed), and
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226UTF-EBCDIC (in this example identical to normal EBCDIC since only characters
227that don't differ between EBCDIC and UTF-EBCDIC were printed). See the
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228documentation of Encode::PerlIO for details.
229
230As the PerlIO layer uses raw IO (bytes) internally, all this totally
231ignores things like the type of your filesystem (ASCII or EBCDIC).
232
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233=head1 SINGLE OCTET TABLES
234
235The following tables list the ASCII and Latin 1 ordered sets including
236the subsets: C0 controls (0..31), ASCII graphics (32..7e), delete (7f),
eaf8b9b9 237C1 controls (80..9f), and Latin-1 (a.k.a. ISO 8859-1) (a0..ff). In the
8d725451 238table names of the Latin 1
eaf8b9b9 239extensions to ASCII have been labelled with character names roughly
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240corresponding to I<The Unicode Standard, Version 6.1> albeit with
241substitutions such as s/LATIN// and s/VULGAR// in all cases, s/CAPITAL
242LETTER// in some cases, and s/SMALL LETTER ([A-Z])/\l$1/ in some other
0e56abba 243cases. Controls are listed using their Unicode 6.2 abbreviations.
eaf8b9b9 244The differences between the 0037 and 1047 sets are
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245flagged with **. The differences between the 1047 and POSIX-BC sets
246are flagged with ##. All ord() numbers listed are decimal. If you
247would rather see this table listing octal values, then run the table
248(that is, the pod source text of this document, since this recipe may not
1e054b24 249work with a pod2_other_format translation) through:
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250
251=over 4
252
253=item recipe 0
254
255=back
256
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257 perl -ne 'if(/(.{29})(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)/)' \
258 -e '{printf("%s%-5.03o%-5.03o%-5.03o%.03o\n",$1,$2,$3,$4,$5)}' \
5f26d5fd 259 perlebcdic.pod
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260
261If you want to retain the UTF-x code points then in script form you
262might want to write:
263
264=over 4
265
266=item recipe 1
267
268=back
269
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270 open(FH,"<perlebcdic.pod") or die "Could not open perlebcdic.pod: $!";
271 while (<FH>) {
8d725451 272 if (/(.{29})(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\.?(\d*)\s+(\d+)\.?(\d*)/)
5f26d5fd 273 {
c72e675e 274 if ($7 ne '' && $9 ne '') {
5f26d5fd 275 printf(
8d725451 276 "%s%-5.03o%-5.03o%-5.03o%-5.03o%-3o.%-5o%-3o.%.03o\n",
5f26d5fd 277 $1,$2,$3,$4,$5,$6,$7,$8,$9);
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278 }
279 elsif ($7 ne '') {
8d725451 280 printf("%s%-5.03o%-5.03o%-5.03o%-5.03o%-3o.%-5o%.03o\n",
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281 $1,$2,$3,$4,$5,$6,$7,$8);
282 }
283 else {
8d725451 284 printf("%s%-5.03o%-5.03o%-5.03o%-5.03o%-5.03o%.03o\n",
5f26d5fd 285 $1,$2,$3,$4,$5,$6,$8);
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286 }
287 }
288 }
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289
290If you would rather see this table listing hexadecimal values then
291run the table through:
292
293=over 4
294
395f5a0c 295=item recipe 2
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296
297=back
298
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299 perl -ne 'if(/(.{29})(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)/)' \
300 -e '{printf("%s%-5.02X%-5.02X%-5.02X%.02X\n",$1,$2,$3,$4,$5)}' \
5f26d5fd 301 perlebcdic.pod
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302
303Or, in order to retain the UTF-x code points in hexadecimal:
304
305=over 4
306
307=item recipe 3
308
309=back
310
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311 open(FH,"<perlebcdic.pod") or die "Could not open perlebcdic.pod: $!";
312 while (<FH>) {
8d725451 313 if (/(.{29})(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\.?(\d*)\s+(\d+)\.?(\d*)/)
5f26d5fd 314 {
c72e675e 315 if ($7 ne '' && $9 ne '') {
5f26d5fd 316 printf(
8d725451 317 "%s%-5.02X%-5.02X%-5.02X%-5.02X%-2X.%-6.02X%02X.%02X\n",
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318 $1,$2,$3,$4,$5,$6,$7,$8,$9);
319 }
320 elsif ($7 ne '') {
8d725451 321 printf("%s%-5.02X%-5.02X%-5.02X%-5.02X%-2X.%-6.02X%02X\n",
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322 $1,$2,$3,$4,$5,$6,$7,$8);
323 }
324 else {
8d725451 325 printf("%s%-5.02X%-5.02X%-5.02X%-5.02X%-5.02X%02X\n",
5f26d5fd 326 $1,$2,$3,$4,$5,$6,$8);
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327 }
328 }
329 }
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330
331
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332 ISO
333 8859-1 POS-
334 CCSID CCSID CCSID IX-
335 chr 0819 0037 1047 BC UTF-8 UTF-EBCDIC
336 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
337 <NUL> 0 0 0 0 0 0
338 <SOH> 1 1 1 1 1 1
339 <STX> 2 2 2 2 2 2
340 <ETX> 3 3 3 3 3 3
341 <EOT> 4 55 55 55 4 55
342 <ENQ> 5 45 45 45 5 45
343 <ACK> 6 46 46 46 6 46
344 <BEL> 7 47 47 47 7 47
345 <BS> 8 22 22 22 8 22
346 <HT> 9 5 5 5 9 5
347 <LF> 10 37 21 21 10 21 **
348 <VT> 11 11 11 11 11 11
349 <FF> 12 12 12 12 12 12
350 <CR> 13 13 13 13 13 13
351 <SO> 14 14 14 14 14 14
352 <SI> 15 15 15 15 15 15
353 <DLE> 16 16 16 16 16 16
354 <DC1> 17 17 17 17 17 17
355 <DC2> 18 18 18 18 18 18
356 <DC3> 19 19 19 19 19 19
357 <DC4> 20 60 60 60 20 60
358 <NAK> 21 61 61 61 21 61
359 <SYN> 22 50 50 50 22 50
360 <ETB> 23 38 38 38 23 38
361 <CAN> 24 24 24 24 24 24
362 <EOM> 25 25 25 25 25 25
363 <SUB> 26 63 63 63 26 63
364 <ESC> 27 39 39 39 27 39
365 <FS> 28 28 28 28 28 28
366 <GS> 29 29 29 29 29 29
367 <RS> 30 30 30 30 30 30
368 <US> 31 31 31 31 31 31
369 <SPACE> 32 64 64 64 32 64
370 ! 33 90 90 90 33 90
371 " 34 127 127 127 34 127
372 # 35 123 123 123 35 123
373 $ 36 91 91 91 36 91
374 % 37 108 108 108 37 108
375 & 38 80 80 80 38 80
376 ' 39 125 125 125 39 125
377 ( 40 77 77 77 40 77
378 ) 41 93 93 93 41 93
379 * 42 92 92 92 42 92
380 + 43 78 78 78 43 78
381 , 44 107 107 107 44 107
382 - 45 96 96 96 45 96
383 . 46 75 75 75 46 75
384 / 47 97 97 97 47 97
385 0 48 240 240 240 48 240
386 1 49 241 241 241 49 241
387 2 50 242 242 242 50 242
388 3 51 243 243 243 51 243
389 4 52 244 244 244 52 244
390 5 53 245 245 245 53 245
391 6 54 246 246 246 54 246
392 7 55 247 247 247 55 247
393 8 56 248 248 248 56 248
394 9 57 249 249 249 57 249
395 : 58 122 122 122 58 122
396 ; 59 94 94 94 59 94
397 < 60 76 76 76 60 76
398 = 61 126 126 126 61 126
399 > 62 110 110 110 62 110
400 ? 63 111 111 111 63 111
401 @ 64 124 124 124 64 124
402 A 65 193 193 193 65 193
403 B 66 194 194 194 66 194
404 C 67 195 195 195 67 195
405 D 68 196 196 196 68 196
406 E 69 197 197 197 69 197
407 F 70 198 198 198 70 198
408 G 71 199 199 199 71 199
409 H 72 200 200 200 72 200
410 I 73 201 201 201 73 201
411 J 74 209 209 209 74 209
412 K 75 210 210 210 75 210
413 L 76 211 211 211 76 211
414 M 77 212 212 212 77 212
415 N 78 213 213 213 78 213
416 O 79 214 214 214 79 214
417 P 80 215 215 215 80 215
418 Q 81 216 216 216 81 216
419 R 82 217 217 217 82 217
420 S 83 226 226 226 83 226
421 T 84 227 227 227 84 227
422 U 85 228 228 228 85 228
423 V 86 229 229 229 86 229
424 W 87 230 230 230 87 230
425 X 88 231 231 231 88 231
426 Y 89 232 232 232 89 232
427 Z 90 233 233 233 90 233
428 [ 91 186 173 187 91 173 ** ##
429 \ 92 224 224 188 92 224 ##
430 ] 93 187 189 189 93 189 **
431 ^ 94 176 95 106 94 95 ** ##
432 _ 95 109 109 109 95 109
433 ` 96 121 121 74 96 121 ##
434 a 97 129 129 129 97 129
435 b 98 130 130 130 98 130
436 c 99 131 131 131 99 131
437 d 100 132 132 132 100 132
438 e 101 133 133 133 101 133
439 f 102 134 134 134 102 134
440 g 103 135 135 135 103 135
441 h 104 136 136 136 104 136
442 i 105 137 137 137 105 137
443 j 106 145 145 145 106 145
444 k 107 146 146 146 107 146
445 l 108 147 147 147 108 147
446 m 109 148 148 148 109 148
447 n 110 149 149 149 110 149
448 o 111 150 150 150 111 150
449 p 112 151 151 151 112 151
450 q 113 152 152 152 113 152
451 r 114 153 153 153 114 153
452 s 115 162 162 162 115 162
453 t 116 163 163 163 116 163
454 u 117 164 164 164 117 164
455 v 118 165 165 165 118 165
456 w 119 166 166 166 119 166
457 x 120 167 167 167 120 167
458 y 121 168 168 168 121 168
459 z 122 169 169 169 122 169
460 { 123 192 192 251 123 192 ##
461 | 124 79 79 79 124 79
462 } 125 208 208 253 125 208 ##
463 ~ 126 161 161 255 126 161 ##
464 <DEL> 127 7 7 7 127 7
465 <PAD> 128 32 32 32 194.128 32
466 <HOP> 129 33 33 33 194.129 33
467 <BPH> 130 34 34 34 194.130 34
468 <NBH> 131 35 35 35 194.131 35
469 <IND> 132 36 36 36 194.132 36
470 <NEL> 133 21 37 37 194.133 37 **
471 <SSA> 134 6 6 6 194.134 6
472 <ESA> 135 23 23 23 194.135 23
473 <HTS> 136 40 40 40 194.136 40
474 <HTJ> 137 41 41 41 194.137 41
475 <VTS> 138 42 42 42 194.138 42
476 <PLD> 139 43 43 43 194.139 43
477 <PLU> 140 44 44 44 194.140 44
478 <RI> 141 9 9 9 194.141 9
479 <SS2> 142 10 10 10 194.142 10
480 <SS3> 143 27 27 27 194.143 27
481 <DCS> 144 48 48 48 194.144 48
482 <PU1> 145 49 49 49 194.145 49
483 <PU2> 146 26 26 26 194.146 26
484 <STS> 147 51 51 51 194.147 51
485 <CCH> 148 52 52 52 194.148 52
486 <MW> 149 53 53 53 194.149 53
487 <SPA> 150 54 54 54 194.150 54
488 <EPA> 151 8 8 8 194.151 8
489 <SOS> 152 56 56 56 194.152 56
490 <SGC> 153 57 57 57 194.153 57
491 <SCI> 154 58 58 58 194.154 58
492 <CSI> 155 59 59 59 194.155 59
493 <ST> 156 4 4 4 194.156 4
494 <OSC> 157 20 20 20 194.157 20
495 <PM> 158 62 62 62 194.158 62
496 <APC> 159 255 255 95 194.159 255 ##
497 <NON-BREAKING SPACE> 160 65 65 65 194.160 128.65
498 <INVERTED "!" > 161 170 170 170 194.161 128.66
499 <CENT SIGN> 162 74 74 176 194.162 128.67 ##
500 <POUND SIGN> 163 177 177 177 194.163 128.68
501 <CURRENCY SIGN> 164 159 159 159 194.164 128.69
502 <YEN SIGN> 165 178 178 178 194.165 128.70
503 <BROKEN BAR> 166 106 106 208 194.166 128.71 ##
504 <SECTION SIGN> 167 181 181 181 194.167 128.72
505 <DIAERESIS> 168 189 187 121 194.168 128.73 ** ##
506 <COPYRIGHT SIGN> 169 180 180 180 194.169 128.74
507 <FEMININE ORDINAL> 170 154 154 154 194.170 128.81
508 <LEFT POINTING GUILLEMET> 171 138 138 138 194.171 128.82
509 <NOT SIGN> 172 95 176 186 194.172 128.83 ** ##
510 <SOFT HYPHEN> 173 202 202 202 194.173 128.84
511 <REGISTERED TRADE MARK> 174 175 175 175 194.174 128.85
512 <MACRON> 175 188 188 161 194.175 128.86 ##
513 <DEGREE SIGN> 176 144 144 144 194.176 128.87
514 <PLUS-OR-MINUS SIGN> 177 143 143 143 194.177 128.88
515 <SUPERSCRIPT TWO> 178 234 234 234 194.178 128.89
516 <SUPERSCRIPT THREE> 179 250 250 250 194.179 128.98
517 <ACUTE ACCENT> 180 190 190 190 194.180 128.99
518 <MICRO SIGN> 181 160 160 160 194.181 128.100
519 <PARAGRAPH SIGN> 182 182 182 182 194.182 128.101
520 <MIDDLE DOT> 183 179 179 179 194.183 128.102
521 <CEDILLA> 184 157 157 157 194.184 128.103
522 <SUPERSCRIPT ONE> 185 218 218 218 194.185 128.104
523 <MASC. ORDINAL INDICATOR> 186 155 155 155 194.186 128.105
524 <RIGHT POINTING GUILLEMET> 187 139 139 139 194.187 128.106
525 <FRACTION ONE QUARTER> 188 183 183 183 194.188 128.112
526 <FRACTION ONE HALF> 189 184 184 184 194.189 128.113
527 <FRACTION THREE QUARTERS> 190 185 185 185 194.190 128.114
528 <INVERTED QUESTION MARK> 191 171 171 171 194.191 128.115
529 <A WITH GRAVE> 192 100 100 100 195.128 138.65
530 <A WITH ACUTE> 193 101 101 101 195.129 138.66
531 <A WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 194 98 98 98 195.130 138.67
532 <A WITH TILDE> 195 102 102 102 195.131 138.68
533 <A WITH DIAERESIS> 196 99 99 99 195.132 138.69
534 <A WITH RING ABOVE> 197 103 103 103 195.133 138.70
535 <CAPITAL LIGATURE AE> 198 158 158 158 195.134 138.71
536 <C WITH CEDILLA> 199 104 104 104 195.135 138.72
537 <E WITH GRAVE> 200 116 116 116 195.136 138.73
538 <E WITH ACUTE> 201 113 113 113 195.137 138.74
539 <E WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 202 114 114 114 195.138 138.81
540 <E WITH DIAERESIS> 203 115 115 115 195.139 138.82
541 <I WITH GRAVE> 204 120 120 120 195.140 138.83
542 <I WITH ACUTE> 205 117 117 117 195.141 138.84
543 <I WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 206 118 118 118 195.142 138.85
544 <I WITH DIAERESIS> 207 119 119 119 195.143 138.86
545 <CAPITAL LETTER ETH> 208 172 172 172 195.144 138.87
546 <N WITH TILDE> 209 105 105 105 195.145 138.88
547 <O WITH GRAVE> 210 237 237 237 195.146 138.89
548 <O WITH ACUTE> 211 238 238 238 195.147 138.98
549 <O WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 212 235 235 235 195.148 138.99
550 <O WITH TILDE> 213 239 239 239 195.149 138.100
551 <O WITH DIAERESIS> 214 236 236 236 195.150 138.101
552 <MULTIPLICATION SIGN> 215 191 191 191 195.151 138.102
553 <O WITH STROKE> 216 128 128 128 195.152 138.103
554 <U WITH GRAVE> 217 253 253 224 195.153 138.104 ##
555 <U WITH ACUTE> 218 254 254 254 195.154 138.105
556 <U WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 219 251 251 221 195.155 138.106 ##
557 <U WITH DIAERESIS> 220 252 252 252 195.156 138.112
558 <Y WITH ACUTE> 221 173 186 173 195.157 138.113 ** ##
559 <CAPITAL LETTER THORN> 222 174 174 174 195.158 138.114
560 <SMALL LETTER SHARP S> 223 89 89 89 195.159 138.115
561 <a WITH GRAVE> 224 68 68 68 195.160 139.65
562 <a WITH ACUTE> 225 69 69 69 195.161 139.66
563 <a WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 226 66 66 66 195.162 139.67
564 <a WITH TILDE> 227 70 70 70 195.163 139.68
565 <a WITH DIAERESIS> 228 67 67 67 195.164 139.69
566 <a WITH RING ABOVE> 229 71 71 71 195.165 139.70
567 <SMALL LIGATURE ae> 230 156 156 156 195.166 139.71
568 <c WITH CEDILLA> 231 72 72 72 195.167 139.72
569 <e WITH GRAVE> 232 84 84 84 195.168 139.73
570 <e WITH ACUTE> 233 81 81 81 195.169 139.74
571 <e WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 234 82 82 82 195.170 139.81
572 <e WITH DIAERESIS> 235 83 83 83 195.171 139.82
573 <i WITH GRAVE> 236 88 88 88 195.172 139.83
574 <i WITH ACUTE> 237 85 85 85 195.173 139.84
575 <i WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 238 86 86 86 195.174 139.85
576 <i WITH DIAERESIS> 239 87 87 87 195.175 139.86
577 <SMALL LETTER eth> 240 140 140 140 195.176 139.87
578 <n WITH TILDE> 241 73 73 73 195.177 139.88
579 <o WITH GRAVE> 242 205 205 205 195.178 139.89
580 <o WITH ACUTE> 243 206 206 206 195.179 139.98
581 <o WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 244 203 203 203 195.180 139.99
582 <o WITH TILDE> 245 207 207 207 195.181 139.100
583 <o WITH DIAERESIS> 246 204 204 204 195.182 139.101
584 <DIVISION SIGN> 247 225 225 225 195.183 139.102
585 <o WITH STROKE> 248 112 112 112 195.184 139.103
586 <u WITH GRAVE> 249 221 221 192 195.185 139.104 ##
587 <u WITH ACUTE> 250 222 222 222 195.186 139.105
588 <u WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 251 219 219 219 195.187 139.106
589 <u WITH DIAERESIS> 252 220 220 220 195.188 139.112
590 <y WITH ACUTE> 253 141 141 141 195.189 139.113
591 <SMALL LETTER thorn> 254 142 142 142 195.190 139.114
592 <y WITH DIAERESIS> 255 223 223 223 195.191 139.115
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593
594If you would rather see the above table in CCSID 0037 order rather than
595ASCII + Latin-1 order then run the table through:
596
597=over 4
598
395f5a0c 599=item recipe 4
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600
601=back
602
5f26d5fd 603 perl \
8d725451 604 -ne 'if(/.{29}\d{1,3}\s{2,4}\d{1,3}\s{2,4}\d{1,3}\s{2,4}\d{1,3}/)'\
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605 -e '{push(@l,$_)}' \
606 -e 'END{print map{$_->[0]}' \
607 -e ' sort{$a->[1] <=> $b->[1]}' \
8d725451 608 -e ' map{[$_,substr($_,34,3)]}@l;}' perlebcdic.pod
d396a558 609
2c09a866 610If you would rather see it in CCSID 1047 order then change the number
8d725451 61134 in the last line to 39, like this:
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612
613=over 4
614
395f5a0c 615=item recipe 5
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616
617=back
618
5f26d5fd 619 perl \
8d725451 620 -ne 'if(/.{29}\d{1,3}\s{2,4}\d{1,3}\s{2,4}\d{1,3}\s{2,4}\d{1,3}/)'\
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621 -e '{push(@l,$_)}' \
622 -e 'END{print map{$_->[0]}' \
623 -e ' sort{$a->[1] <=> $b->[1]}' \
8d725451 624 -e ' map{[$_,substr($_,39,3)]}@l;}' perlebcdic.pod
d396a558 625
2c09a866 626If you would rather see it in POSIX-BC order then change the number
8d725451 62739 in the last line to 44, like this:
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628
629=over 4
630
395f5a0c 631=item recipe 6
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632
633=back
634
5f26d5fd 635 perl \
8d725451 636 -ne 'if(/.{29}\d{1,3}\s{2,4}\d{1,3}\s{2,4}\d{1,3}\s{2,4}\d{1,3}/)'\
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637 -e '{push(@l,$_)}' \
638 -e 'END{print map{$_->[0]}' \
639 -e ' sort{$a->[1] <=> $b->[1]}' \
8d725451 640 -e ' map{[$_,substr($_,44,3)]}@l;}' perlebcdic.pod
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641
642
643=head1 IDENTIFYING CHARACTER CODE SETS
644
eaf8b9b9
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645To determine the character set you are running under from perl one
646could use the return value of ord() or chr() to test one or more
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647character values. For example:
648
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649 $is_ascii = "A" eq chr(65);
650 $is_ebcdic = "A" eq chr(193);
d396a558 651
51b5cecb 652Also, "\t" is a C<HORIZONTAL TABULATION> character so that:
d396a558 653
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654 $is_ascii = ord("\t") == 9;
655 $is_ebcdic = ord("\t") == 5;
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656
657To distinguish EBCDIC code pages try looking at one or more of
658the characters that differ between them. For example:
659
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660 $is_ebcdic_37 = "\n" eq chr(37);
661 $is_ebcdic_1047 = "\n" eq chr(21);
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662
663Or better still choose a character that is uniquely encoded in any
664of the code sets, e.g.:
665
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666 $is_ascii = ord('[') == 91;
667 $is_ebcdic_37 = ord('[') == 186;
668 $is_ebcdic_1047 = ord('[') == 173;
669 $is_ebcdic_POSIX_BC = ord('[') == 187;
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670
671However, it would be unwise to write tests such as:
672
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673 $is_ascii = "\r" ne chr(13); # WRONG
674 $is_ascii = "\n" ne chr(10); # ILL ADVISED
d396a558 675
2bbc8d55 676Obviously the first of these will fail to distinguish most ASCII platforms
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677from either a CCSID 0037, a 1047, or a POSIX-BC EBCDIC platform since "\r" eq
678chr(13) under all of those coded character sets. But note too that
679because "\n" is chr(13) and "\r" is chr(10) on the Macintosh (which is an
2bbc8d55 680ASCII platform) the second C<$is_ascii> test will lead to trouble there.
d396a558 681
eaf8b9b9 682To determine whether or not perl was built under an EBCDIC
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683code page you can use the Config module like so:
684
685 use Config;
84f709e7 686 $is_ebcdic = $Config{'ebcdic'} eq 'define';
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687
688=head1 CONVERSIONS
689
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690=head2 C<utf8::unicode_to_native()> and C<utf8::native_to_unicode()>
691
692These functions take an input numeric code point in one encoding and
693return what its equivalent value is in the other.
694
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695=head2 tr///
696
eaf8b9b9 697In order to convert a string of characters from one character set to
d396a558 698another a simple list of numbers, such as in the right columns in the
eaf8b9b9 699above table, along with perl's tr/// operator is all that is needed.
5f26d5fd 700The data in the table are in ASCII/Latin1 order, hence the EBCDIC columns
eaf8b9b9 701provide easy-to-use ASCII/Latin1 to EBCDIC operations that are also easily
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702reversed.
703
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704For example, to convert ASCII/Latin1 to code page 037 take the output of the
705second numbers column from the output of recipe 2 (modified to add '\'
5d9fe53c 706characters), and use it in tr/// like so:
d396a558 707
eaf8b9b9 708 $cp_037 =
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709 '\x00\x01\x02\x03\x37\x2D\x2E\x2F\x16\x05\x25\x0B\x0C\x0D\x0E\x0F' .
710 '\x10\x11\x12\x13\x3C\x3D\x32\x26\x18\x19\x3F\x27\x1C\x1D\x1E\x1F' .
711 '\x40\x5A\x7F\x7B\x5B\x6C\x50\x7D\x4D\x5D\x5C\x4E\x6B\x60\x4B\x61' .
712 '\xF0\xF1\xF2\xF3\xF4\xF5\xF6\xF7\xF8\xF9\x7A\x5E\x4C\x7E\x6E\x6F' .
713 '\x7C\xC1\xC2\xC3\xC4\xC5\xC6\xC7\xC8\xC9\xD1\xD2\xD3\xD4\xD5\xD6' .
714 '\xD7\xD8\xD9\xE2\xE3\xE4\xE5\xE6\xE7\xE8\xE9\xBA\xE0\xBB\xB0\x6D' .
715 '\x79\x81\x82\x83\x84\x85\x86\x87\x88\x89\x91\x92\x93\x94\x95\x96' .
716 '\x97\x98\x99\xA2\xA3\xA4\xA5\xA6\xA7\xA8\xA9\xC0\x4F\xD0\xA1\x07' .
717 '\x20\x21\x22\x23\x24\x15\x06\x17\x28\x29\x2A\x2B\x2C\x09\x0A\x1B' .
718 '\x30\x31\x1A\x33\x34\x35\x36\x08\x38\x39\x3A\x3B\x04\x14\x3E\xFF' .
719 '\x41\xAA\x4A\xB1\x9F\xB2\x6A\xB5\xBD\xB4\x9A\x8A\x5F\xCA\xAF\xBC' .
720 '\x90\x8F\xEA\xFA\xBE\xA0\xB6\xB3\x9D\xDA\x9B\x8B\xB7\xB8\xB9\xAB' .
721 '\x64\x65\x62\x66\x63\x67\x9E\x68\x74\x71\x72\x73\x78\x75\x76\x77' .
722 '\xAC\x69\xED\xEE\xEB\xEF\xEC\xBF\x80\xFD\xFE\xFB\xFC\xAD\xAE\x59' .
723 '\x44\x45\x42\x46\x43\x47\x9C\x48\x54\x51\x52\x53\x58\x55\x56\x57' .
724 '\x8C\x49\xCD\xCE\xCB\xCF\xCC\xE1\x70\xDD\xDE\xDB\xDC\x8D\x8E\xDF';
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725
726 my $ebcdic_string = $ascii_string;
5f26d5fd 727 eval '$ebcdic_string =~ tr/\000-\377/' . $cp_037 . '/';
d396a558 728
0be03469 729To convert from EBCDIC 037 to ASCII just reverse the order of the tr///
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730arguments like so:
731
732 my $ascii_string = $ebcdic_string;
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733 eval '$ascii_string =~ tr/' . $cp_037 . '/\000-\377/';
734
735Similarly one could take the output of the third numbers column from recipe 2
736to obtain a C<$cp_1047> table. The fourth numbers column of the output from
737recipe 2 could provide a C<$cp_posix_bc> table suitable for transcoding as
738well.
d5d9880c 739
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740If you wanted to see the inverse tables, you would first have to sort on the
741desired numbers column as in recipes 4, 5 or 6, then take the output of the
742first numbers column.
1e054b24
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743
744=head2 iconv
d396a558 745
d5d9880c 746XPG operability often implies the presence of an I<iconv> utility
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747available from the shell or from the C library. Consult your system's
748documentation for information on iconv.
749
eaf8b9b9 750On OS/390 or z/OS see the iconv(1) manpage. One way to invoke the iconv
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751shell utility from within perl would be to:
752
395f5a0c 753 # OS/390 or z/OS example
84f709e7 754 $ascii_data = `echo '$ebcdic_data'| iconv -f IBM-1047 -t ISO8859-1`
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755
756or the inverse map:
757
395f5a0c 758 # OS/390 or z/OS example
84f709e7 759 $ebcdic_data = `echo '$ascii_data'| iconv -f ISO8859-1 -t IBM-1047`
d396a558 760
8a50e6a3 761For other perl-based conversion options see the Convert::* modules on CPAN.
d396a558 762
1e054b24
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763=head2 C RTL
764
8a50e6a3 765The OS/390 and z/OS C run-time libraries provide _atoe() and _etoa() functions.
1e054b24 766
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767=head1 OPERATOR DIFFERENCES
768
eaf8b9b9 769The C<..> range operator treats certain character ranges with
2bbc8d55
SP
770care on EBCDIC platforms. For example the following array
771will have twenty six elements on either an EBCDIC platform
772or an ASCII platform:
d396a558 773
84f709e7 774 @alphabet = ('A'..'Z'); # $#alphabet == 25
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775
776The bitwise operators such as & ^ | may return different results
eaf8b9b9 777when operating on string or character data in a perl program running
2bbc8d55 778on an EBCDIC platform than when run on an ASCII platform. Here is
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779an example adapted from the one in L<perlop>:
780
781 # EBCDIC-based examples
84f709e7 782 print "j p \n" ^ " a h"; # prints "JAPH\n"
eaf8b9b9 783 print "JA" | " ph\n"; # prints "japh\n"
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784 print "JAPH\nJunk" & "\277\277\277\277\277"; # prints "japh\n";
785 print 'p N$' ^ " E<H\n"; # prints "Perl\n";
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786
787An interesting property of the 32 C0 control characters
788in the ASCII table is that they can "literally" be constructed
c72e675e
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789as control characters in perl, e.g. C<(chr(0)> eq C<\c@>)>
790C<(chr(1)> eq C<\cA>)>, and so on. Perl on EBCDIC platforms has been
2c09a866 791ported to take C<\c@> to chr(0) and C<\cA> to chr(1), etc. as well, but the
d396a558 792thirty three characters that result depend on which code page you are
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793using. The table below uses the standard acronyms for the controls.
794The POSIX-BC and 1047 sets are
eaf8b9b9 795identical throughout this range and differ from the 0037 set at only
51b5cecb 796one spot (21 decimal). Note that the C<LINE FEED> character
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797may be generated by C<\cJ> on ASCII platforms but by C<\cU> on 1047 or POSIX-BC
798platforms and cannot be generated as a C<"\c.letter."> control character on
2c09a866
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7990037 platforms. Note also that C<\c\> cannot be the final element in a string
800or regex, as it will absorb the terminator. But C<\c\I<X>> is a C<FILE
801SEPARATOR> concatenated with I<X> for all I<X>.
802
eaf8b9b9 803 chr ord 8859-1 0037 1047 && POSIX-BC
c72e675e 804 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
eaf8b9b9 805 \c? 127 <DEL> " "
2c09a866 806 \c@ 0 <NUL> <NUL> <NUL>
eaf8b9b9 807 \cA 1 <SOH> <SOH> <SOH>
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808 \cB 2 <STX> <STX> <STX>
809 \cC 3 <ETX> <ETX> <ETX>
eaf8b9b9
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810 \cD 4 <EOT> <ST> <ST>
811 \cE 5 <ENQ> <HT> <HT>
812 \cF 6 <ACK> <SSA> <SSA>
813 \cG 7 <BEL> <DEL> <DEL>
814 \cH 8 <BS> <EPA> <EPA>
815 \cI 9 <HT> <RI> <RI>
816 \cJ 10 <LF> <SS2> <SS2>
2c09a866 817 \cK 11 <VT> <VT> <VT>
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818 \cL 12 <FF> <FF> <FF>
819 \cM 13 <CR> <CR> <CR>
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820 \cN 14 <SO> <SO> <SO>
821 \cO 15 <SI> <SI> <SI>
eaf8b9b9 822 \cP 16 <DLE> <DLE> <DLE>
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823 \cQ 17 <DC1> <DC1> <DC1>
824 \cR 18 <DC2> <DC2> <DC2>
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825 \cS 19 <DC3> <DC3> <DC3>
826 \cT 20 <DC4> <OSC> <OSC>
8d725451 827 \cU 21 <NAK> <NEL> <LF> **
2c09a866 828 \cV 22 <SYN> <BS> <BS>
eaf8b9b9 829 \cW 23 <ETB> <ESA> <ESA>
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830 \cX 24 <CAN> <CAN> <CAN>
831 \cY 25 <EOM> <EOM> <EOM>
eaf8b9b9
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832 \cZ 26 <SUB> <PU2> <PU2>
833 \c[ 27 <ESC> <SS3> <SS3>
2c09a866
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834 \c\X 28 <FS>X <FS>X <FS>X
835 \c] 29 <GS> <GS> <GS>
836 \c^ 30 <RS> <RS> <RS>
837 \c_ 31 <US> <US> <US>
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838
839=head1 FUNCTION DIFFERENCES
840
841=over 8
842
843=item chr()
844
eaf8b9b9 845chr() must be given an EBCDIC code number argument to yield a desired
2bbc8d55 846character return value on an EBCDIC platform. For example:
d396a558 847
84f709e7 848 $CAPITAL_LETTER_A = chr(193);
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849
850=item ord()
851
2bbc8d55 852ord() will return EBCDIC code number values on an EBCDIC platform.
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853For example:
854
84f709e7 855 $the_number_193 = ord("A");
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856
857=item pack()
858
eaf8b9b9 859The c and C templates for pack() are dependent upon character set
d396a558
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860encoding. Examples of usage on EBCDIC include:
861
862 $foo = pack("CCCC",193,194,195,196);
863 # $foo eq "ABCD"
84f709e7 864 $foo = pack("C4",193,194,195,196);
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865 # same thing
866
867 $foo = pack("ccxxcc",193,194,195,196);
868 # $foo eq "AB\0\0CD"
869
870=item print()
871
872One must be careful with scalars and strings that are passed to
873print that contain ASCII encodings. One common place
874for this to occur is in the output of the MIME type header for
eaf8b9b9 875CGI script writing. For example, many perl programming guides
d396a558
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876recommend something similar to:
877
eaf8b9b9 878 print "Content-type:\ttext/html\015\012\015\012";
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879 # this may be wrong on EBCDIC
880
eaf8b9b9 881Under the IBM OS/390 USS Web Server or WebSphere on z/OS for example
395f5a0c 882you should instead write that as:
d396a558 883
5f26d5fd 884 print "Content-type:\ttext/html\r\n\r\n"; # OK for DGW et al
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885
886That is because the translation from EBCDIC to ASCII is done
887by the web server in this case (such code will not be appropriate for
eaf8b9b9 888the Macintosh however). Consult your web server's documentation for
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889further details.
890
891=item printf()
892
893The formats that can convert characters to numbers and vice versa
894will be different from their ASCII counterparts when executed
2bbc8d55 895on an EBCDIC platform. Examples include:
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896
897 printf("%c%c%c",193,194,195); # prints ABC
898
899=item sort()
900
eaf8b9b9 901EBCDIC sort results may differ from ASCII sort results especially for
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902mixed case strings. This is discussed in more detail below.
903
904=item sprintf()
905
906See the discussion of printf() above. An example of the use
907of sprintf would be:
908
84f709e7 909 $CAPITAL_LETTER_A = sprintf("%c",193);
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910
911=item unpack()
912
913See the discussion of pack() above.
914
915=back
916
917=head1 REGULAR EXPRESSION DIFFERENCES
918
eaf8b9b9
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919As of perl 5.005_03 the letter range regular expressions such as
920[A-Z] and [a-z] have been especially coded to not pick up gap
921characters. For example, characters such as E<ocirc> C<o WITH CIRCUMFLEX>
922that lie between I and J would not be matched by the
1b2d223b
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923regular expression range C</[H-K]/>. This works in
924the other direction, too, if either of the range end points is
925explicitly numeric: C<[\x89-\x91]> will match C<\x8e>, even
926though C<\x89> is C<i> and C<\x91 > is C<j>, and C<\x8e>
927is a gap character from the alphabetic viewpoint.
51b5cecb 928
eaf8b9b9
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929If you do want to match the alphabet gap characters in a single octet
930regular expression try matching the hex or octal code such
931as C</\313/> on EBCDIC or C</\364/> on ASCII platforms to
51b5cecb 932have your regular expression match C<o WITH CIRCUMFLEX>.
d396a558 933
51b5cecb 934Another construct to be wary of is the inappropriate use of hex or
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935octal constants in regular expressions. Consider the following
936set of subs:
937
938 sub is_c0 {
939 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
940 $char =~ /[\000-\037]/;
941 }
942
943 sub is_print_ascii {
944 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
945 $char =~ /[\040-\176]/;
946 }
947
948 sub is_delete {
949 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
950 $char eq "\177";
951 }
952
953 sub is_c1 {
954 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
955 $char =~ /[\200-\237]/;
956 }
957
958 sub is_latin_1 {
959 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
960 $char =~ /[\240-\377]/;
961 }
962
51b5cecb 963The above would be adequate if the concern was only with numeric code points.
eaf8b9b9
KW
964However, the concern may be with characters rather than code points
965and on an EBCDIC platform it may be desirable for constructs such as
d396a558
JH
966C<if (is_print_ascii("A")) {print "A is a printable character\n";}> to print
967out the expected message. One way to represent the above collection
968of character classification subs that is capable of working across the
969four coded character sets discussed in this document is as follows:
970
971 sub Is_c0 {
972 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
84f709e7 973 if (ord('^')==94) { # ascii
d396a558 974 return $char =~ /[\000-\037]/;
eaf8b9b9 975 }
2c09a866 976 if (ord('^')==176) { # 0037
d396a558
JH
977 return $char =~ /[\000-\003\067\055-\057\026\005\045\013-\023\074\075\062\046\030\031\077\047\034-\037]/;
978 }
84f709e7 979 if (ord('^')==95 || ord('^')==106) { # 1047 || posix-bc
d396a558
JH
980 return $char =~ /[\000-\003\067\055-\057\026\005\025\013-\023\074\075\062\046\030\031\077\047\034-\037]/;
981 }
982 }
983
984 sub Is_print_ascii {
985 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
986 $char =~ /[ !"\#\$%&'()*+,\-.\/0-9:;<=>?\@A-Z[\\\]^_`a-z{|}~]/;
987 }
988
989 sub Is_delete {
990 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
84f709e7 991 if (ord('^')==94) { # ascii
d396a558 992 return $char eq "\177";
84f709e7
JH
993 }
994 else { # ebcdic
d396a558
JH
995 return $char eq "\007";
996 }
997 }
998
999 sub Is_c1 {
1000 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
84f709e7 1001 if (ord('^')==94) { # ascii
d396a558
JH
1002 return $char =~ /[\200-\237]/;
1003 }
2c09a866 1004 if (ord('^')==176) { # 0037
d396a558
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1005 return $char =~ /[\040-\044\025\006\027\050-\054\011\012\033\060\061\032\063-\066\010\070-\073\040\024\076\377]/;
1006 }
84f709e7 1007 if (ord('^')==95) { # 1047
d396a558
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1008 return $char =~ /[\040-\045\006\027\050-\054\011\012\033\060\061\032\063-\066\010\070-\073\040\024\076\377]/;
1009 }
84f709e7 1010 if (ord('^')==106) { # posix-bc
eaf8b9b9 1011 return $char =~
d396a558
JH
1012 /[\040-\045\006\027\050-\054\011\012\033\060\061\032\063-\066\010\070-\073\040\024\076\137]/;
1013 }
1014 }
1015
1016 sub Is_latin_1 {
1017 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
84f709e7 1018 if (ord('^')==94) { # ascii
d396a558
JH
1019 return $char =~ /[\240-\377]/;
1020 }
2c09a866 1021 if (ord('^')==176) { # 0037
eaf8b9b9 1022 return $char =~
d396a558
JH
1023 /[\101\252\112\261\237\262\152\265\275\264\232\212\137\312\257\274\220\217\352\372\276\240\266\263\235\332\233\213\267\270\271\253\144\145\142\146\143\147\236\150\164\161-\163\170\165-\167\254\151\355\356\353\357\354\277\200\375\376\373\374\255\256\131\104\105\102\106\103\107\234\110\124\121-\123\130\125-\127\214\111\315\316\313\317\314\341\160\335\336\333\334\215\216\337]/;
1024 }
84f709e7 1025 if (ord('^')==95) { # 1047
d396a558 1026 return $char =~
eaf8b9b9 1027 /[\101\252\112\261\237\262\152\265\273\264\232\212\260\312\257\274\220\217\352\372\276\240\266\263\235\332\233\213\267\270\271\253\144\145\142\146\143\147\236\150\164\161-\163\170\165-\167\254\151\355\356\353\357\354\277\200\375\376\373\374\272\256\131\104\105\102\106\103\107\234\110\124\121-\123\130\125-\127\214\111\315\316\313\317\314\341\160\335\336\333\334\215\216\337]/;
d396a558 1028 }
84f709e7 1029 if (ord('^')==106) { # posix-bc
eaf8b9b9 1030 return $char =~
d396a558
JH
1031 /[\101\252\260\261\237\262\320\265\171\264\232\212\272\312\257\241\220\217\352\372\276\240\266\263\235\332\233\213\267\270\271\253\144\145\142\146\143\147\236\150\164\161-\163\170\165-\167\254\151\355\356\353\357\354\277\200\340\376\335\374\255\256\131\104\105\102\106\103\107\234\110\124\121-\123\130\125-\127\214\111\315\316\313\317\314\341\160\300\336\333\334\215\216\337]/;
1032 }
1033 }
1034
eaf8b9b9
KW
1035Note however that only the C<Is_ascii_print()> sub is really independent
1036of coded character set. Another way to write C<Is_latin_1()> would be
d396a558
JH
1037to use the characters in the range explicitly:
1038
1039 sub Is_latin_1 {
1040 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
aadc0e04 1041 $char =~ /[ ¡¢£¤¥¦§¨©ª«¬­®¯°±²³´µ¶·¸¹º»¼½¾¿ÀÁÂÃÄÅÆÇÈÉÊËÌÍÎÏÐÑÒÓÔÕÖ×ØÙÚÛÜÝÞßàáâãäåæçèéêëìíîïðñòóôõö÷øùúûüýþÿ]/;
d396a558
JH
1042 }
1043
eaf8b9b9 1044Although that form may run into trouble in network transit (due to the
d396a558 1045presence of 8 bit characters) or on non ISO-Latin character sets.
d396a558
JH
1046
1047=head1 SOCKETS
1048
1049Most socket programming assumes ASCII character encodings in network
1050byte order. Exceptions can include CGI script writing under a
1051host web server where the server may take care of translation for you.
1052Most host web servers convert EBCDIC data to ISO-8859-1 or Unicode on
1053output.
1054
1055=head1 SORTING
1056
8a50e6a3 1057One big difference between ASCII-based character sets and EBCDIC ones
d396a558 1058are the relative positions of upper and lower case letters and the
8a50e6a3
FC
1059letters compared to the digits. If sorted on an ASCII-based platform the
1060two-letter abbreviation for a physician comes before the two letter
1061abbreviation for drive; that is:
d396a558 1062
c72e675e 1063 @sorted = sort(qw(Dr. dr.)); # @sorted holds ('Dr.','dr.') on ASCII,
84f709e7 1064 # but ('dr.','Dr.') on EBCDIC
d396a558 1065
8a50e6a3 1066The property of lowercase before uppercase letters in EBCDIC is
d396a558 1067even carried to the Latin 1 EBCDIC pages such as 0037 and 1047.
eaf8b9b9
KW
1068An example would be that E<Euml> C<E WITH DIAERESIS> (203) comes
1069before E<euml> C<e WITH DIAERESIS> (235) on an ASCII platform, but
1070the latter (83) comes before the former (115) on an EBCDIC platform.
1071(Astute readers will note that the uppercase version of E<szlig>
1072C<SMALL LETTER SHARP S> is simply "SS" and that the upper case version of
1073E<yuml> C<y WITH DIAERESIS> is not in the 0..255 range but it is
51b5cecb 1074at U+x0178 in Unicode, or C<"\x{178}"> in a Unicode enabled Perl).
d396a558
JH
1075
1076The sort order will cause differences between results obtained on
2bbc8d55 1077ASCII platforms versus EBCDIC platforms. What follows are some suggestions
d396a558
JH
1078on how to deal with these differences.
1079
51b5cecb 1080=head2 Ignore ASCII vs. EBCDIC sort differences.
d396a558
JH
1081
1082This is the least computationally expensive strategy. It may require
1083some user education.
1084
51b5cecb 1085=head2 MONO CASE then sort data.
d396a558 1086
8a50e6a3 1087In order to minimize the expense of mono casing mixed-case text, try to
d396a558
JH
1088C<tr///> towards the character set case most employed within the data.
1089If the data are primarily UPPERCASE non Latin 1 then apply tr/[a-z]/[A-Z]/
1090then sort(). If the data are primarily lowercase non Latin 1 then
1091apply tr/[A-Z]/[a-z]/ before sorting. If the data are primarily UPPERCASE
eaf8b9b9 1092and include Latin-1 characters then apply:
51b5cecb 1093
b693e169
KW
1094 tr/[a-z]/[A-Z]/;
1095 tr/[àáâãäåæçèéêëìíîïðñòóôõöøùúûüýþ]/[ÀÁÂÃÄÅÆÇÈÉÊËÌÍÎÏÐÑÒÓÔÕÖØÙÚÛÜÝÞ/;
1096 s/ß/SS/g;
d396a558 1097
eaf8b9b9
KW
1098then sort(). Do note however that such Latin-1 manipulation does not
1099address the E<yuml> C<y WITH DIAERESIS> character that will remain at
1100code point 255 on ASCII platforms, but 223 on most EBCDIC platforms
1101where it will sort to a place less than the EBCDIC numerals. With a
8a50e6a3 1102Unicode-enabled Perl you might try:
d396a558 1103
51b5cecb
PP
1104 tr/^?/\x{178}/;
1105
eaf8b9b9 1106The strategy of mono casing data before sorting does not preserve the case
51b5cecb
PP
1107of the data and may not be acceptable for that reason.
1108
1109=head2 Convert, sort data, then re convert.
d396a558
JH
1110
1111This is the most expensive proposition that does not employ a network
1112connection.
1113
2bbc8d55 1114=head2 Perform sorting on one type of platform only.
d396a558
JH
1115
1116This strategy can employ a network connection. As such
1117it would be computationally expensive.
1118
395f5a0c 1119=head1 TRANSFORMATION FORMATS
1e054b24 1120
eaf8b9b9
KW
1121There are a variety of ways of transforming data with an intra character set
1122mapping that serve a variety of purposes. Sorting was discussed in the
1123previous section and a few of the other more popular mapping techniques are
1e054b24
PP
1124discussed next.
1125
1126=head2 URL decoding and encoding
d396a558 1127
51b5cecb 1128Note that some URLs have hexadecimal ASCII code points in them in an
eaf8b9b9 1129attempt to overcome character or protocol limitation issues. For example
1e054b24 1130the tilde character is not on every keyboard hence a URL of the form:
d396a558
JH
1131
1132 http://www.pvhp.com/~pvhp/
1133
1134may also be expressed as either of:
1135
1136 http://www.pvhp.com/%7Epvhp/
1137
1138 http://www.pvhp.com/%7epvhp/
1139
51b5cecb 1140where 7E is the hexadecimal ASCII code point for '~'. Here is an example
d396a558
JH
1141of decoding such a URL under CCSID 1047:
1142
84f709e7 1143 $url = 'http://www.pvhp.com/%7Epvhp/';
d396a558
JH
1144 # this array assumes code page 1047
1145 my @a2e_1047 = (
1146 0, 1, 2, 3, 55, 45, 46, 47, 22, 5, 21, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
1147 16, 17, 18, 19, 60, 61, 50, 38, 24, 25, 63, 39, 28, 29, 30, 31,
1148 64, 90,127,123, 91,108, 80,125, 77, 93, 92, 78,107, 96, 75, 97,
1149 240,241,242,243,244,245,246,247,248,249,122, 94, 76,126,110,111,
1150 124,193,194,195,196,197,198,199,200,201,209,210,211,212,213,214,
1151 215,216,217,226,227,228,229,230,231,232,233,173,224,189, 95,109,
1152 121,129,130,131,132,133,134,135,136,137,145,146,147,148,149,150,
1153 151,152,153,162,163,164,165,166,167,168,169,192, 79,208,161, 7,
1154 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 6, 23, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 9, 10, 27,
1155 48, 49, 26, 51, 52, 53, 54, 8, 56, 57, 58, 59, 4, 20, 62,255,
1156 65,170, 74,177,159,178,106,181,187,180,154,138,176,202,175,188,
1157 144,143,234,250,190,160,182,179,157,218,155,139,183,184,185,171,
1158 100,101, 98,102, 99,103,158,104,116,113,114,115,120,117,118,119,
1159 172,105,237,238,235,239,236,191,128,253,254,251,252,186,174, 89,
1160 68, 69, 66, 70, 67, 71,156, 72, 84, 81, 82, 83, 88, 85, 86, 87,
1161 140, 73,205,206,203,207,204,225,112,221,222,219,220,141,142,223
1162 );
1163 $url =~ s/%([0-9a-fA-F]{2})/pack("c",$a2e_1047[hex($1)])/ge;
1164
eaf8b9b9 1165Conversely, here is a partial solution for the task of encoding such
1e054b24
PP
1166a URL under the 1047 code page:
1167
84f709e7 1168 $url = 'http://www.pvhp.com/~pvhp/';
1e054b24
PP
1169 # this array assumes code page 1047
1170 my @e2a_1047 = (
1171 0, 1, 2, 3,156, 9,134,127,151,141,142, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
1172 16, 17, 18, 19,157, 10, 8,135, 24, 25,146,143, 28, 29, 30, 31,
1173 128,129,130,131,132,133, 23, 27,136,137,138,139,140, 5, 6, 7,
1174 144,145, 22,147,148,149,150, 4,152,153,154,155, 20, 21,158, 26,
1175 32,160,226,228,224,225,227,229,231,241,162, 46, 60, 40, 43,124,
1176 38,233,234,235,232,237,238,239,236,223, 33, 36, 42, 41, 59, 94,
1177 45, 47,194,196,192,193,195,197,199,209,166, 44, 37, 95, 62, 63,
1178 248,201,202,203,200,205,206,207,204, 96, 58, 35, 64, 39, 61, 34,
1179 216, 97, 98, 99,100,101,102,103,104,105,171,187,240,253,254,177,
1180 176,106,107,108,109,110,111,112,113,114,170,186,230,184,198,164,
1181 181,126,115,116,117,118,119,120,121,122,161,191,208, 91,222,174,
1182 172,163,165,183,169,167,182,188,189,190,221,168,175, 93,180,215,
1183 123, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73,173,244,246,242,243,245,
1184 125, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82,185,251,252,249,250,255,
1185 92,247, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90,178,212,214,210,211,213,
1186 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57,179,219,220,217,218,159
1187 );
eaf8b9b9
KW
1188 # The following regular expression does not address the
1189 # mappings for: ('.' => '%2E', '/' => '%2F', ':' => '%3A')
1e054b24
PP
1190 $url =~ s/([\t "#%&\(\),;<=>\?\@\[\\\]^`{|}~])/sprintf("%%%02X",$e2a_1047[ord($1)])/ge;
1191
eaf8b9b9 1192where a more complete solution would split the URL into components
1e054b24
PP
1193and apply a full s/// substitution only to the appropriate parts.
1194
1195In the remaining examples a @e2a or @a2e array may be employed
1196but the assignment will not be shown explicitly. For code page 1047
1197you could use the @a2e_1047 or @e2a_1047 arrays just shown.
1198
1199=head2 uu encoding and decoding
1200
eaf8b9b9
KW
1201The C<u> template to pack() or unpack() will render EBCDIC data in EBCDIC
1202characters equivalent to their ASCII counterparts. For example, the
1e054b24
PP
1203following will print "Yes indeed\n" on either an ASCII or EBCDIC computer:
1204
84f709e7
JH
1205 $all_byte_chrs = '';
1206 for (0..255) { $all_byte_chrs .= chr($_); }
1207 $uuencode_byte_chrs = pack('u', $all_byte_chrs);
210b36aa 1208 ($uu = <<'ENDOFHEREDOC') =~ s/^\s*//gm;
1e054b24
PP
1209 M``$"`P0%!@<("0H+#`T.#Q`1$A,4%187&!D:&QP='A\@(2(C)"4F)R@I*BLL
1210 M+2XO,#$R,S0U-C<X.3H[/#T^/T!!0D-$149'2$E*2TQ-3D]045)35%565UA9
1211 M6EM<75Y?8&%B8V1E9F=H:6IK;&UN;W!Q<G-T=79W>'EZ>WQ]?G^`@8*#A(6&
1212 MAXB)BHN,C8Z/D)&2DY25EI>8F9J;G)V>GZ"AHJ.DI::GJ*FJJZRMKJ^PL;*S
1213 MM+6VM[BYNKN\O;Z_P,'"P\3%QL?(R<K+S,W.S]#1TM/4U=;7V-G:V]S=WM_@
1214 ?X>+CY.7FY^CIZNOL[>[O\/'R\_3U]O?X^?K[_/W^_P``
1215 ENDOFHEREDOC
84f709e7 1216 if ($uuencode_byte_chrs eq $uu) {
1e054b24
PP
1217 print "Yes ";
1218 }
1219 $uudecode_byte_chrs = unpack('u', $uuencode_byte_chrs);
84f709e7 1220 if ($uudecode_byte_chrs eq $all_byte_chrs) {
1e054b24
PP
1221 print "indeed\n";
1222 }
1223
1224Here is a very spartan uudecoder that will work on EBCDIC provided
1225that the @e2a array is filled in appropriately:
1226
84f709e7
JH
1227 #!/usr/local/bin/perl
1228 @e2a = ( # this must be filled in
1229 );
1230 $_ = <> until ($mode,$file) = /^begin\s*(\d*)\s*(\S*)/;
1e054b24
PP
1231 open(OUT, "> $file") if $file ne "";
1232 while(<>) {
1233 last if /^end/;
1234 next if /[a-z]/;
1235 next unless int(((($e2a[ord()] - 32 ) & 077) + 2) / 3) ==
1236 int(length() / 4);
1237 print OUT unpack("u", $_);
1238 }
1239 close(OUT);
1240 chmod oct($mode), $file;
1241
1242
1243=head2 Quoted-Printable encoding and decoding
1244
8a50e6a3 1245On ASCII-encoded platforms it is possible to strip characters outside of
1e054b24
PP
1246the printable set using:
1247
1248 # This QP encoder works on ASCII only
84f709e7 1249 $qp_string =~ s/([=\x00-\x1F\x80-\xFF])/sprintf("=%02X",ord($1))/ge;
1e054b24 1250
eaf8b9b9
KW
1251Whereas a QP encoder that works on both ASCII and EBCDIC platforms
1252would look somewhat like the following (where the EBCDIC branch @e2a
1e054b24
PP
1253array is omitted for brevity):
1254
1255 if (ord('A') == 65) { # ASCII
1256 $delete = "\x7F"; # ASCII
1257 @e2a = (0 .. 255) # ASCII to ASCII identity map
84f709e7
JH
1258 }
1259 else { # EBCDIC
1e054b24 1260 $delete = "\x07"; # EBCDIC
84f709e7 1261 @e2a = # EBCDIC to ASCII map (as shown above)
1e054b24 1262 }
84f709e7 1263 $qp_string =~
1e054b24
PP
1264 s/([^ !"\#\$%&'()*+,\-.\/0-9:;<>?\@A-Z[\\\]^_`a-z{|}~$delete])/sprintf("=%02X",$e2a[ord($1)])/ge;
1265
1266(although in production code the substitutions might be done
eaf8b9b9 1267in the EBCDIC branch with the @e2a array and separately in the
1e054b24
PP
1268ASCII branch without the expense of the identity map).
1269
1270Such QP strings can be decoded with:
1271
1272 # This QP decoder is limited to ASCII only
1273 $string =~ s/=([0-9A-Fa-f][0-9A-Fa-f])/chr hex $1/ge;
1274 $string =~ s/=[\n\r]+$//;
1275
eaf8b9b9 1276Whereas a QP decoder that works on both ASCII and EBCDIC platforms
1e054b24
PP
1277would look somewhat like the following (where the @a2e array is
1278omitted for brevity):
1279
1280 $string =~ s/=([0-9A-Fa-f][0-9A-Fa-f])/chr $a2e[hex $1]/ge;
1281 $string =~ s/=[\n\r]+$//;
1282
c69ca1d4 1283=head2 Caesarean ciphers
1e054b24
PP
1284
1285The practice of shifting an alphabet one or more characters for encipherment
1286dates back thousands of years and was explicitly detailed by Gaius Julius
eaf8b9b9 1287Caesar in his B<Gallic Wars> text. A single alphabet shift is sometimes
1e054b24 1288referred to as a rotation and the shift amount is given as a number $n after
eaf8b9b9
KW
1289the string 'rot' or "rot$n". Rot0 and rot26 would designate identity maps
1290on the 26-letter English version of the Latin alphabet. Rot13 has the
1291interesting property that alternate subsequent invocations are identity maps
1292(thus rot13 is its own non-trivial inverse in the group of 26 alphabet
1293rotations). Hence the following is a rot13 encoder and decoder that will
2bbc8d55 1294work on ASCII and EBCDIC platforms:
1e054b24
PP
1295
1296 #!/usr/local/bin/perl
1297
84f709e7 1298 while(<>){
1e054b24
PP
1299 tr/n-za-mN-ZA-M/a-zA-Z/;
1300 print;
1301 }
1302
1303In one-liner form:
1304
84f709e7 1305 perl -ne 'tr/n-za-mN-ZA-M/a-zA-Z/;print'
1e054b24
PP
1306
1307
1308=head1 Hashing order and checksums
1309
eaf8b9b9 1310To the extent that it is possible to write code that depends on
395f5a0c 1311hashing order there may be differences between hashes as stored
8a50e6a3 1312on an ASCII-based platform and hashes stored on an EBCDIC-based platform.
1e054b24
PP
1313XXX
1314
d396a558
JH
1315=head1 I18N AND L10N
1316
eaf8b9b9
KW
1317Internationalization (I18N) and localization (L10N) are supported at least
1318in principle even on EBCDIC platforms. The details are system-dependent
d396a558
JH
1319and discussed under the L<perlebcdic/OS ISSUES> section below.
1320
8a50e6a3 1321=head1 MULTI-OCTET CHARACTER SETS
d396a558 1322
eaf8b9b9
KW
1323Perl may work with an internal UTF-EBCDIC encoding form for wide characters
1324on EBCDIC platforms in a manner analogous to the way that it works with
395f5a0c
PK
1325the UTF-8 internal encoding form on ASCII based platforms.
1326
1327Legacy multi byte EBCDIC code pages XXX.
d396a558
JH
1328
1329=head1 OS ISSUES
1330
eaf8b9b9 1331There may be a few system-dependent issues
d396a558
JH
1332of concern to EBCDIC Perl programmers.
1333
522b859a 1334=head2 OS/400
51b5cecb 1335
d396a558
JH
1336=over 8
1337
522b859a
JH
1338=item PASE
1339
8a50e6a3
FC
1340The PASE environment is a runtime environment for OS/400 that can run
1341executables built for PowerPC AIX in OS/400; see L<perlos400>. PASE
522b859a
JH
1342is ASCII-based, not EBCDIC-based as the ILE.
1343
d396a558
JH
1344=item IFS access
1345
1346XXX.
1347
1348=back
1349
395f5a0c 1350=head2 OS/390, z/OS
d396a558 1351
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1352Perl runs under Unix Systems Services or USS.
1353
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1354=over 8
1355
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1356=item chcp
1357
eaf8b9b9 1358B<chcp> is supported as a shell utility for displaying and changing
75cdcc93 1359one's code page. See also L<chcp(1)>.
51b5cecb 1360
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1361=item dataset access
1362
1363For sequential data set access try:
1364
1365 my @ds_records = `cat //DSNAME`;
1366
1367or:
1368
1369 my @ds_records = `cat //'HLQ.DSNAME'`;
1370
1371See also the OS390::Stdio module on CPAN.
1372
395f5a0c 1373=item OS/390, z/OS iconv
51b5cecb 1374
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1375B<iconv> is supported as both a shell utility and a C RTL routine.
1376See also the iconv(1) and iconv(3) manual pages.
51b5cecb 1377
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1378=item locales
1379
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1380On OS/390 or z/OS see L<locale> for information on locales. The L10N files
1381are in F</usr/nls/locale>. $Config{d_setlocale} is 'define' on OS/390
1382or z/OS.
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1383
1384=back
1385
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1386=head2 POSIX-BC?
1387
1388XXX.
1389
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1390=head1 BUGS
1391
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1392This pod document contains literal Latin 1 characters and may encounter
1393translation difficulties. In particular one popular nroff implementation
1394was known to strip accented characters to their unaccented counterparts
1395while attempting to view this document through the B<pod2man> program
1396(for example, you may see a plain C<y> rather than one with a diaeresis
3958b146 1397as in E<yuml>). Another nroff truncated the resultant manpage at
395f5a0c 1398the first occurrence of 8 bit characters.
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1399
1400Not all shells will allow multiple C<-e> string arguments to perl to
eaf8b9b9 1401be concatenated together properly as recipes 0, 2, 4, 5, and 6 might
395f5a0c 1402seem to imply.
51b5cecb 1403
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1404=head1 SEE ALSO
1405
395f5a0c 1406L<perllocale>, L<perlfunc>, L<perlunicode>, L<utf8>.
b3b6085d 1407
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1408=head1 REFERENCES
1409
2bbc8d55 1410L<http://anubis.dkuug.dk/i18n/charmaps>
d396a558 1411
2bbc8d55 1412L<http://www.unicode.org/>
d396a558 1413
2bbc8d55 1414L<http://www.unicode.org/unicode/reports/tr16/>
d396a558 1415
08d7a6b2 1416L<http://www.wps.com/projects/codes/>
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1417B<ASCII: American Standard Code for Information Infiltration> Tom Jennings,
1418September 1999.
1419
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1420B<The Unicode Standard, Version 3.0> The Unicode Consortium, Lisa Moore ed.,
1421ISBN 0-201-61633-5, Addison Wesley Developers Press, February 2000.
51b5cecb 1422
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1423B<CDRA: IBM - Character Data Representation Architecture -
1424Reference and Registry>, IBM SC09-2190-00, December 1996.
d396a558 1425
eaf8b9b9 1426"Demystifying Character Sets", Andrea Vine, Multilingual Computing
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1427& Technology, B<#26 Vol. 10 Issue 4>, August/September 1999;
1428ISSN 1523-0309; Multilingual Computing Inc. Sandpoint ID, USA.
1429
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1430B<Codes, Ciphers, and Other Cryptic and Clandestine Communication>
1431Fred B. Wrixon, ISBN 1-57912-040-7, Black Dog & Leventhal Publishers,
14321998.
1433
2bbc8d55 1434L<http://www.bobbemer.com/P-BIT.HTM>
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1435B<IBM - EBCDIC and the P-bit; The biggest Computer Goof Ever> Robert Bemer.
1436
1437=head1 HISTORY
1438
143915 April 2001: added UTF-8 and UTF-EBCDIC to main table, pvhp.
1440
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1441=head1 AUTHOR
1442
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1443Peter Prymmer pvhp@best.com wrote this in 1999 and 2000
1444with CCSID 0819 and 0037 help from Chris Leach and
1445AndrE<eacute> Pirard A.Pirard@ulg.ac.be as well as POSIX-BC
b3b6085d 1446help from Thomas Dorner Thomas.Dorner@start.de.
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1447Thanks also to Vickie Cooper, Philip Newton, William Raffloer, and
1448Joe Smith. Trademarks, registered trademarks, service marks and
1449registered service marks used in this document are the property of
1e054b24 1450their respective owners.