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regcomp.c: Add macro for generating deprecated warnings
[perl5.git] / pod / perldiag.pod
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1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
d1d15184 11 (D) A deprecation (enabled by default).
00eb3f2b 12 (S) A severe warning (enabled by default).
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13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
75b44862 18The majority of messages from the first three classifications above
64977eb6 19(W, D & S) can be controlled using the C<warnings> pragma.
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20
21If a message can be controlled by the C<warnings> pragma, its warning
22category is included with the classification letter in the description
23below.
24
25Optional warnings are enabled by using the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-w>
fa816bf3 26and B<-W> switches. Warnings may be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}>
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27to a reference to a routine that will be called on each warning instead
28of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
29
b7eceb5b 30Severe warnings are always enabled, unless they are explicitly disabled
e476b1b5 31with the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-X> switch.
4438c4b7 32
748a9306 33Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
4438c4b7
JH
34L<perlfunc/eval>. In almost all cases, warnings may be selectively
35disabled or promoted to fatal errors using the C<warnings> pragma.
36See L<warnings>.
a0d0e21e 37
6df41af2
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38The messages are in alphabetical order, without regard to upper or
39lower-case. Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are
40denoted with a %s or other printf-style escape. These escapes are
41ignored by the alphabetical order, as are all characters other than
42letters. To look up your message, just ignore anything that is not a
43letter.
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44
45=over 4
46
6df41af2 47=item accept() on closed socket %s
33633739 48
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49(W closed) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget
50to check the return value of your socket() call? See
51L<perlfunc/accept>.
33633739 52
de42a5a9 53=item Allocation too large: %x
a0d0e21e 54
6df41af2 55(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e 56
1109a392 57=item '%c' allowed only after types %s
ef54e1a4 58
1109a392
MHM
59(F) The modifiers '!', '<' and '>' are allowed in pack() or unpack() only
60after certain types. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
ef54e1a4 61
6df41af2 62=item Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
43192e07 63
75b44862 64(W ambiguous) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl
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65keyword, and you have used the name without qualification for calling
66one or the other. Perl decided to call the builtin because the
67subroutine is not imported.
43192e07 68
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69To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand
70before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.
71Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's
72imported with the C<use subs> pragma).
43192e07 73
6df41af2 74To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the C<CORE::> prefix
496a33f5 75on the operator (e.g. C<CORE::log($x)>) or declare the subroutine
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76to be an object method (see L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes"> or
77L<attributes>).
43192e07 78
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79=item Ambiguous range in transliteration operator
80
81(F) You wrote something like C<tr/a-z-0//> which doesn't mean anything at
82all. To include a C<-> character in a transliteration, put it either
83first or last. (In the past, C<tr/a-z-0//> was synonymous with
84C<tr/a-y//>, which was probably not what you would have expected.)
85
6df41af2 86=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
43192e07 87
7c7af292 88(S ambiguous) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
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89you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
90a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
a0d0e21e 91
d8225693
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92=item Ambiguous use of %c resolved as operator %c
93
7c7af292 94(S ambiguous) C<%>, C<&>, and C<*> are both infix operators (modulus,
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FC
95bitwise and, and multiplication) I<and> initial special characters
96(denoting hashes, subroutines and typeglobs), and you said something
97like C<*foo * foo> that might be interpreted as either of them. We
98assumed you meant the infix operator, but please try to make it more
99clear -- in the example given, you might write C<*foo * foo()> if you
100really meant to multiply a glob by the result of calling a function.
d8225693 101
1ef43bca
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102=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s} resolved to %c%s
103
104(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<@{foo}>, which might be
105asking for the variable C<@foo>, or it might be calling a function
106named foo, and dereferencing it as an array reference. If you wanted
1cecf2c0 107the variable, you can just write C<@foo>. If you wanted to call the
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108function, write C<@{foo()}> ... or you could just not have a variable
109and a function with the same name, and save yourself a lot of trouble.
110
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111=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s[...]} resolved to %c%s[...]
112
113=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s{...}} resolved to %c%s{...}
4da60377 114
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115(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<${foo[2]}> (where foo represents
116the name of a Perl keyword), which might be looking for element number
1172 of the array named C<@foo>, in which case please write C<$foo[2]>, or you
118might have meant to pass an anonymous arrayref to the function named
119foo, and then do a scalar deref on the value it returns. If you meant
120that, write C<${foo([2])}>.
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121
122In regular expressions, the C<${foo[2]}> syntax is sometimes necessary
123to disambiguate between array subscripts and character classes.
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124C</$length[2345]/>, for instance, will be interpreted as C<$length> followed
125by the character class C<[2345]>. If an array subscript is what you
126want, you can avoid the warning by changing C</${length[2345]}/> to the
127unsightly C</${\$length[2345]}/>, by renaming your array to something
128that does not coincide with a built-in keyword, or by simply turning
129off warnings with C<no warnings 'ambiguous';>.
4da60377 130
bdac9d71 131=item Ambiguous use of -%s resolved as -&%s()
397d0f13 132
7c7af292 133(S ambiguous) You wrote something like C<-foo>, which might be the
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FC
134string C<"-foo">, or a call to the function C<foo>, negated. If you meant
135the string, just write C<"-foo">. If you meant the function call,
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136write C<-foo()>.
137
6df41af2 138=item '|' and '<' may not both be specified on command line
a0d0e21e 139
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140(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
141redirection, and found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to
142redirect STDIN using '<'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
c9f97d15 143
6df41af2 144=item '|' and '>' may not both be specified on command line
1028017a 145
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146(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
147redirection, and thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and
148into a pipe to another command. You need to choose one or the other,
149though nothing's stopping you from piping into a program or Perl script
150which 'splits' output into two streams, such as
1028017a 151
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152 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
153 while (<STDIN>) {
154 print;
155 print OUT;
156 }
157 close OUT;
c9f97d15 158
6df41af2 159=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
eb6e2d6f 160
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161(W misc) The pattern match (C<//>), substitution (C<s///>), and
162transliteration (C<tr///>) operators work on scalar values. If you apply
be771a83 163one of them to an array or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to
ac036724 164a scalar value (the length of an array, or the population info of a
165hash) and then work on that scalar value. This is probably not what
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166you meant to do. See L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for
167alternatives.
eb6e2d6f 168
6df41af2 169=item Arg too short for msgsnd
76cd736e 170
6df41af2 171(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
76cd736e 172
b0fdf69e 173=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or a subroutine
a0d0e21e 174
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175(F) The argument to exists() must be a hash or array element or a
176subroutine with an ampersand, such as:
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177
178 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 179 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
cc1c2e42 180 &do_something
a0d0e21e 181
8ea97a1e 182=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice
5f05dabc 183
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184(F) The argument to delete() must be either a hash or array element,
185such as:
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186
187 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 188 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
5f05dabc 189
8ea97a1e 190or a hash or array slice, such as:
5f05dabc 191
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192 @foo[$bar, $baz, $xyzzy]
193 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
5315574d 194
6df41af2 195=item %s argument is not a subroutine name
a0d0e21e 196
6df41af2 197(F) The argument to exists() for C<exists &sub> must be a subroutine
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198name, and not a subroutine call. C<exists &sub()> will generate this
199error.
a0d0e21e 200
f86702cc 201=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
a0d0e21e 202
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203(W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator
204that expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
205will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
a0d0e21e 206
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207=item Argument list not closed for PerlIO layer "%s"
208
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209(W layer) When pushing a layer with arguments onto the Perl I/O
210system you forgot the ) that closes the argument list. (Layers
211take care of transforming data between external and internal
212representations.) Perl stopped parsing the layer list at this
213point and did not attempt to push this layer. If your program
214didn't explicitly request the failing operation, it may be the
215result of the value of the environment variable PERLIO.
b4581f09 216
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217=item Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
218
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219(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some
220spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
a0d0e21e 221
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222=item A sequence of multiple spaces in a charnames alias definition is deprecated
223
224(D) You defined a character name which had multiple space characters in
225a row. Change them to single spaces. Usually these names are defined
226in the C<:alias> import argument to C<use charnames>, but they could be
227defined by a translator installed into C<$^H{charnames}>. See
228L<charnames/CUSTOM ALIASES>.
229
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230=item assertion botched: %s
231
21b5e840 232(X) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
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233
234=item Assertion failed: file "%s"
235
21b5e840 236(X) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
a0d0e21e 237
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FC
238=item Assigning non-zero to $[ is no longer possible
239
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240(F) When the "array_base" feature is disabled (e.g., under C<use v5.16;>)
241the special variable C<$[>, which is deprecated, is now a fixed zero value.
82122228 242
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243=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
244
245(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
246must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
247know which context to supply to the right side.
248
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249=item A thread exited while %d threads were running
250
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251(W threads)(S) When using threaded Perl, a thread (not necessarily
252the main thread) exited while there were still other threads running.
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253Usually it's a good idea first to collect the return values of the
254created threads by joining them, and only then to exit from the main
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255thread. See L<threads>.
256
2393f1b9 257=item Attempt to access disallowed key '%s' in a restricted hash
1b1f1335 258
49293501 259(F) The failing code has attempted to get or set a key which is not in
2393f1b9 260the current set of allowed keys of a restricted hash.
49293501 261
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262=item Attempt to bless into a reference
263
264(F) The CLASSNAME argument to the bless() operator is expected to be
57dedab9 265the name of the package to bless the resulting object into. You've
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266supplied instead a reference to something: perhaps you wrote
267
268 bless $self, $proto;
269
270when you intended
271
272 bless $self, ref($proto) || $proto;
273
274If you actually want to bless into the stringified version
275of the reference supplied, you need to stringify it yourself, for
276example by:
277
278 bless $self, "$proto";
279
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280=item Attempt to clear deleted array
281
282(S debugging) An array was assigned to when it was being freed.
283Freed values are not supposed to be visible to Perl code. This
284can also happen if XS code calls C<av_clear> from a custom magic
285callback on the array.
286
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287=item Attempt to delete disallowed key '%s' from a restricted hash
288
289(F) The failing code attempted to delete from a restricted hash a key
290which is not in its key set.
291
292=item Attempt to delete readonly key '%s' from a restricted hash
293
294(F) The failing code attempted to delete a key whose value has been
295declared readonly from a restricted hash.
296
de42a5a9 297=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%x
a0d0e21e 298
f84fe999 299(S internal) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas
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300that will be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be
301outside any of those arenas.
a0d0e21e 302
12578ffb 303=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string '%s'%s
bbce6d69 304
f84fe999 305(S internal) Perl maintains a reference-counted internal table of
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306strings to optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other
307strings. This indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count
308of a string that can no longer be found in the table.
bbce6d69 309
7d5b40b4 310=item Attempt to free temp prematurely: SV 0x%x
a0d0e21e 311
f84fe999 312(S debugging) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the
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313free_tmps() routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the
314SV before the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the
315free_tmps() routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does
316try to free it.
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317
318=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
319
f84fe999 320(S internal) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
a0d0e21e 321
7d5b40b4 322=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar: SV 0x%x
a0d0e21e 323
8f7e4d2c 324(S internal) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to
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325see if it would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0
326earlier, and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed.
327This could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or
328that SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was
329mortalized when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been
330corrupted.
a0d0e21e 331
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332=item Attempt to join self
333
334(F) You tried to join a thread from within itself, which is an
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335impossible task. You may be joining the wrong thread, or you may need
336to move the join() to some other thread.
dcdda58d 337
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338=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
339
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340(W pack) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
341function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
342means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
343invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
344literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
345avoid this warning.
84902520 346
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347=item Attempt to reload %s aborted.
348
349(F) You tried to load a file with C<use> or C<require> that failed to
350compile once already. Perl will not try to compile this file again
351unless you delete its entry from %INC. See L<perlfunc/require> and
352L<perlvar/%INC>.
353
1b20cd17
NC
354=item Attempt to set length of freed array
355
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FC
356(W misc) You tried to set the length of an array which has
357been freed. You can do this by storing a reference to the
358scalar representing the last index of an array and later
359assigning through that reference. For example
1b20cd17
NC
360
361 $r = do {my @a; \$#a};
362 $$r = 503
363
b7a902f4
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364=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
365
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366(W substr) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr()
367used as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
368dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
b7a902f4 369
c32124fe
NC
370=item Attribute "locked" is deprecated
371
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FC
372(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragma to modify the
373"locked" attribute on a code reference. The :locked attribute is
374obsolete, has had no effect since 5005 threads were removed, and
375will be removed in a future release of Perl 5.
c32124fe 376
f1a3ce43
NC
377=item Attribute "unique" is deprecated
378
57dedab9
FC
379(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragma to modify
380the "unique" attribute on an array, hash or scalar reference.
381The :unique attribute has had no effect since Perl 5.8.8, and
382will be removed in a future release of Perl 5.
f1a3ce43 383
ccce04a4
FC
384=item av_reify called on tied array
385
386(S debugging) This indicates that something went wrong and Perl got I<very>
387confused about C<@_> or C<@DB::args> being tied.
388
de42a5a9 389=item Bad arg length for %s, is %u, should be %d
a0d0e21e 390
be771a83
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391(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl()
392or shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 393S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
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394S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
395
7a95317d
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396=item Bad evalled substitution pattern
397
496a33f5 398(F) You've used the C</e> switch to evaluate the replacement for a
7a95317d
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399substitution, but perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate,
400most likely an unexpected right brace '}'.
401
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402=item Bad filehandle: %s
403
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404(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the
405symbol has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an
406open(), or did it in another package.
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407
408=item Bad free() ignored
409
be771a83 410(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had never
fa816bf3 411been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
9ea8bc6d 412setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 0.
33c8a3fe 413
9ea8bc6d 414This message can be seen quite often with DB_File on systems with "hard"
6903afa2 415dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of C<Berkeley DB>
be771a83 416which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving> system malloc().
a0d0e21e 417
aa689395
PP
418=item Bad hash
419
420(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
421
6df41af2
GS
422=item Badly placed ()'s
423
424(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
425of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
426Perl yourself.
427
a7cb8dae 428=item Bad name after %s
a0d0e21e 429
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GS
430(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then
431didn't finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside
432of quotes, so
a0d0e21e
LW
433
434 $var = 'myvar';
435 $sym = mypack::$var;
436
437is not the same as
438
439 $var = 'myvar';
440 $sym = "mypack::$var";
441
88e1f1a2
JV
442=item Bad plugin affecting keyword '%s'
443
444(F) An extension using the keyword plugin mechanism violated the
445plugin API.
446
4ad56ec9
IZ
447=item Bad realloc() ignored
448
6903afa2
FC
449(S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that
450had never been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can
451be disabled by setting the environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
4ad56ec9 452
a0d0e21e
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453=item Bad symbol for array
454
455(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
456wasn't a symbol table entry.
457
4df3f177
SP
458=item Bad symbol for dirhandle
459
460(P) An internal request asked to add a dirhandle entry to something
461that wasn't a symbol table entry.
462
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463=item Bad symbol for filehandle
464
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465(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something
466that wasn't a symbol table entry.
a0d0e21e
LW
467
468=item Bad symbol for hash
469
470(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
471wasn't a symbol table entry.
472
34d09196
GS
473=item Bareword found in conditional
474
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475(W bareword) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a
476conditional, which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part
477of the last argument of the previous construct, for example:
34d09196
GS
478
479 open FOO || die;
480
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481It may also indicate a misspelled constant that has been interpreted as
482a bareword:
34d09196
GS
483
484 use constant TYPO => 1;
485 if (TYOP) { print "foo" }
486
487The C<strict> pragma is useful in avoiding such errors.
488
6df41af2
GS
489=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
490
491(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
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492subroutine identifier, in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>"
493symbol. Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
6df41af2
GS
494
495=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
496
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497(W bareword) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but the
498compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point. Perhaps
499you need to predeclare a package?
6df41af2 500
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501=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
502
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503(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN
504subroutine. Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is
505exited.
a0d0e21e 506
68dc0745
PP
507=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
508
509(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
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510implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had already
511occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}> could not
512be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code likely
513depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
68dc0745 514
6df41af2
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515=item \1 better written as $1
516
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517(W syntax) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables.
518The use of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
519substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
520because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better if
521there are more than 9 backreferences.
6df41af2 522
252aa082
JH
523=item Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable
524
e476b1b5 525(W portable) The binary number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
526(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
527L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 528
69282e91 529=item bind() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 530
be771a83
GS
531(W closed) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to
532check the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
a0d0e21e 533
c289d2f7
JH
534=item binmode() on closed filehandle %s
535
536(W unopened) You tried binmode() on a filehandle that was never opened.
4dcecea4 537Check your control flow and number of arguments.
c289d2f7 538
e62d0b13 539=item "\b{" is deprecated; use "\b\{" instead in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
f866a7cd 540
e62d0b13 541=item "\B{" is deprecated; use "\B\{" instead in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
f866a7cd
FC
542
543(W deprecated, regexp) Use of an unescaped "{" immediately following a
544C<\b> or C<\B> is now deprecated so as to reserve its use for Perl
545itself in a future release.
546
c5a0f51a
JH
547=item Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
548
e476b1b5 549(W portable) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is non-portable.
c5a0f51a 550
043c750c 551=item Bizarre copy of %s
4633a7c4 552
be771a83 553(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not
4dcecea4 554copiable.
4633a7c4 555
f675dbe5
CB
556=item Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
557
be771a83
GS
558(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. While Perl was preparing to
559iterate over %ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition
560which was too long, so it was truncated to the string shown.
f675dbe5 561
7fcfef4d
FC
562=item Bizarre SvTYPE [%d]
563
564(P) When starting a new thread or return values from a thread, Perl
565encountered an invalid data type.
566
a0d0e21e
LW
567=item Callback called exit
568
4929bf7b 569(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via call_sv()
a0d0e21e
LW
570exited by calling exit.
571
6df41af2 572=item %s() called too early to check prototype
f675dbe5 573
be771a83
GS
574(W prototype) You've called a function that has a prototype before the
575parser saw a definition or declaration for it, and Perl could not check
576that the call conforms to the prototype. You need to either add an
577early prototype declaration for the subroutine in question, or move the
578subroutine definition ahead of the call to get proper prototype
579checking. Alternatively, if you are certain that you're calling the
580function correctly, you may put an ampersand before the name to avoid
581the warning. See L<perlsub>.
f675dbe5 582
49704364 583=item Cannot compress integer in pack
0258719b
NC
584
585(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was too large to compress. The BER
586compressed integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you
587attempted to compress Infinity or a very large number (> 1e308).
588See L<perlfunc/pack>.
589
49704364 590=item Cannot compress negative numbers in pack
0258719b
NC
591
592(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was negative. The BER compressed integer
593format can only be used with positive integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
594
5c1f4d79
NC
595=item Cannot convert a reference to %s to typeglob
596
6903afa2
FC
597(F) You manipulated Perl's symbol table directly, stored a reference
598in it, then tried to access that symbol via conventional Perl syntax.
599The access triggers Perl to autovivify that typeglob, but it there is
600no legal conversion from that type of reference to a typeglob.
5c1f4d79 601
4040665a 602=item Cannot copy to %s
ba2fdce6
NC
603
604(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy a value to an internal type that cannot
4dcecea4 605be directly assigned to.
ba2fdce6 606
b5d97229
RGS
607=item Cannot find encoding "%s"
608
609(S io) You tried to apply an encoding that did not exist to a filehandle,
610either with open() or binmode().
611
7355df7e
FC
612=item Cannot set tied @DB::args
613
614(F) C<caller> tried to set C<@DB::args>, but found it tied. Tying C<@DB::args>
615is not supported. (Before this error was added, it used to crash.)
616
ce65bc73
FC
617=item Cannot tie unreifiable array
618
619(P) You somehow managed to call C<tie> on an array that does not
620keep a reference count on its arguments and cannot be made to
621do so. Such arrays are not even supposed to be accessible to
622Perl code, but are only used internally.
623
96ebfdd7
RK
624=item Can only compress unsigned integers in pack
625
626(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was not an integer. The BER compressed
627integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you attempted
628to compress something else. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
629
a0d0e21e
LW
630=item Can't bless non-reference value
631
632(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
633encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
634
dc57907a
RGS
635=item Can't "break" in a loop topicalizer
636
0d863452 637(F) You called C<break>, but you're in a C<foreach> block rather than
6903afa2 638a C<given> block. You probably meant to use C<next> or C<last>.
0d863452
RH
639
640=item Can't "break" outside a given block
dc57907a 641
0d863452
RH
642(F) You called C<break>, but you're not inside a C<given> block.
643
6df41af2
GS
644=item Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
645
646(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
647object reference or package name contains an undefined value. Something
648like this will reproduce the error:
6df41af2
GS
649
650 $BADREF = undef;
651 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
652 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
653
a0d0e21e
LW
654=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
655
54310121 656(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
be771a83
GS
657ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but you
658didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't an
659object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
660
661=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
662
663(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
664object reference or package name contains an expression that returns a
665defined value which is neither an object reference nor a package name.
72b5445b
GS
666Something like this will reproduce the error:
667
668 $BADREF = 42;
669 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
670 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
671
a0d0e21e
LW
672=item Can't chdir to %s
673
674(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but C</foo/bar> is not a directory
675that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
676
0545a864 677=item Can't check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid
104d25b7 678
be771a83
GS
679(P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for
680nosuid.
104d25b7 681
22e74366 682=item Can't coerce %s to %s in %s
a0d0e21e
LW
683
684(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 685(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
a0d0e21e
LW
686say things like:
687
688 *foo += 1;
689
690You CAN say
691
692 $foo = *foo;
693 $foo += 1;
694
695but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
696
0d863452 697=item Can't "continue" outside a when block
dc57907a 698
0d863452
RH
699(F) You called C<continue>, but you're not inside a C<when>
700or C<default> block.
701
a0d0e21e
LW
702=item Can't create pipe mailbox
703
be771a83
GS
704(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted
705quotas or other plumbing problems.
a0d0e21e 706
eb64745e
GS
707=item Can't declare %s in "%s"
708
30c282f6
NC
709(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as "my", "our" or
710"state" variables. They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
a0d0e21e 711
fc7debfb
FC
712=item Can't "default" outside a topicalizer
713
714(F) You have used a C<default> block that is neither inside a
715C<foreach> loop nor a C<given> block. (Note that this error is
716issued on exit from the C<default> block, so you won't get the
717error if you use an explicit C<continue>.)
718
6df41af2
GS
719=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
720
be771a83 721(S inplace) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as
df7075a8 722a file in /dev, a FIFO or an uneditable directory. The file was ignored.
6df41af2 723
a0d0e21e
LW
724=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
725
be771a83
GS
726(S inplace) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated
727reason.
a0d0e21e 728
54310121 729=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
a0d0e21e 730
be771a83
GS
731(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try
732reading from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say
733C<-i.bak>, or some such.
a0d0e21e 734
10f9c03d 735=item Can't do inplace edit: %s would not be unique
a0d0e21e 736
e476b1b5 737(S inplace) Your filesystem does not support filenames longer than 14
10f9c03d
CK
738characters and Perl was unable to create a unique filename during
739inplace editing with the B<-i> switch. The file was ignored.
a0d0e21e 740
a0d0e21e
LW
741=item Can't do waitpid with flags
742
be771a83
GS
743(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only
744waitpid() without flags is emulated.
a0d0e21e 745
a0d0e21e
LW
746=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
747
be771a83
GS
748(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this
749point. For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #!
750line.
a0d0e21e 751
1109a392
MHM
752=item Can't %s %s-endian %ss on this platform
753
754(F) Your platform's byte-order is neither big-endian nor little-endian,
755or it has a very strange pointer size. Packing and unpacking big- or
756little-endian floating point values and pointers may not be possible.
757See L<perlfunc/pack>.
758
a0d0e21e
LW
759=item Can't exec "%s": %s
760
d1be9408 761(W exec) A system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the
be771a83
GS
762named program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the
763permissions were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in
764C<$ENV{PATH}>, the executable in question was compiled for another
765architecture, or the #! line in a script points to an interpreter that
766can't be run for similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support
767#! at all.)
a0d0e21e
LW
768
769=item Can't exec %s
770
be771a83
GS
771(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because
772that's what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may
773need to mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
a0d0e21e
LW
774
775=item Can't execute %s
776
be771a83
GS
777(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute
778found in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
2a92aaa0 779
6df41af2 780=item Can't find an opnumber for "%s"
2a92aaa0 781
be771a83
GS
782(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but there
783is no builtin with the name C<word>.
6df41af2 784
56ca2fc0
JH
785=item Can't find %s character property "%s"
786
787(F) You used C<\p{}> or C<\P{}> but the character property by that name
6903afa2 788could not be found. Maybe you misspelled the name of the property?
e1b711da
KW
789See L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
790for a complete list of available properties.
56ca2fc0 791
6df41af2
GS
792=item Can't find label %s
793
be771a83
GS
794(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's
795possible for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2a92aaa0
GS
796
797=item Can't find %s on PATH
798
be771a83
GS
799(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
800found in the PATH.
a0d0e21e 801
6df41af2 802=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
a0d0e21e 803
be771a83
GS
804(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
805found in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The
806script exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
a0d0e21e
LW
807
808=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
809
be771a83
GS
810(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means
811that the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count
812nesting levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
a0d0e21e 813
fb73857a
PP
814 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
815
97b3d10f 816If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have
b6b8cb97
FC
817included unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag or there
818may not be a linebreak after it. A good programmer's editor will have
819a way to help you find these characters (or lack of characters). See
820L<perlop> for the full details on here-documents.
a0d0e21e 821
660a4616
ST
822=item Can't find Unicode property definition "%s"
823
5f8ad6b6
FC
824(F) You may have tried to use C<\p> which means a Unicode
825property (for example C<\p{Lu}> matches all uppercase
fa816bf3 826letters). If you did mean to use a Unicode property, see
e1b711da 827L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
6903afa2 828for a complete list of available properties. If you didn't
fa816bf3
FC
829mean to use a Unicode property, escape the C<\p>, either by
830C<\\p> (just the C<\p>) or by C<\Q\p> (the rest of the string, or
5f8ad6b6 831until C<\E>).
660a4616 832
b3647a36 833=item Can't fork: %s
a0d0e21e 834
be771a83
GS
835(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a
836pipeline.
a0d0e21e 837
b3647a36
SR
838=item Can't fork, trying again in 5 seconds
839
c973c02e 840(W pipe) A fork in a piped open failed with EAGAIN and will be retried
b3647a36
SR
841after five seconds.
842
748a9306
LW
843=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
844
be771a83
GS
845(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference
846between access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes.
847Under VMS, access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in
848the stat buffer, so that ACLs and other protections can be taken into
849account. Unfortunately, Perl assumes that the stat buffer contains all
850the necessary information, and passes it, instead of the filespec, to
2fe2bdfd 851the access-checking routine. It will try to retrieve the filespec using
be771a83
GS
852the device name and FID present in the stat buffer, but this works only
853if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat() routine,
854because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
2fe2bdfd
FC
855appears, the name lookup failed, and the access-checking routine gave up
856and returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access-checking
be771a83
GS
857routine knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you
858shouldn't ever see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises
859only if some internal code takes stat buffers lightly.)
748a9306 860
a0d0e21e
LW
861=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
862
be771a83
GS
863(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a
864pipe, Perl can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
865
866=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
867
748a9306
LW
868(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
869mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e 870
6df41af2 871=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
a0d0e21e 872
be771a83
GS
873(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a foreach
874loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2
GS
875
876=item Can't "goto" out of a pseudo block
877
be771a83
GS
878(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look like
879a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually occurs if
880you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which is a no-no.
881See L<perlfunc/goto>.
a0d0e21e 882
9850bf21 883=item Can't goto subroutine from a sort sub (or similar callback)
cd299c6e 884
9850bf21
RH
885(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of the
886comparison sub for a sort(), or from a similar callback (such
887as the reduce() function in List::Util).
888
c74ace89 889=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-%s
b150fb22 890
be771a83 891(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval
c74ace89 892"string" or block.
b150fb22 893
6df41af2
GS
894=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
895
be771a83
GS
896(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one
897subroutine call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole
898cloth. In general you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD
899routine anyway. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2 900
0b5b802d
GS
901=item Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default
902
be771a83
GS
903(W signal) Perl has detected that it is being run with the SIGCHLD
904signal (sometimes known as SIGCLD) disabled. Since disabling this
905signal will interfere with proper determination of exit status of child
906processes, Perl has reset the signal to its default value. This
907situation typically indicates that the parent program under which Perl
908may be running (e.g. cron) is being very careless.
0b5b802d 909
e2c0f81f
DG
910=item Can't kill a non-numeric process ID
911
912(F) Process identifiers must be (signed) integers. It is a fatal error to
913attempt to kill() an undefined, empty-string or otherwise non-numeric
914process identifier.
915
6df41af2 916=item Can't "last" outside a loop block
4633a7c4 917
6df41af2 918(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
be771a83
GS
919except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a current
920block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a "loopish"
921block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or grep(). You can
922usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the
923inner curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See
924L<perlfunc/last>.
4633a7c4 925
2c7d6b9c
RGS
926=item Can't linearize anonymous symbol table
927
928(F) Perl tried to calculate the method resolution order (MRO) of a
929package, but failed because the package stash has no name.
930
b8170e59
JB
931=item Can't load '%s' for module %s
932
6903afa2
FC
933(F) The module you tried to load failed to load a dynamic extension.
934This may either mean that you upgraded your version of perl to one
935that is incompatible with your old dynamic extensions (which is known
936to happen between major versions of perl), or (more likely) that your
937dynamic extension was built against an older version of the library
938that is installed on your system. You may need to rebuild your old
939dynamic extensions.
b8170e59 940
748a9306
LW
941=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
942
2ba9eb46 943(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
b7e4ecc1
FC
944lexical variable using "my" or "state". This is not allowed. If you
945want to localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with
946the package name.
748a9306 947
6df41af2 948=item Can't localize through a reference
4727527e 949
6df41af2
GS
950(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
951handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
be771a83 952pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be sure
64977eb6 953that $ref will still be a reference.
4727527e 954
ea071790 955=item Can't locate %s
ec889f3a 956
fa816bf3
FC
957(F) You said to C<do> (or C<require>, or C<use>) a file that couldn't be found.
958Perl looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in @INC, unless
959the file name included the full path to the file. Perhaps you need
960to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where the
961extra library is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name
be771a83
GS
962to @INC. Or maybe you just misspelled the name of the file. See
963L<perlfunc/require> and L<lib>.
a0d0e21e 964
6df41af2
GS
965=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
966
be771a83
GS
967(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows
968autoload, but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes
969are a misprint in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit>
970the file, say, by doing C<make install>.
6df41af2 971
b8170e59
JB
972=item Can't locate loadable object for module %s in @INC
973
974(F) The module you loaded is trying to load an external library, like
d70d8e57 975for example, F<foo.so> or F<bar.dll>, but the L<DynaLoader> module was
b8170e59
JB
976unable to locate this library. See L<DynaLoader>.
977
a0d0e21e
LW
978=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
979
980(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
981functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 982method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
983
984=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
985
be771a83
GS
986(W syntax) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that
987doesn't seem to exist.
a0d0e21e 988
2f7da168
RK
989=item Can't locate PerlIO%s
990
991(F) You tried to use in open() a PerlIO layer that does not exist,
992e.g. open(FH, ">:nosuchlayer", "somefile").
993
f4ad53f4 994=item Can't make list assignment to %ENV on this system
3e3baf6d 995
be771a83
GS
996(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably
997VMS.
3e3baf6d 998
a0d0e21e
LW
999=item Can't modify %s in %s
1000
be771a83
GS
1001(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try
1002to change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 1003
54310121 1004=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
1005
1006(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
1007a NULL.
1008
6df41af2
GS
1009=item Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call
1010
1011(F) Subroutines meant to be used in lvalue context should be declared as
2fe2bdfd 1012such. See L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
6df41af2 1013
5f05dabc 1014=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 1015
5f05dabc 1016(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
1017buffer.
1018
6df41af2
GS
1019=item Can't "next" outside a loop block
1020
1021(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
1022there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
be771a83
GS
1023count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or
1024grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1025though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that loops
1026once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
6df41af2 1027
46fa9b26
FC
1028=item Can't open %s
1029
1030(F) You tried to run a perl built with MAD support with
1031the PERL_XMLDUMP environment variable set, but the file
1032named by that variable could not be opened.
1033
a0d0e21e
LW
1034=item Can't open %s: %s
1035
c47ff5f1 1036(S inplace) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<< <> >>
08e9d68e 1037filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
46fa9b26
FC
1038switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually
1039this is because you don't have read permission for a file which
1040you named on the command line.
1041
1042(F) You tried to call perl with the B<-e> switch, but F</dev/null> (or
1043your operating system's equivalent) could not be opened.
a0d0e21e 1044
9a869a14
RGS
1045=item Can't open a reference
1046
1047(W io) You tried to open a scalar reference for reading or writing,
2fe2bdfd 1048using the 3-arg open() syntax:
9a869a14
RGS
1049
1050 open FH, '>', $ref;
1051
1052but your version of perl is compiled without perlio, and this form of
1053open is not supported.
1054
a0d0e21e
LW
1055=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
1056
be771a83
GS
1057(W pipe) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported.
1058You can try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such
1059as IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using
1060">", and then read it in under a different file handle.
a0d0e21e 1061
748a9306
LW
1062=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
1063
be771a83
GS
1064(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1065redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '2>' or '2>>' on
1066the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1067
1068=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
1069
be771a83
GS
1070(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1071redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '<' on the
1072command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
1073
1074=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
1075
be771a83
GS
1076(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1077redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '>' or '>>' on
1078the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1079
1080=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
1081
be771a83
GS
1082(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1083redirection, and couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined
1084for stdout.
748a9306 1085
3b1cf97d 1086=item Can't open perl script "%s": %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1087
1088(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
1089
fa3aa65a
JC
1090If you're debugging a script that uses #!, and normally relies on the
1091shell's $PATH search, the -S option causes perl to do that search, so
1092you don't have to type the path or C<`which $scriptname`>.
1093
6df41af2
GS
1094=item Can't read CRTL environ
1095
1096(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read an element of %ENV
1097from the CRTL's internal environment array and discovered the array was
1098missing. You need to figure out where your CRTL misplaced its environ
be771a83
GS
1099or define F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that environ is not
1100searched.
6df41af2 1101
6df41af2
GS
1102=item Can't "redo" outside a loop block
1103
1104(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
1105there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
1106count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map()
1107or grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1108though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that
1109loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
1110
64977eb6 1111=item Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file
10f9c03d 1112
be771a83
GS
1113(S inplace) You requested an inplace edit without creating a backup
1114file. Perl was unable to remove the original file to replace it with
1115the modified file. The file was left unmodified.
10f9c03d 1116
a0d0e21e
LW
1117=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
1118
e476b1b5 1119(S inplace) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason,
10f9c03d 1120probably because you don't have write permission to the directory.
a0d0e21e 1121
748a9306
LW
1122=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
1123
be771a83
GS
1124(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried
1125to reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
748a9306 1126
4f12ec0e
FC
1127=item Can't reset %ENV on this system
1128
1129(F) You called C<reset('E')> or similar, which tried to reset
1130all variables in the current package beginning with "E". In
1131the main package, that includes %ENV. Resetting %ENV is not
1132supported on some systems, notably VMS.
1133
fe13d51d 1134=item Can't resolve method "%s" overloading "%s" in package "%s"
6df41af2 1135
1fa582fa
FC
1136(F)(P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as
1137opposed to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the
1138package. If the method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
6df41af2 1139
cd06dffe
GS
1140=item Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine
1141
be771a83
GS
1142(F) Perl detected an attempt to return illegal lvalues (such as
1143temporary or readonly values) from a subroutine used as an lvalue. This
1144is not allowed.
cd06dffe 1145
96ebfdd7
RK
1146=item Can't return outside a subroutine
1147
1148(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
1149there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
1150
78f9721b
SM
1151=item Can't return %s to lvalue scalar context
1152
6903afa2
FC
1153(F) You tried to return a complete array or hash from an lvalue
1154subroutine, but you called the subroutine in a way that made Perl
1155think you meant to return only one value. You probably meant to
1156write parentheses around the call to the subroutine, which tell
1157Perl that the call should be in list context.
78f9721b 1158
a0d0e21e
LW
1159=item Can't stat script "%s"
1160
be771a83
GS
1161(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have it
1162open already. Bizarre.
a0d0e21e 1163
a0d0e21e
LW
1164=item Can't take log of %g
1165
fb73857a 1166(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
6903afa2 1167negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
be771a83
GS
1168standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for the
1169negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
1170
1171=item Can't take sqrt of %g
1172
1173(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a
PP
1174negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
1175with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
1176
1177=item Can't undef active subroutine
1178
1179(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
1180however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
1181redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
1182
c81225bc 1183=item Can't upgrade %s (%d) to %d
a0d0e21e 1184
be771a83
GS
1185(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making it
1186into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are so
1187specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This message
1188indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
a0d0e21e 1189
6651ba0b
FC
1190=item Can't use '%c' after -mname
1191
1192(F) You tried to call perl with the B<-m> switch, but you put something
1193other than "=" after the module name.
1194
1db89ea5
BS
1195=item Can't use anonymous symbol table for method lookup
1196
e27ad1f2 1197(F) The internal routine that does method lookup was handed a symbol
1db89ea5
BS
1198table that doesn't have a name. Symbol tables can become anonymous
1199for example by undefining stashes: C<undef %Some::Package::>.
1200
96ebfdd7
RK
1201=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
1202
1203(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
1204be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
1205
6df41af2
GS
1206=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
1207
be771a83
GS
1208(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1209references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 1210
90b75b61 1211=item Can't use %! because Errno.pm is not available
1d2dff63 1212
20561843 1213(F) The first time the C<%!> hash is used, perl automatically loads the
6903afa2 1214Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
1d2dff63
GS
1215provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
1216
1109a392
MHM
1217=item Can't use both '<' and '>' after type '%c' in %s
1218
1219(F) A type cannot be forced to have both big-endian and little-endian
1220byte-order at the same time, so this combination of modifiers is not
1221allowed. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1222
6df41af2
GS
1223=item Can't use %s for loop variable
1224
be771a83
GS
1225(F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a
1226foreach.
6df41af2 1227
aab6a793 1228=item Can't use global %s in "%s"
6df41af2 1229
be771a83
GS
1230(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This
1231is not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location
1232(namely the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to
1233have variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
6df41af2
GS
1234weren't.
1235
6d3b25aa
RGS
1236=item Can't use '%c' in a group with different byte-order in %s
1237
1238(F) You attempted to force a different byte-order on a type
1239that is already inside a group with a byte-order modifier.
1240For example you cannot force little-endianness on a type that
1241is inside a big-endian group.
1242
c07a80fd
PP
1243=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
1244
1245(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
c47ff5f1 1246You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the <=> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd
PP
1247and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
1248Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
1249lexical variable.
1250
a0d0e21e
LW
1251=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
1252
1253(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
1254reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
1255test the type of the reference, if need be.
1256
748a9306 1257=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e 1258
b41bf23f
FC
1259(F) You've told Perl to dereference a string, something which
1260C<use strict> blocks to prevent it happening accidentally. See
1261L<perlref/"Symbolic references">. This can be triggered by an C<@> or C<$>
1262in a double-quoted string immediately before interpolating a variable,
1263for example in C<"user @$twitter_id">, which says to treat the contents
1264of C<$twitter_id> as an array reference; use a C<\> to have a literal C<@>
1265symbol followed by the contents of C<$twitter_id>: C<"user \@$twitter_id">.
a0d0e21e 1266
748a9306
LW
1267=item Can't use subscript on %s
1268
1269(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
1270subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
209e7cf1 1271didn't look like a hash or array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
748a9306 1272
6df41af2
GS
1273=item Can't use \%c to mean $%c in expression
1274
75b44862
GS
1275(W syntax) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that
1276creates a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a
1277backreference to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular
be771a83
GS
1278expression pattern. Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a
1279value that prints out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form
1280instead.
6df41af2 1281
810b8aa5
GS
1282=item Can't weaken a nonreference
1283
1284(F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference. Only
1285references can be weakened.
1286
fc7debfb
FC
1287=item Can't "when" outside a topicalizer
1288
1289(F) You have used a when() block that is neither inside a C<foreach>
1290loop nor a C<given> block. (Note that this error is issued on exit
1291from the C<when> block, so you won't get the error if the match fails,
1292or if you use an explicit C<continue>.)
1293
5f05dabc 1294=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e 1295
be771a83
GS
1296(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value)
1297with an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
a0d0e21e
LW
1298Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
1299
4a68bf9d 1300=item Character following "\c" must be ASCII
f9d13529 1301
1fa582fa 1302(F)(W deprecated, syntax) In C<\cI<X>>, I<X> must be an ASCII character.
79ef86ee 1303It is planned to make this fatal in all instances in Perl 5.18. In the
17a3df4c
KW
1304cases where it isn't fatal, the character this evaluates to is
1305derived by exclusive or'ing the code point of this character with 0x40.
1306
1307Note that non-alphabetic ASCII characters are discouraged here as well.
f9d13529 1308
f337b084 1309=item Character in 'C' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1310
1311(W pack) You said
1312
1313 pack("C", $x)
1314
1315where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255; the C<"C"> format is
1316only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1317and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1318
1319 pack("C", $x & 255)
1320
1321If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1322instead.
1323
f337b084
TH
1324=item Character in 'W' format wrapped in pack
1325
1326(W pack) You said
1327
1328 pack("U0W", $x)
1329
6903afa2
FC
1330where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255. However, C<U0>-mode
1331expects all values to fall in the interval [0, 255], so Perl behaved
1332as if you meant:
f337b084
TH
1333
1334 pack("U0W", $x & 255)
1335
1336=item Character in 'c' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1337
1338(W pack) You said
1339
1340 pack("c", $x)
1341
1342where $x is either less than -128 or more than 127; the C<"c"> format
1343is only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1344and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1345
1346 pack("c", $x & 255);
1347
1348If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1349instead.
1350
f337b084
TH
1351=item Character in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1352
1353(W unpack) You tried something like
1354
1355 unpack("H", "\x{2a1}")
1356
1a147d38 1357where the format expects to process a byte (a character with a value
6903afa2
FC
1358below 256), but a higher value was provided instead. Perl uses the
1359value modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
f337b084
TH
1360
1361 unpack("H", "\x{a1}")
1362
1363=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in pack
1364
1365(W pack) You tried something like
1366
1367 pack("u", "\x{1f3}b")
1368
1a147d38 1369where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
6903afa2 1370value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1371uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1372
1373 pack("u", "\x{f3}b")
1374
1375=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1376
1377(W unpack) You tried something like
1378
1379 unpack("s", "\x{1f3}b")
1380
1a147d38 1381where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
6903afa2 1382value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1383uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1384
1385 unpack("s", "\x{f3}b")
1386
f866a7cd
FC
1387=item "\c{" is deprecated and is more clearly written as ";"
1388
1389(D deprecated, syntax) The C<\cI<X>> construct is intended to be a way
1390to specify non-printable characters. You used it with a "{" which
1391evaluates to ";", which is printable. It is planned to remove the
79ef86ee 1392ability to specify a semi-colon this way in Perl 5.18. Just use a
f866a7cd
FC
1393semi-colon or a backslash-semi-colon without the "\c".
1394
1395=item "\c%c" is more clearly written simply as "%s"
1396
1397(W syntax) The C<\cI<X>> construct is intended to be a way to specify
1398non-printable characters. You used it for a printable one, which is better
1399written as simply itself, perhaps preceded by a backslash for non-word
1400characters.
1401
6651ba0b
FC
1402=item Cloning substitution context is unimplemented
1403
1404(F) Creating a new thread inside the C<s///> operator is not supported.
1405
96ebfdd7
RK
1406=item close() on unopened filehandle %s
1407
1408(W unopened) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
1409
abc7ecad
SP
1410=item closedir() attempted on invalid dirhandle %s
1411
1412(W io) The dirhandle you tried to close is either closed or not really
1413a dirhandle. Check your control flow.
1414
541ed3a9
FC
1415=item Closure prototype called
1416
1417(F) If a closure has attributes, the subroutine passed to an attribute
1418handler is the prototype that is cloned when a new closure is created.
1419This subroutine cannot be called.
1420
49704364
LW
1421=item Code missing after '/'
1422
6903afa2
FC
1423(F) You had a (sub-)template that ends with a '/'. There must be
1424another template code following the slash. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
49704364 1425
0876b9a0
KW
1426=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, may not be portable
1427
6fbc9859
MH
1428=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, all \p{} matches fail; all \P{} matches
1429succeed
9ae3ac1a 1430
e2f4a215 1431(S utf8, non_unicode) You had a code point above the Unicode maximum
1b64326b
FC
1432of U+10FFFF.
1433
1434Perl allows strings to contain a superset of Unicode code points, up
1435to the limit of what is storable in an unsigned integer on your system,
1436but these may not be accepted by other languages/systems. At one time,
1437it was legal in some standards to have code points up to 0x7FFF_FFFF,
1438but not higher. Code points above 0xFFFF_FFFF require larger than a
143932 bit word.
0876b9a0 1440
9ae3ac1a
KW
1441None of the Unicode or Perl-defined properties will match a non-Unicode
1442code point. For example,
1443
1444 chr(0x7FF_FFFF) =~ /\p{Any}/
1445
1446will not match, because the code point is not in Unicode. But
1447
1448 chr(0x7FF_FFFF) =~ /\P{Any}/
1449
1450will match.
1451
94b42e47
KW
1452This may be counterintuitive at times, as both these fail:
1453
f9d4ccdc
FC
1454 chr(0x110000) =~ /\p{ASCII_Hex_Digit=True}/ # Fails.
1455 chr(0x110000) =~ /\p{ASCII_Hex_Digit=False}/ # Also fails!
94b42e47
KW
1456
1457and both these succeed:
1458
f9d4ccdc
FC
1459 chr(0x110000) =~ /\P{ASCII_Hex_Digit=True}/ # Succeeds.
1460 chr(0x110000) =~ /\P{ASCII_Hex_Digit=False}/ # Also succeeds!
94b42e47 1461
6df41af2
GS
1462=item %s: Command not found
1463
a892b81a
FC
1464(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> or another shell
1465shell instead of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script
1466into Perl yourself. The #! line at the top of your file could look like
8f721816
MM
1467
1468 #!/usr/bin/perl -w
6df41af2 1469
7a2e2cd6
PP
1470=item Compilation failed in require
1471
1472(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
be771a83
GS
1473Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it
1474encountered were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
7a2e2cd6 1475
c3464db5
DD
1476=item Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
1477
be771a83
GS
1478(W regexp) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex
1479situations where back-tracking is required. Recursion depth is limited
1480to 32766, or perhaps less in architectures where the stack cannot grow
1481arbitrarily. ("Simple" and "medium" situations are handled without
1482recursion and are not subject to a limit.) Try shortening the string
1483under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with C<while>) rather than
1484in the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular expression so
c2e66d9e 1485that it is simpler or backtracks less. (See L<perlfaq2> for information
be771a83 1486on I<Mastering Regular Expressions>.)
c3464db5 1487
38875929
DM
1488=item cond_broadcast() called on unlocked variable
1489
6903afa2
FC
1490(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to
1491call cond_broadcast() on a variable which wasn't locked.
1492The cond_broadcast() function is used to wake up another thread
1493that is waiting in a cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't
1494sent before the other thread has a chance to enter the wait, it
1495is usual for the signaling thread first to wait for a lock on
1496variable. This lock attempt will only succeed after the other
1497thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the lock.
38875929 1498
38875929
DM
1499=item cond_signal() called on unlocked variable
1500
6903afa2
FC
1501(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to
1502call cond_signal() on a variable which wasn't locked. The
1503cond_signal() function is used to wake up another thread that
1504is waiting in a cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't
1505sent before the other thread has a chance to enter the wait, it
1506is usual for the signaling thread first to wait for a lock on
1507variable. This lock attempt will only succeed after the other
1508thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the lock.
38875929 1509
69282e91 1510=item connect() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1511
be771a83
GS
1512(W closed) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget
1513to check the return value of your socket() call? See
1514L<perlfunc/connect>.
a0d0e21e 1515
e21e7c6a
FC
1516=item Constant(%s): Call to &{$^H{%s}} did not return a defined value
1517
1518(F) The subroutine registered to handle constant overloading
1519(see L<overload>) or a custom charnames handler (see
1520L<charnames/CUSTOM TRANSLATORS>) returned an undefined value.
1521
1522=item Constant(%s): $^H{%s} is not defined
1523
1524(F) The parser found inconsistencies while attempting to define an
1525overloaded constant. Perhaps you forgot to load the corresponding
1526L<overload> pragma?.
1527
1528=item Constant(%s) unknown
6df41af2 1529
be771a83
GS
1530(F) The parser found inconsistencies either while attempting to define
1531an overloaded constant, or when trying to find the character name
1532specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you forgot to load the
fbb93542 1533corresponding L<overload> pragma?.
6df41af2 1534
779c5bc9
GS
1535=item Constant is not %s reference
1536
1537(F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the C<use constant> pragma)
be771a83 1538is being dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference.
6903afa2 1539The message indicates the type of reference that was expected. This
be771a83 1540usually indicates a syntax error in dereferencing the constant value.
779c5bc9
GS
1541See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> and L<constant>.
1542
4cee8e80
CS
1543=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
1544
aeb94125
FC
1545(W redefine)(S) You redefined a subroutine which had previously
1546been eligible for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions">
1547for commentary and workarounds.
4cee8e80 1548
9607fc9c
PP
1549=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
1550
be771a83
GS
1551(W misc) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible
1552for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1553workarounds.
9607fc9c 1554
e7ea3e70
IZ
1555=item Copy method did not return a reference
1556
6903afa2 1557(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See
13a2d996 1558L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
e7ea3e70 1559
4aaa4757
FC
1560=item &CORE::%s cannot be called directly
1561
1562(F) You tried to call a subroutine in the C<CORE::> namespace
8d605c0d 1563with C<&foo> syntax or through a reference. Some subroutines
4aaa4757
FC
1564in this package cannot yet be called that way, but must be
1565called as barewords. Something like this will work:
1566
1567 BEGIN { *shove = \&CORE::push; }
1568 shove @array, 1,2,3; # pushes on to @array
1569
6798c92b
GS
1570=item CORE::%s is not a keyword
1571
1572(F) The CORE:: namespace is reserved for Perl keywords.
1573
a0d0e21e
LW
1574=item corrupted regexp pointers
1575
1576(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1577expression compiler gave it.
1578
1579=item corrupted regexp program
1580
be771a83
GS
1581(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without a
1582valid magic number.
a0d0e21e 1583
de42a5a9 1584=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%x at 0x%x
6df41af2
GS
1585
1586(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
1587
49704364
LW
1588=item Count after length/code in unpack
1589
1590(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string, but
1591you have also specified an explicit size for the string. See
1592L<perlfunc/pack>.
1593
6651ba0b
FC
1594=item Deep recursion on anonymous subroutine
1595
a0d0e21e
LW
1596=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
1597
be771a83
GS
1598(W recursion) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly)
1599100 times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an
1600infinite recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in
1601which case it indicates something else.
a0d0e21e 1602
aad1d01f
NC
1603This threshold can be changed from 100, by recompiling the F<perl> binary,
1604setting the C pre-processor macro C<PERL_SUB_DEPTH_WARN> to the desired value.
1605
f10b0346 1606=item defined(@array) is deprecated
69794302 1607
be771a83
GS
1608(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on arrays because it
1609checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the
64977eb6 1610array is empty, just use C<if (@array) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1611
f10b0346 1612=item defined(%hash) is deprecated
69794302 1613
f0ec9725
KR
1614(D deprecated) C<defined()> is not usually right on hashes and has been
1615discouraged since 5.004.
1616
1617Although C<defined %hash> is false on a plain not-yet-used hash, it
1618becomes true in several non-obvious circumstances, including iterators,
1619weak references, stash names, even remaining true after C<undef %hash>.
1620These things make C<defined %hash> fairly useless in practice.
1621
1622If a check for non-empty is what you wanted then just put it in boolean
1623context (see L<perldata/Scalar values>):
16546e45
KR
1624
1625 if (%hash) {
1626 # not empty
1627 }
1628
f0ec9725
KR
1629If you had C<defined %Foo::Bar::QUUX> to check whether such a package
1630variable exists then that's never really been reliable, and isn't
1631a good way to enquire about the features of a package, or whether
1632it's loaded, etc.
1633
69794302 1634
6fbc9859
MH
1635=item (?(DEFINE)....) does not allow branches in regex; marked by <-- HERE in
1636m/%s/
bcb95744 1637
6903afa2 1638(F) You used something like C<(?(DEFINE)...|..)> which is illegal. The
bcb95744
FC
1639most likely cause of this error is that you left out a parenthesis inside
1640of the C<....> part.
1641
9e3ec65c 1642The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
bcb95744
FC
1643discovered.
1644
62658f4d
PM
1645=item %s defines neither package nor VERSION--version check failed
1646
1647(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but in the Module file
1648there are neither package declarations nor a C<$VERSION>.
1649
fc36a67e
PP
1650=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1651
be771a83
GS
1652(F) In a here document construct like C<<<FOO>, the label C<FOO> is too
1653long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously twisted to write code
1654that triggers this error.
fc36a67e 1655
6d3b25aa
RGS
1656=item Deprecated use of my() in false conditional
1657
fa816bf3
FC
1658(D deprecated) You used a declaration similar to C<my $x if 0>. There
1659has been a long-standing bug in Perl that causes a lexical variable
6d3b25aa 1660not to be cleared at scope exit when its declaration includes a false
6903afa2 1661conditional. Some people have exploited this bug to achieve a kind of
fa816bf3 1662static variable. Since we intend to fix this bug, we don't want people
6903afa2 1663relying on this behavior. You can achieve a similar static effect by
6d3b25aa 1664declaring the variable in a separate block outside the function, eg
36fb85f3 1665
6d3b25aa
RGS
1666 sub f { my $x if 0; return $x++ }
1667
1668becomes
1669
1670 { my $x; sub f { return $x++ } }
1671
fa816bf3
FC
1672Beginning with perl 5.9.4, you can also use C<state> variables to have
1673lexicals that are initialized only once (see L<feature>):
36fb85f3
RGS
1674
1675 sub f { state $x; return $x++ }
1676
500ab966
RGS
1677=item DESTROY created new reference to dead object '%s'
1678
1679(F) A DESTROY() method created a new reference to the object which is
6903afa2
FC
1680just being DESTROYed. Perl is confused, and prefers to abort rather
1681than to create a dangling reference.
500ab966 1682
3cdd684c
TP
1683=item Did not produce a valid header
1684
1685See Server error.
1686
6df41af2
GS
1687=item %s did not return a true value
1688
1689(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
1690it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
1691traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
1692do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
1693
cc507455 1694=item (Did you mean &%s instead?)
4633a7c4 1695
413ff9f6
FC
1696(W misc) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or
1697some such.
4633a7c4 1698
cc507455 1699=item (Did you mean "local" instead of "our"?)
33633739 1700
be771a83
GS
1701(W misc) Remember that "our" does not localize the declared global
1702variable. You have declared it again in the same lexical scope, which
1703seems superfluous.
33633739 1704
cc507455 1705=item (Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?)
a0d0e21e 1706
be771a83
GS
1707(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or
1708@hash{@keys}. On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got
1709carried away.
748a9306 1710
7e1af8bc 1711=item Died
5f05dabc
PP
1712
1713(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
075b00aa 1714you called it with no args and C<$@> was empty.
5f05dabc 1715
3cdd684c
TP
1716=item Document contains no data
1717
1718See Server error.
1719
62658f4d
PM
1720=item %s does not define %s::VERSION--version check failed
1721
1722(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but the Module did not
1723define a C<$VERSION.>
1724
49704364
LW
1725=item '/' does not take a repeat count
1726
1727(F) You cannot put a repeat count of any kind right after the '/' code.
1728See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1729
a0d0e21e
LW
1730=item Don't know how to handle magic of type '%s'
1731
1732(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
1733
1734=item do_study: out of memory
1735
1736(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
1737
6df41af2
GS
1738=item (Do you need to predeclare %s?)
1739
56da5a46
RGS
1740(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
1741"%s found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
6df41af2
GS
1742name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
1743because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
be771a83
GS
1744"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're referencing
1745something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have to define the
1746subroutine or package before the current location. You can use an empty
1747"sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward" declaration.
6df41af2 1748
ac206dc8
RGS
1749=item dump() better written as CORE::dump()
1750
1751(W misc) You used the obsolescent C<dump()> built-in function, without fully
1752qualifying it as C<CORE::dump()>. Maybe it's a typo. See L<perlfunc/dump>.
1753
84d78eb7
YO
1754=item dump is not supported
1755
1756(F) Your machine doesn't support dump/undump.
1757
a0d0e21e
LW
1758=item Duplicate free() ignored
1759
be771a83
GS
1760(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had
1761already been freed.
a0d0e21e 1762
1109a392
MHM
1763=item Duplicate modifier '%c' after '%c' in %s
1764
35f0cd76
FC
1765(W unpack) You have applied the same modifier more than once after a
1766type in a pack template. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1109a392 1767
4633a7c4
LW
1768=item elseif should be elsif
1769
fa816bf3
FC
1770(S syntax) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks
1771it's ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method
1772named "elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
4633a7c4
LW
1773unlikely to be what you want.
1774
ab13f0c7
JH
1775=item Empty %s
1776
af6f566e 1777(F) C<\p> and C<\P> are used to introduce a named Unicode property, as
6903afa2 1778described in L<perlunicode> and L<perlre>. You used C<\p> or C<\P> in
af6f566e 1779a regular expression without specifying the property name.
ab13f0c7 1780
85ab1d1d 1781=item entering effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1782
85ab1d1d 1783(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1784effective uids or gids failed.
1785
c038024b
RGS
1786=item %ENV is aliased to %s
1787
1788(F) You're running under taint mode, and the C<%ENV> variable has been
1789aliased to another hash, so it doesn't reflect anymore the state of the
6903afa2 1790program's environment. This is potentially insecure.
c038024b 1791
748a9306
LW
1792=item Error converting file specification %s
1793
5f05dabc 1794(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306 1795specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
be771a83
GS
1796single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've passed
1797an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a case the
1798conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
748a9306 1799
ad19ef22 1800=item Eval-group in insecure regular expression
e4d48cc9 1801
be771a83
GS
1802(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
1803expression that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which
1804is unsafe. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
e4d48cc9 1805
ad19ef22 1806=item Eval-group not allowed at runtime, use re 'eval' in regex m/%s/
e4d48cc9 1807
be771a83
GS
1808(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the
1809C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the
f11307f5
FC
1810pattern contains interpolated values. Since that is a security risk,
1811it is not allowed. If you insist, you may still do this by using the
1812C<re 'eval'> pragma or by explicitly building the pattern from an
1813interpolated string at run time and using that in an eval(). See
1814L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
e4d48cc9 1815
ad19ef22 1816=item Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval' in regex m/%s/
6df41af2 1817
be771a83
GS
1818(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width
1819assertion, but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'>
1820pragma is in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
6df41af2 1821
6fbc9859
MH
1822=item EVAL without pos change exceeded limit in regex; marked by <-- HERE in
1823m/%s/
1a147d38
YO
1824
1825(F) You used a pattern that nested too many EVAL calls without consuming
6903afa2 1826any text. Restructure the pattern so that text is consumed.
1a147d38 1827
9e3ec65c 1828The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
1a147d38
YO
1829discovered.
1830
fc36a67e
PP
1831=item Excessively long <> operator
1832
1833(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
1834Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
1835filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
1836variable and glob that.
1837
ed9aa3b7
SG
1838=item exec? I'm not *that* kind of operating system
1839
af8bb25a 1840(F) The C<exec> function is not implemented on some systems, e.g., Symbian
6903afa2 1841OS. See L<perlport>.
ed9aa3b7 1842
fe13d51d 1843=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors.
a0d0e21e
LW
1844
1845(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
1846
1847=item Exiting eval via %s
1848
be771a83
GS
1849(W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as a
1850goto, or a loop control statement.
e476b1b5
GS
1851
1852=item Exiting format via %s
1853
9a2ff54b 1854(W exiting) You are exiting a format by unconventional means, such as a
be771a83 1855goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1856
0a753a76
PP
1857=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
1858
be771a83
GS
1859(W exiting) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a
1860sort block or subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a
1861loop control statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
0a753a76 1862
a0d0e21e
LW
1863=item Exiting subroutine via %s
1864
be771a83
GS
1865(W exiting) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such
1866as a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
1867
1868=item Exiting substitution via %s
1869
be771a83
GS
1870(W exiting) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such
1871as a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1872
e7d0b801
FC
1873=item Experimental "%s" subs not enabled
1874
1875(F) To use lexical subs, you must first enable them:
1876
f1d34ca8 1877 no warnings 'experimental::lexical_subs';
e7d0b801
FC
1878 use feature 'lexical_subs';
1879 my sub foo { ... }
1880
7b8d334a
GS
1881=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
1882
be771a83
GS
1883(W misc) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
1884the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
1885usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target package,
1886e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');
7b8d334a 1887
6df41af2
GS
1888=item %s: Expression syntax
1889
be771a83
GS
1890(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1891Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2
GS
1892
1893=item %s failed--call queue aborted
1894
3c10abe3
AG
1895(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a UNITCHECK,
1896CHECK, INIT, or END subroutine. Processing of the remainder of the
1897queue of such routines has been prematurely ended.
6df41af2 1898
7253e4e3 1899=item False [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
73b437c8 1900
be771a83 1901(W regexp) A character class range must start and end at a literal
7253e4e3
RK
1902character, not another character class like C<\d> or C<[:alpha:]>. The "-"
1903in your false range is interpreted as a literal "-". Consider quoting the
9e3ec65c 1904"-", "\-". The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the
7253e4e3 1905problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
73b437c8 1906
1b1ee2ef 1907=item Fatal VMS error (status=%d) at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 1908
be771a83
GS
1909(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS
1910system service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more
1911details. The filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell
1912you which section of the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
1913
1914=item fcntl is not implemented
1915
1916(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
1917PDP-11 or something?
1918
22846ab4
AB
1919=item FETCHSIZE returned a negative value
1920
1921(F) A tied array claimed to have a negative number of elements, which
1922is not possible.
1923
f337b084
TH
1924=item Field too wide in 'u' format in pack
1925
d8b5cc61 1926(W pack) Each line in an uuencoded string starts with a length indicator
6903afa2
FC
1927which can't encode values above 63. So there is no point in asking for
1928a line length bigger than that. Perl will behave as if you specified
5c96f6f7 1929C<u63> as the format.
f337b084 1930
af8c498a 1931=item Filehandle %s opened only for input
a0d0e21e 1932
6c8d78fb
HS
1933(W io) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you intended
1934it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with "+<" or
1935"+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you intended only to
1936write the file, use ">" or ">>". See L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 1937
af8c498a 1938=item Filehandle %s opened only for output
a0d0e21e 1939
6c8d78fb
HS
1940(W io) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing, If
1941you intended it to be a read/write filehandle, you needed to open it
89a1bda8
FC
1942with "+<" or "+>" or "+>>" instead of with ">". If you intended only to
1943read from the file, use "<". See L<perlfunc/open>. Another possibility
1944is that you attempted to open filedescriptor 0 (also known as STDIN) for
1945output (maybe you closed STDIN earlier?).
97828cef
RGS
1946
1947=item Filehandle %s reopened as %s only for input
1948
1949(W io) You opened for reading a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
6903afa2 1950as STDOUT or STDERR. This occurred because you closed STDOUT or STDERR
97828cef
RGS
1951previously.
1952
1953=item Filehandle STDIN reopened as %s only for output
1954
1955(W io) You opened for writing a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
fa816bf3 1956as STDIN. This occurred because you closed STDIN previously.
a0d0e21e
LW
1957
1958=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
1959
1960(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
be771a83
GS
1961a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name that
1962happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or the
1963name.
a0d0e21e 1964
56e90b21
GS
1965=item flock() on closed filehandle %s
1966
be771a83 1967(W closed) The filehandle you're attempting to flock() got itself closed
c289d2f7 1968some time before now. Check your control flow. flock() operates on
be771a83
GS
1969filehandles. Are you attempting to call flock() on a dirhandle by the
1970same name?
56e90b21 1971
6df41af2
GS
1972=item Format not terminated
1973
1974(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
1975to the end of your file without finding such a line.
1976
a0d0e21e
LW
1977=item Format %s redefined
1978
e476b1b5 1979(W redefine) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
a0d0e21e
LW
1980
1981 {
271595cc 1982 no warnings 'redefine';
a0d0e21e
LW
1983 eval "format NAME =...";
1984 }
1985
a0d0e21e
LW
1986=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
1987
e476b1b5 1988(W syntax) You said
a0d0e21e
LW
1989
1990 if ($foo = 123)
1991
1992when you meant
1993
1994 if ($foo == 123)
1995
1996(or something like that).
1997
6df41af2
GS
1998=item %s found where operator expected
1999
56da5a46
RGS
2000(S syntax) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator.
2001If it sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an
be771a83
GS
2002operator, it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an
2003operator or delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
6df41af2 2004
a0d0e21e
LW
2005=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
2006
2007(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
2008
2009=item gethostent not implemented
2010
2011(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
2012because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
2013on the Internet.
2014
69282e91 2015=item get%sname() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2016
be771a83
GS
2017(W closed) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed
2018socket. Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
a0d0e21e 2019
748a9306
LW
2020=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
2021
2022(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
2023C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
2024
6df41af2
GS
2025=item getsockopt() on closed socket %s
2026
be771a83
GS
2027(W closed) You tried to get a socket option on a closed socket. Did you
2028forget to check the return value of your socket() call? See
6df41af2
GS
2029L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
2030
2031=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
2032
a4edf47d 2033(F) You've said "use strict" or "use strict vars", which indicates
30c282f6 2034that all variables must either be lexically scoped (using "my" or "state"),
a4edf47d
GS
2035declared beforehand using "our", or explicitly qualified to say
2036which package the global variable is in (using "::").
6df41af2 2037
e476b1b5
GS
2038=item glob failed (%s)
2039
5ead438e 2040(S glob) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used
73c4e9dc
FC
2041for C<glob> and C<< <*.c> >>. Usually, this means that you supplied a C<glob>
2042pattern that caused the external program to fail and exit with a
be771a83 2043nonzero status. If the message indicates that the abnormal exit
73c4e9dc
FC
2044resulted in a coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C shell)
2045is broken. If so, you should change all of the csh-related variables
2046in config.sh: If you have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as
2047if it were csh (e.g. C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them
2048all empty (except that C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will
be771a83 2049think csh is missing. In either case, after editing config.sh, run
75b44862 2050C<./Configure -S> and rebuild Perl.
e476b1b5 2051
a0d0e21e
LW
2052=item Glob not terminated
2053
2054(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
be771a83
GS
2055a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and
2056not finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out
2057earlier in the line, and you really meant a "less than".
a0d0e21e 2058
bcd05b94 2059=item gmtime(%f) too large
8b56d6ff 2060
e9200be3 2061(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with a number that was larger than
fc003d4b 2062it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong
6903afa2 2063date. This warning is also triggered with NaN (the special
fc003d4b
MS
2064not-a-number value).
2065
bcd05b94 2066=item gmtime(%f) too small
fc003d4b 2067
e9200be3 2068(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with a number that was smaller than
e7a1a147 2069it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong date.
8b56d6ff 2070
6df41af2 2071=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
a0d0e21e 2072
6df41af2
GS
2073(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
2074version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
a0d0e21e
LW
2075
2076=item goto must have label
2077
2078(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
2079unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2080
6651ba0b
FC
2081=item Goto undefined subroutine%s
2082
2083(F) You tried to call a subroutine with C<goto &sub> syntax, but
2084the indicated subroutine hasn't been defined, or if it was, it
2085has since been undefined.
2086
49704364 2087=item ()-group starts with a count
18529408 2088
bca4a986
FC
2089(F) A ()-group started with a count. A count is supposed to follow
2090something: a template character or a ()-group. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
18529408 2091
6fbc9859
MH
2092=item Group name must start with a non-digit word character in regex; marked by
2093<-- HERE in m/%s/
1f4f6bf1
YO
2094
2095(F) Group names must follow the rules for perl identifiers, meaning
2096they must start with a non-digit word character. A common cause of
2097this error is using (?&0) instead of (?0). See L<perlre>.
2098
fe13d51d 2099=item %s had compilation errors.
6df41af2
GS
2100
2101(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
2102
a0d0e21e
LW
2103=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
2104
be771a83
GS
2105(S internal) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought
2106to have existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be
2107created on an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
a0d0e21e
LW
2108
2109=item Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
2110
be771a83
GS
2111(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some
2112spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
a0d0e21e 2113
6df41af2
GS
2114=item %s has too many errors
2115
2116(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
2117Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
2118
252aa082
JH
2119=item Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
2120
e476b1b5 2121(W portable) The hexadecimal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
2122(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
2123L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 2124
82f96200
JL
2125=item -i used with no filenames on the command line, reading from STDIN
2126
2127(S inplace) The C<-i> option was passed on the command line, indicating
2128that the script is intended to edit files inplace, but no files were
0421bbaa
FC
2129given. This is usually a mistake, since editing STDIN inplace doesn't
2130make sense, and can be confusing because it can make perl look like
2131it is hanging when it is really just trying to read from STDIN. You
2132should either pass a filename to edit, or remove C<-i> from the command
2133line. See L<perlrun> for more details.
82f96200 2134
8903cb82
PP
2135=item Identifier too long
2136
2137(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e 2138about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
be771a83
GS
2139names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future versions
2140of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 2141
b33c0c71 2142=item Ignoring zero length \N{} in character class in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
fc8cd66c 2143
b33c0c71 2144(W regexp) Named Unicode character escapes C<(\N{...})> may return a zero-length
6903afa2
FC
2145sequence. When such an escape is used in a character class its
2146behaviour is not well defined. Check that the correct escape has
fc8cd66c
YO
2147been used, and the correct charname handler is in scope.
2148
6df41af2 2149=item Illegal binary digit %s
f675dbe5 2150
6df41af2 2151(F) You used a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
f675dbe5 2152
6df41af2 2153=item Illegal binary digit %s ignored
a0d0e21e 2154
be771a83
GS
2155(W digit) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a
2156binary number. Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the
2157offending digit.
a0d0e21e 2158
6597eb22
FC
2159=item Illegal character after '_' in prototype for %s : %s
2160
2161(W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype declaration.
2162Legal characters in prototypes are $, @, %, *, ;, [, ], &, \, and +.
2163
78d0fecf 2164=item Illegal character \%o (carriage return)
4fdae800 2165
d5898338 2166(F) Perl normally treats carriage returns in the program text as it
be771a83
GS
2167would any other whitespace, which means you should never see this error
2168when Perl was built using standard options. For some reason, your
2169version of Perl appears to have been built without this support. Talk
2170to your Perl administrator.
4fdae800 2171
d37a9538
ST
2172=item Illegal character in prototype for %s : %s
2173
197afce1 2174(W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype declaration.
2e9cc7ef 2175Legal characters in prototypes are $, @, %, *, ;, [, ], &, \, and +.
d37a9538 2176
904d85c5
RGS
2177=item Illegal declaration of anonymous subroutine
2178
2179(F) When using the C<sub> keyword to construct an anonymous subroutine,
6903afa2 2180you must always specify a block of code. See L<perlsub>.
904d85c5 2181
8e742a20
MHM
2182=item Illegal declaration of subroutine %s
2183
6903afa2 2184(F) A subroutine was not declared correctly. See L<perlsub>.
8e742a20 2185
a0d0e21e
LW
2186=item Illegal division by zero
2187
be771a83
GS
2188(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in
2189your logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against
2190meaningless input.
a0d0e21e 2191
6df41af2
GS
2192=item Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
2193
be771a83
GS
2194(W digit) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or
2195A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal
2196number stopped before the illegal character.
6df41af2 2197
a0d0e21e
LW
2198=item Illegal modulus zero
2199
be771a83
GS
2200(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most
2201numbers don't take to this kindly.
a0d0e21e 2202
6df41af2 2203=item Illegal number of bits in vec
399388f4 2204
6df41af2
GS
2205(F) The number of bits in vec() (the third argument) must be a power of
2206two from 1 to 32 (or 64, if your platform supports that).
399388f4
GS
2207
2208=item Illegal octal digit %s
a0d0e21e 2209
d1be9408 2210(F) You used an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
a0d0e21e 2211
399388f4 2212=item Illegal octal digit %s ignored
748a9306 2213
d1be9408 2214(W digit) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
75b44862 2215Interpretation of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
748a9306 2216
fe13d51d 2217=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: -%c
6ff81951 2218
6df41af2 2219(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
646ca9b2 2220following switches: B<-[CDIMUdmtw]>.
6ff81951 2221
6df41af2 2222=item Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
81e118e0 2223
75b44862 2224(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the CRTL's
be771a83
GS
2225internal environ array, and encountered an element without the C<=>
2226delimiter used to separate keys from values. The element is ignored.
09bef843 2227
6df41af2 2228=item Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
54310121 2229
be771a83
GS
2230(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read a logical
2231name or CLI symbol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and
2232didn't see the expected delimiter between key and value, so the line was
2233ignored.
54310121 2234
6df41af2 2235=item (in cleanup) %s
9607fc9c 2236
be771a83
GS
2237(W misc) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised
2238the indicated exception. Since destructors are usually called by the
2239system at arbitrary points during execution, and often a vast number of
2240times, the warning is issued only once for any number of failures that
2241would otherwise result in the same message being repeated.
6df41af2 2242
be771a83
GS
2243Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the C<G_KEEPERR> flag could
2244also result in this warning. See L<perlcall/G_KEEPERR>.
9607fc9c 2245
6fbc9859
MH
2246=item Inconsistent hierarchy during C3 merge of class '%s': merging failed on
2247parent '%s'
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2248
2249(F) The method resolution order (MRO) of the given class is not
2250C3-consistent, and you have enabled the C3 MRO for this class. See the C3
2251documentation in L<mro> for more information.
2252
979699d9
JH
2253=item In EBCDIC the v-string components cannot exceed 2147483647
2254
2255(F) An error peculiar to EBCDIC. Internally, v-strings are stored as
2256Unicode code points, and encoded in EBCDIC as UTF-EBCDIC. The UTF-EBCDIC
2257encoding is limited to code points no larger than 2147483647 (0x7FFFFFFF).
2258
1a147d38
YO
2259=item Infinite recursion in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2260
2261(F) You used a pattern that references itself without consuming any input
6903afa2 2262text. You should check the pattern to ensure that recursive patterns
1a147d38
YO
2263either consume text or fail.
2264
9e3ec65c 2265The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
1a147d38
YO
2266discovered.
2267
6dbe9451
NC
2268=item Initialization of state variables in list context currently forbidden
2269
6903afa2
FC
2270(F) Currently the implementation of "state" only permits the
2271initialization of scalar variables in scalar context. Re-write
2272C<state ($a) = 42> as C<state $a = 42> to change from list to scalar
2273context. Constructions such as C<state (@a) = foo()> will be
2274supported in a future perl release.
6dbe9451 2275
a0d0e21e
LW
2276=item Insecure dependency in %s
2277
8b1a09fc 2278(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
be771a83
GS
2279The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or
2280setgid, or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The
2281tainting mechanism labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly
2282from the user, who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any
2283such data is used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See
2284L<perlsec> for more information.
a0d0e21e
LW
2285
2286=item Insecure directory in %s
2287
be771a83
GS
2288(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
2289setgid script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by
df98f984
RGS
2290the world. Also, the PATH must not contain any relative directory.
2291See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2292
62f468fc 2293=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2294
2295(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc 2296setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
332d5f78
SR
2297C<$ENV{ENV}>, C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> or C<$ENV{TERM}> are derived from data
2298supplied (or potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set
2299the path to a known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2300
0e9be77f
DM
2301=item Insecure user-defined property %s
2302
2303(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
2304expression that contains a call to a user-defined character property
2305function, i.e. C<\p{IsFoo}> or C<\p{InFoo}>.
2306See L<perlunicode/User-Defined Character Properties> and L<perlsec>.
2307
b9ef414d
FC
2308=item Integer overflow in format string for %s
2309
2310(F) The indexes and widths specified in the format string of C<printf()>
2311or C<sprintf()> are too large. The numbers must not overflow the size of
2312integers for your architecture.
2313
a7ae9550
GS
2314=item Integer overflow in %s number
2315
35928bc5 2316(S overflow) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have specified
be771a83
GS
2317either as a literal or as an argument to hex() or oct() is too big for
2318your architecture, and has been converted to a floating point number.
2319On a 32-bit architecture the largest hexadecimal, octal or binary number
9e24b6e2
JH
2320representable without overflow is 0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or
23210b11111111111111111111111111111111 respectively. Note that Perl
2322transparently promotes all numbers to a floating point representation
2323internally--subject to loss of precision errors in subsequent
2324operations.
bbce6d69 2325
fc89ca81
FC
2326=item Integer overflow in srand
2327
2328(S overflow) The number you have passed to srand is too big to fit
2329in your architecture's integer representation. The number has been
2330replaced with the largest integer supported (0xFFFFFFFF on 32-bit
2331architectures). This means you may be getting less randomness than
2332you expect, because different random seeds above the maximum will
2333return the same sequence of random numbers.
2334
46314c13
JP
2335=item Integer overflow in version
2336
18da5252
FC
2337=item Integer overflow in version %d
2338
784d71ed
FC
2339(W overflow) Some portion of a version initialization is too large for
2340the size of integers for your architecture. This is not a warning
f084e84f 2341because there is no rational reason for a version to try and use an
784d71ed
FC
2342element larger than typically 2**32. This is usually caused by trying
2343to use some odd mathematical operation as a version, like 100/9.
46314c13 2344
7253e4e3 2345=item Internal disaster in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2346
2347(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
9e3ec65c 2348The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
b45f050a
JF
2349discovered.
2350
748a9306
LW
2351=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
2352
be771a83
GS
2353(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number of times
2354you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine whether the current call
2355to C<exec> should affect the current script or a subprocess (see
2356L<perlvms/"exec LIST">). Somehow, this count has become scrambled, so
2357Perl is making a guess and treating this C<exec> as a request to
2358terminate the Perl script and execute the specified command.
748a9306 2359
7253e4e3 2360=item Internal urp in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a 2361
fa816bf3 2362(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser. The
9e3ec65c 2363<-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
7253e4e3 2364discovered.
a0d0e21e 2365
6df41af2
GS
2366=item %s (...) interpreted as function
2367
75b44862 2368(W syntax) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator
be771a83 2369followed by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list
64977eb6 2370operators arguments found inside the parentheses. See
13a2d996 2371L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
6df41af2 2372
09bef843
SB
2373=item Invalid %s attribute: %s
2374
a4a4c9e2 2375(F) The indicated attribute for a subroutine or variable was not recognized
09bef843
SB
2376by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
2377
2378=item Invalid %s attributes: %s
2379
a4a4c9e2 2380(F) The indicated attributes for a subroutine or variable were not
be771a83 2381recognized by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2382
4d7cd482
KW
2383=item Invalid character in \N{...}; marked by <-- HERE in \N{%s}
2384
2385(F) Only certain characters are valid for character names. The
2386indicated one isn't. See L<charnames/CUSTOM ALIASES>.
2387
225fb84f
KW
2388=item Invalid character in charnames alias definition; marked by <-- HERE in '%s
2389
2390(F) You tried to create a custom alias for a character name, with
2391the C<:alias> option to C<use charnames> and the specified character in
2392the indicated name isn't valid. See L<charnames/CUSTOM ALIASES>.
2393
c635e13b
PP
2394=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
2395
be771a83
GS
2396(W printf) Perl does not understand the given format conversion. See
2397L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
c635e13b 2398
6fbc9859
MH
2399=item Invalid escape in the specified encoding in regex; marked by <-- HERE in
2400m/%s/
9e08bc66
ST
2401
2402(W regexp) The numeric escape (for example C<\xHH>) of value < 256
2403didn't correspond to a single character through the conversion
2404from the encoding specified by the encoding pragma.
2405The escape was replaced with REPLACEMENT CHARACTER (U+FFFD) instead.
9e3ec65c 2406The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the
9e08bc66
ST
2407escape was discovered.
2408
8149aa9f
FC
2409=item Invalid hexadecimal number in \N{U+...}
2410
6fbc9859
MH
2411=item Invalid hexadecimal number in \N{U+...} in regex; marked by <-- HERE in
2412m/%s/
aec0ef10 2413
8149aa9f 2414(F) The character constant represented by C<...> is not a valid hexadecimal
74f8e9e3
FC
2415number. Either it is empty, or you tried to use a character other than
24160 - 9 or A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number.
8149aa9f 2417
6651ba0b
FC
2418=item Invalid module name %s with -%c option: contains single ':'
2419
2420(F) The module argument to perl's B<-m> and B<-M> command-line options
2421cannot contain single colons in the module name, but only in the
2422arguments after "=". In other words, B<-MFoo::Bar=:baz> is ok, but
2423B<-MFoo:Bar=baz> is not.
2424
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2425=item Invalid mro name: '%s'
2426
162a3e34
FC
2427(F) You tried to C<mro::set_mro("classname", "foo")> or C<use mro 'foo'>,
2428where C<foo> is not a valid method resolution order (MRO). Currently,
2429the only valid ones supported are C<dfs> and C<c3>, unless you have loaded
2430a module that is a MRO plugin. See L<mro> and L<perlmroapi>.
2c7d6b9c 2431
40e4140b
FC
2432=item Invalid negative number (%s) in chr
2433
2434(W utf8) You passed a negative number to C<chr>. Negative numbers are
2435not valid characters numbers, so it return the Unicode replacement
2436character (U+FFFD).
2437
6651ba0b
FC
2438=item invalid option -D%c, use -D'' to see choices
2439
8ff21bfe
FC
2440(S debugging) Perl was called with invalid debugger flags. Call perl
2441with the B<-D> option with no flags to see the list of acceptable values.
0341637c 2442See also L<perlrun/B<-D>I<letters>>.
6651ba0b 2443
7253e4e3 2444=item Invalid [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2445
2446(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
7253e4e3
RK
2447greater than the maximum character. One possibility is that you forgot the
2448C<{}> from your ending C<\x{}> - C<\x> without the curly braces can go only
9e3ec65c 2449up to C<ff>. The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the
7253e4e3 2450problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 2451
d1573ac7 2452=item Invalid range "%s" in transliteration operator
c2e66d9e
GS
2453
2454(F) The range specified in the tr/// or y/// operator had a minimum
2455character greater than the maximum character. See L<perlop>.
2456
09bef843
SB
2457=item Invalid separator character %s in attribute list
2458
0120eecf 2459(F) Something other than a colon or whitespace was seen between the
be771a83
GS
2460elements of an attribute list. If the previous attribute had a
2461parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that list was terminated too soon.
2462See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2463
b4581f09
JH
2464=item Invalid separator character %s in PerlIO layer specification %s
2465
2bfc5f71
FC
2466(W layer) When pushing layers onto the Perl I/O system, something other
2467than a colon or whitespace was seen between the elements of a layer list.
b4581f09
JH
2468If the previous attribute had a parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that
2469list was terminated too soon.
2470
2c86d456
DG
2471=item Invalid strict version format (%s)
2472
fa816bf3 2473(F) A version number did not meet the "strict" criteria for versions.
2c86d456
DG
2474A "strict" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2475decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
2476v-string with a leading 'v' character and at least three components.
a6485a24 2477The parenthesized text indicates which criteria were not met.
2c86d456
DG
2478See the L<version> module for more details on allowed version formats.
2479
49704364 2480=item Invalid type '%s' in %s
96e4d5b1 2481
49704364
LW
2482(F) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type.
2483See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6728c851 2484
49704364 2485(W) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type but used to be
75b44862 2486silently ignored.
96e4d5b1 2487
2c86d456
DG
2488=item Invalid version format (%s)
2489
fa816bf3 2490(F) A version number did not meet the "lax" criteria for versions.
2c86d456
DG
2491A "lax" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2492decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
fa816bf3
FC
2493v-string. If the v-string has fewer than three components, it
2494must have a leading 'v' character. Otherwise, the leading 'v' is
2495optional. Both decimal and dotted-decimal versions may have a
2496trailing "alpha" component separated by an underscore character
2497after a fractional or dotted-decimal component. The parenthesized
2498text indicates which criteria were not met. See the L<version> module
2499for more details on allowed version formats.
46314c13 2500
798ae1b7
DG
2501=item Invalid version object
2502
fa816bf3
FC
2503(F) The internal structure of the version object was invalid.
2504Perhaps the internals were modified directly in some way or
2505an arbitrary reference was blessed into the "version" class.
798ae1b7 2506
a0d0e21e
LW
2507=item ioctl is not implemented
2508
2509(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
2510strange for a machine that supports C.
2511
c289d2f7
JH
2512=item ioctl() on unopened %s
2513
2514(W unopened) You tried ioctl() on a filehandle that was never opened.
34b6fd5e 2515Check your control flow and number of arguments.
c289d2f7 2516
fe13d51d 2517=item IO layers (like '%s') unavailable
363c40c4
SB
2518
2519(F) Your Perl has not been configured to have PerlIO, and therefore
34b6fd5e 2520you cannot use IO layers. To have PerlIO, Perl must be configured
363c40c4
SB
2521with 'useperlio'.
2522
80cbd5ad
JH
2523=item IO::Socket::atmark not implemented on this architecture
2524
2525(F) Your machine doesn't implement the sockatmark() functionality,
34b6fd5e 2526neither as a system call nor an ioctl call (SIOCATMARK).
80cbd5ad 2527
b4581f09
JH
2528=item $* is no longer supported
2529
a58ac25e 2530(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$*>, deprecated in older
6903afa2 2531perls, has been removed as of 5.9.0 and is no longer supported. In
a58ac25e
FC
2532previous versions of perl the use of C<$*> enabled or disabled multi-line
2533matching within a string.
4fd19576
B
2534
2535Instead of using C<$*> you should use the C</m> (and maybe C</s>) regexp
6903afa2
FC
2536modifiers. You can enable C</m> for a lexical scope (even a whole file)
2537with C<use re '/m'>. (In older versions: when C<$*> was set to a true value
570dedd4 2538then all regular expressions behaved as if they were written using C</m>.)
b4581f09 2539
8ae1fe26
RGS
2540=item $# is no longer supported
2541
a58ac25e 2542(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$#>, deprecated in older
6903afa2 2543perls, has been removed as of 5.9.3 and is no longer supported. You
a58ac25e 2544should use the printf/sprintf functions instead.
8ae1fe26 2545
ccf3535a 2546=item '%s' is not a code reference
6ad11d81 2547
6903afa2
FC
2548(W overload) The second (fourth, sixth, ...) argument of
2549overload::constant needs to be a code reference. Either
2550an anonymous subroutine, or a reference to a subroutine.
6ad11d81 2551
ccf3535a 2552=item '%s' is not an overloadable type
6ad11d81 2553
04a80ee0
RGS
2554(W overload) You tried to overload a constant type the overload package is
2555unaware of.
6ad11d81 2556
aec0ef10 2557=item Junk on end of regexp in regex m/%s/
a0d0e21e
LW
2558
2559(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
2560
2561=item Label not found for "last %s"
2562
be771a83
GS
2563(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a loop
2564of that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2565L<perlfunc/last>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2566
2567=item Label not found for "next %s"
2568
2569(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
2570that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2571L<perlfunc/last>.
2572
2573=item Label not found for "redo %s"
2574
2575(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
2576that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2577L<perlfunc/last>.
2578
85ab1d1d 2579=item leaving effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 2580
85ab1d1d 2581(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
2582effective uids or gids failed.
2583
49704364
LW
2584=item length/code after end of string in unpack
2585
d7f8936a 2586(F) While unpacking, the string buffer was already used up when an unpack
6903afa2
FC
2587length/code combination tried to obtain more data. This results in
2588an undefined value for the length. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
49704364 2589
e508c8a4
MH
2590=item length() used on %s
2591
0d46a4e7
FC
2592(W syntax) You used length() on either an array or a hash when you
2593probably wanted a count of the items.
e508c8a4
MH
2594
2595Array size can be obtained by doing:
2596
2597 scalar(@array);
2598
2599The number of items in a hash can be obtained by doing:
2600
2601 scalar(keys %hash);
2602
f0e67a1d
Z
2603=item Lexing code attempted to stuff non-Latin-1 character into Latin-1 input
2604
2605(F) An extension is attempting to insert text into the current parse
6903afa2
FC
2606(using L<lex_stuff_pvn|perlapi/lex_stuff_pvn> or similar), but tried to insert a character that
2607couldn't be part of the current input. This is an inherent pitfall
2608of the stuffing mechanism, and one of the reasons to avoid it. Where
2609it is necessary to stuff, stuffing only plain ASCII is recommended.
f0e67a1d
Z
2610
2611=item Lexing code internal error (%s)
2612
2613(F) Lexing code supplied by an extension violated the lexer's API in a
2614detectable way.
2615
69282e91 2616=item listen() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2617
be771a83
GS
2618(W closed) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget
2619to check the return value of your socket() call? See
2620L<perlfunc/listen>.
a0d0e21e 2621
6651ba0b
FC
2622=item List form of piped open not implemented
2623
2624(F) On some platforms, notably Windows, the three-or-more-arguments
2625form of C<open> does not support pipes, such as C<open($pipe, '|-', @args)>.
2626Use the two-argument C<open($pipe, '|prog arg1 arg2...')> form instead.
2627
bcd05b94 2628=item localtime(%f) too large
8b56d6ff 2629
e9200be3 2630(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with a number that was larger
fc003d4b 2631than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
6903afa2 2632wrong date. This warning is also triggered with NaN (the special
fc003d4b
MS
2633not-a-number value).
2634
bcd05b94 2635=item localtime(%f) too small
fc003d4b 2636
e9200be3 2637(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with a number that was smaller
fc003d4b 2638than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
e7a1a147 2639wrong date.
8b56d6ff 2640
58e23c8d 2641=item Lookbehind longer than %d not implemented in regex m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
2642
2643(F) There is currently a limit on the length of string which lookbehind can
6903afa2 2644handle. This restriction may be eased in a future release.
2e50fd82 2645
b88df990
NC
2646=item Lost precision when %s %f by 1
2647
e63e8a91
FC
2648(W imprecision) The value you attempted to increment or decrement by one
2649is too large for the underlying floating point representation to store
2650accurately, hence the target of C<++> or C<--> is unchanged. Perl issues this
2651warning because it has already switched from integers to floating point
2652when values are too large for integers, and now even floating point is
2653insufficient. You may wish to switch to using L<Math::BigInt> explicitly.
b88df990 2654
93fad930 2655=item lstat() on filehandle%s
2f7da168
RK
2656
2657(W io) You tried to do an lstat on a filehandle. What did you mean
2658by that? lstat() makes sense only on filenames. (Perl did a fstat()
2659instead on the filehandle.)
2660
345d70e3 2661=item lvalue attribute %s already-defined subroutine
bb3abb05 2662
345d70e3
FC
2663(W misc) Although L<attributes.pm|attributes> allows this, turning the lvalue
2664attribute on or off on a Perl subroutine that is already defined
2665does not always work properly. It may or may not do what you
2666want, depending on what code is inside the subroutine, with exact
2667details subject to change between Perl versions. Only do this
2668if you really know what you are doing.
bb3abb05 2669
885ef6f5
GG
2670=item lvalue attribute ignored after the subroutine has been defined
2671
345d70e3
FC
2672(W misc) Using the C<:lvalue> declarative syntax to make a Perl
2673subroutine an lvalue subroutine after it has been defined is
2674not permitted. To make the subroutine an lvalue subroutine,
2675add the lvalue attribute to the definition, or put the C<sub
2676foo :lvalue;> declaration before the definition.
2677
2678See also L<attributes.pm|attributes>.
885ef6f5 2679
2db62bbc 2680=item Malformed integer in [] in pack
49704364 2681
2db62bbc 2682(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
49704364
LW
2683are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2684
2685=item Malformed integer in [] in unpack
2686
2db62bbc 2687(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
49704364
LW
2688are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2689
6df41af2
GS
2690=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
2691
2692(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
2693
2694 prefix1;prefix2
2695
2696or
6df41af2
GS
2697 prefix1 prefix2
2698
be771a83
GS
2699with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix of
2700a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error may
2701appear if components are not found, or are too long. See
fecfaeb8 2702"PERLLIB_PREFIX" in L<perlos2>.
6df41af2 2703
2f758a16
ST
2704=item Malformed prototype for %s: %s
2705
d37a9538
ST
2706(F) You tried to use a function with a malformed prototype. The
2707syntax of function prototypes is given a brief compile-time check for
2708obvious errors like invalid characters. A more rigorous check is run
2709when the function is called.
2f758a16 2710
ba210ebe
JH
2711=item Malformed UTF-8 character (%s)
2712
4d6f11e5 2713(S utf8)(F) Perl detected a string that didn't comply with UTF-8
2575c402 2714encoding rules, even though it had the UTF8 flag on.
ba210ebe 2715
2575c402
JW
2716One possible cause is that you set the UTF8 flag yourself for data that
2717you thought to be in UTF-8 but it wasn't (it was for example legacy
6903afa2 27188-bit data). To guard against this, you can use Encode::decode_utf8.
2575c402
JW
2719
2720If you use the C<:encoding(UTF-8)> PerlIO layer for input, invalid byte
2721sequences are handled gracefully, but if you use C<:utf8>, the flag is
2722set without validating the data, possibly resulting in this error
2723message.
2724
2725See also L<Encode/"Handling Malformed Data">.
901b21bf 2726
107160e2
KW
2727=item Malformed UTF-8 character immediately after '%s'
2728
2729(F) You said C<use utf8>, but the program file doesn't comply with UTF-8
2730encoding rules. The message prints out the properly encoded characters
2731just before the first bad one. If C<utf8> warnings are enabled, a
2732warning is generated that gives more details about the type of
2733malformation.
2734
bde9e88d 2735=item Malformed UTF-8 returned by \N{%s} immediately after '%s'
ff3f963a
KW
2736
2737(F) The charnames handler returned malformed UTF-8.
2738
4a5d3a93
FC
2739=item Malformed UTF-8 string in '%c' format in unpack
2740
2741(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2742rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2743
f337b084
TH
2744=item Malformed UTF-8 string in pack
2745
2746(F) You tried to pack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2747rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2748
2749=item Malformed UTF-8 string in unpack
2750
2751(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2752rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2753
4a5d3a93 2754=item Malformed UTF-16 surrogate
f337b084 2755
4a5d3a93
FC
2756(F) Perl thought it was reading UTF-16 encoded character data but while
2757doing it Perl met a malformed Unicode surrogate.
2758
2759=item %s matches null string many times in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2760
2761(W regexp) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
2762regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. The <-- HERE
9e3ec65c 2763shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was discovered.
4a5d3a93 2764See L<perlre>.
f337b084 2765
de42a5a9 2766=item Maximal count of pending signals (%u) exceeded
2563cec5 2767
6903afa2 2768(F) Perl aborted due to too high a number of signals pending. This
2563cec5
IZ
2769usually indicates that your operating system tried to deliver signals
2770too fast (with a very high priority), starving the perl process from
2771resources it would need to reach a point where it can process signals
6903afa2 2772safely. (See L<perlipc/"Deferred Signals (Safe Signals)">.)
2563cec5 2773
25f58aea
PN
2774=item "%s" may clash with future reserved word
2775
2776(W) This warning may be due to running a perl5 script through a perl4
2777interpreter, especially if the word that is being warned about is
2778"use" or "my".
2779
0d2487cd 2780=item '%' may not be used in pack
6df41af2
GS
2781
2782(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
be771a83
GS
2783checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other way.
2784See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
6df41af2 2785
a0d0e21e
LW
2786=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
2787
2788(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
e7ea3e70 2789doesn't resolve to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 2790
3cdd684c
TP
2791=item Method %s not permitted
2792
2793See Server error.
2794
a0d0e21e
LW
2795=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
2796
2797(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
2798by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
2799ended earlier on the current line.
2800
2801=item Misplaced _ in number
2802
d4ced10d
JH
2803(W syntax) An underscore (underbar) in a numeric constant did not
2804separate two digits.
a0d0e21e 2805
7baa4690
HS
2806=item Missing argument in %s
2807
2808(W uninitialized) A printf-type format required more arguments than were
2809supplied.
2810
9e81e6a1
RGS
2811=item Missing argument to -%c
2812
2813(F) The argument to the indicated command line switch must follow
2814immediately after the switch, without intervening spaces.
2815
ff3f963a 2816=item Missing braces on \N{}
423cee85 2817
aec0ef10
FC
2818=item Missing braces on \N{} in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2819
4a2d328f 2820(F) Wrong syntax of character name literal C<\N{charname}> within
532cb70d
FC
2821double-quotish context. This can also happen when there is a space
2822(or comment) between the C<\N> and the C<{> in a regex with the C</x> modifier.
2823This modifier does not change the requirement that the brace immediately
2824follow the C<\N>.
423cee85 2825
f0a2b745
KW
2826=item Missing braces on \o{}
2827
2828(F) A C<\o> must be followed immediately by a C<{> in double-quotish context.
2829
a0d0e21e
LW
2830=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
2831
2832(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
2833"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
2834
06eaf0bc
GS
2835=item Missing command in piped open
2836
be771a83
GS
2837(W pipe) You used the C<open(FH, "| command")> or
2838C<open(FH, "command |")> construction, but the command was missing or
2839blank.
06eaf0bc 2840
961ce445
RGS
2841=item Missing control char name in \c
2842
2843(F) A double-quoted string ended with "\c", without the required control
2844character name.
2845
8767b1ab 2846=item Missing name in "%s sub"
6df41af2 2847
be771a83
GS
2848(F) The reserved syntax for lexically scoped subroutines requires that
2849they have a name with which they can be found.
6df41af2
GS
2850
2851=item Missing $ on loop variable
2852
be771a83
GS
2853(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables
2854are always mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it
2855can vary from one line to the next.
6df41af2 2856
cc507455 2857=item (Missing operator before %s?)
748a9306 2858
56da5a46
RGS
2859(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2860"%s found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
748a9306 2861
aec0ef10 2862=item Missing right brace on \%c{} in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
ab13f0c7 2863
ff3f963a
KW
2864(F) Missing right brace in C<\x{...}>, C<\p{...}>, C<\P{...}>, or C<\N{...}>.
2865
4a68bf9d 2866=item Missing right brace on \N{} or unescaped left brace after \N
ff3f963a 2867
d32207c9
FC
2868(F) C<\N> has two meanings.
2869
2870The traditional one has it followed by a name enclosed in braces,
2871meaning the character (or sequence of characters) given by that
fa816bf3 2872name. Thus C<\N{ASTERISK}> is another way of writing C<*>, valid in both
d32207c9
FC
2873double-quoted strings and regular expression patterns. In patterns,
2874it doesn't have the meaning an unescaped C<*> does.
2875
2876Starting in Perl 5.12.0, C<\N> also can have an additional meaning (only)
2877in patterns, namely to match a non-newline character. (This is short
2878for C<[^\n]>, and like C<.> but is not affected by the C</s> regex modifier.)
2879
2880This can lead to some ambiguities. When C<\N> is not followed immediately
2881by a left brace, Perl assumes the C<[^\n]> meaning. Also, if the braces
2882form a valid quantifier such as C<\N{3}> or C<\N{5,}>, Perl assumes that this
2883means to match the given quantity of non-newlines (in these examples,
28843; and 5 or more, respectively). In all other case, where there is a
2885C<\N{> and a matching C<}>, Perl assumes that a character name is desired.
2886
2887However, if there is no matching C<}>, Perl doesn't know if it was
2888mistakenly omitted, or if C<[^\n]{> was desired, and raises this error.
2889If you meant the former, add the right brace; if you meant the latter,
2890escape the brace with a backslash, like so: C<\N\{>
ab13f0c7 2891
d98d5fff 2892=item Missing right curly or square bracket
a0d0e21e 2893
be771a83
GS
2894(F) The lexer counted more opening curly or square brackets than closing
2895ones. As a general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place you
2896were last editing.
a0d0e21e 2897
6df41af2
GS
2898=item (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
2899
56da5a46
RGS
2900(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2901"%s found where operator expected". Don't automatically put a semicolon on
6df41af2
GS
2902the previous line just because you saw this message.
2903
a0d0e21e
LW
2904=item Modification of a read-only value attempted
2905
2906(F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
5f05dabc 2907constant. You didn't, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
a0d0e21e
LW
2908catches that. But an easy way to do the same thing is:
2909
2910 sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
2911 mod(2);
2912
2913Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.
2914
c5674021
PDF
2915Yet another way is to assign to a C<foreach> loop I<VAR> when I<VAR>
2916is aliased to a constant in the look I<LIST>:
2917
b7e4ecc1
FC
2918 $x = 1;
2919 foreach my $n ($x, 2) {
2920 $n *= 2; # modifies the $x, but fails on attempt to
2921 } # modify the 2
c5674021 2922
7a4340ed 2923=item Modification of non-creatable array value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2924
2925(F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
2926subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the array
2927backwards.
2928
7a4340ed 2929=item Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e 2930
be771a83
GS
2931(P) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it
2932couldn't be created for some peculiar reason.
a0d0e21e
LW
2933
2934=item Module name must be constant
2935
2936(F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".
2937
be98fb35 2938=item Module name required with -%c option
6df41af2 2939
be98fb35
GS
2940(F) The C<-M> or C<-m> options say that Perl should load some module, but
2941you omitted the name of the module. Consult L<perlrun> for full details
2942about C<-M> and C<-m>.
6df41af2 2943
fe13d51d 2944=item More than one argument to '%s' open
ed9aa3b7 2945
6903afa2 2946(F) The C<open> function has been asked to open multiple files. This
ed9aa3b7
SG
2947can happen if you are trying to open a pipe to a command that takes a
2948list of arguments, but have forgotten to specify a piped open mode.
2949See L<perlfunc/open> for details.
2950
a0d0e21e
LW
2951=item msg%s not implemented
2952
2953(F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.
2954
2955=item Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
2956
75b44862
GS
2957(W syntax) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like C<$foo[1,2,3]>.
2958They're written like C<$foo[1][2][3]>, as in C.
8b1a09fc 2959
49704364 2960=item '/' must follow a numeric type in unpack
6df41af2 2961
49704364
LW
2962(F) You had an unpack template that contained a '/', but this did not
2963follow some unpack specification producing a numeric value.
2964See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6df41af2
GS
2965
2966=item "my sub" not yet implemented
2967
be771a83
GS
2968(F) Lexically scoped subroutines are not yet implemented. Don't try
2969that yet.
6df41af2 2970
fd1b7234 2971=item "my" variable %s can't be in a package
6df41af2 2972
be771a83
GS
2973(F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make
2974sense to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the front. Use
2975local() if you want to localize a package variable.
09bef843 2976
8149aa9f
FC
2977=item Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
2978
2979(W once) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable names.
2980If you had a good reason for having a unique name, then just mention it
2981again somehow to suppress the message. The C<our> declaration is
2982provided for this purpose.
2983
2984NOTE: This warning detects symbols that have been used only once so $c, @c,
2985%c, *c, &c, sub c{}, c(), and c (the filehandle or format) are considered
2986the same; if a program uses $c only once but also uses any of the others it
2987will not trigger this warning.
2988
6fbc9859
MH
2989=item \N in a character class must be a named character: \N{...} in regex;
2990marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
ff3f963a 2991
c3c41406 2992(F) The new (5.12) meaning of C<\N> as C<[^\n]> is not valid in a bracketed
f4e361c7
FC
2993character class, for the same reason that C<.> in a character class loses
2994its specialness: it matches almost everything, which is probably not
2995what you want.
c3c41406 2996
aec0ef10 2997=item \N{NAME} must be resolved by the lexer in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
c3c41406 2998
f4e361c7
FC
2999(F) When compiling a regex pattern, an unresolved named character or
3000sequence was encountered. This can happen in any of several ways that
3001bypass the lexer, such as using single-quotish context, or an extra
7fae04b9 3002backslash in double-quotish:
c3c41406
KW
3003
3004 $re = '\N{SPACE}'; # Wrong!
b09c05e6 3005 $re = "\\N{SPACE}"; # Wrong!
c3c41406
KW
3006 /$re/;
3007
b09c05e6 3008Instead, use double-quotes with a single backslash:
c3c41406
KW
3009
3010 $re = "\N{SPACE}"; # ok
3011 /$re/;
3012
3013The lexer can be bypassed as well by creating the pattern from smaller
3014components:
3015
3016 $re = '\N';
3017 /${re}{SPACE}/; # Wrong!
3018
3019It's not a good idea to split a construct in the middle like this, and it
3020doesn't work here. Instead use the solution above.
3021
3022Finally, the message also can happen under the C</x> regex modifier when the
3023C<\N> is separated by spaces from the C<{>, in which case, remove the spaces.
3024
3025 /\N {SPACE}/x; # Wrong!
3026 /\N{SPACE}/x; # ok
ff3f963a 3027
49704364
LW
3028=item Negative '/' count in unpack
3029
3030(F) The length count obtained from a length/code unpack operation was
3031negative. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3032
a0d0e21e
LW
3033=item Negative length
3034
be771a83
GS
3035(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer
3036length that is less than 0. This is difficult to imagine.
a0d0e21e 3037
ed9aa3b7
SG
3038=item Negative offset to vec in lvalue context
3039
3040(F) When C<vec> is called in an lvalue context, the second argument must be
3041greater than or equal to zero.
3042
7253e4e3 3043=item Nested quantifiers in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 3044
6903afa2 3045(F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses.
9e3ec65c
FC
3046So things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal. The <-- HERE shows
3047whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was discovered.
a0d0e21e 3048
7253e4e3 3049Note that the minimal matching quantifiers, C<*?>, C<+?>, and
be771a83 3050C<??> appear to be nested quantifiers, but aren't. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 3051
6df41af2 3052=item %s never introduced
a0d0e21e 3053
be771a83
GS
3054(S internal) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of
3055scope before it could possibly have been used.
a0d0e21e 3056
2c7d6b9c
RGS
3057=item next::method/next::can/maybe::next::method cannot find enclosing method
3058
3059(F) C<next::method> needs to be called within the context of a
3060real method in a real package, and it could not find such a context.
3061See L<mro>.
3062
a0d0e21e
LW
3063=item No %s allowed while running setuid
3064
be771a83
GS
3065(F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or
3066setgid script to even be allowed to attempt. Generally speaking there
3067will be another way to do what you want that is, if not secure, at least
3068securable. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 3069
6651ba0b
FC
3070=item No code specified for -%c
3071
3072(F) Perl's B<-e> and B<-E> command-line options require an argument. If
3073you want to run an empty program, pass the empty string as a separate
3074argument or run a program consisting of a single 0 or 1:
3075
3076 perl -e ""
3077 perl -e0
3078 perl -e1
3079
a0d0e21e
LW
3080=item No comma allowed after %s
3081
6903afa2
FC
3082(F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is
3083not allowed to have a comma between that and the following arguments.
a0d0e21e
LW
3084Otherwise it'd be just another one of the arguments.
3085
6903afa2
FC
3086One possible cause for this is that you expected to have imported
3087a constant to your name space with B<use> or B<import> while no such
3088importing took place, it may for example be that your operating
3089system does not support that particular constant. Hopefully you did
3090use an explicit import list for the constants you expect to see;
3091please see L<perlfunc/use> and L<perlfunc/import>. While an
3092explicit import list would probably have caught this error earlier
3093it naturally does not remedy the fact that your operating system
3094still does not support that constant. Maybe you have a typo in
3095the constants of the symbol import list of B<use> or B<import> or in the
3096constant name at the line where this error was triggered?
0a753a76 3097
748a9306
LW
3098=item No command into which to pipe on command line
3099
be771a83
GS
3100(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
3101redirection, and found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it
3102doesn't know where you want to pipe the output from this command.
748a9306 3103
a0d0e21e
LW
3104=item No DB::DB routine defined
3105
be771a83 3106(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
f7af5ce1 3107for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
ccafdc96
RGS
3108module) didn't define a routine to be called at the beginning of each
3109statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
3110
3111=item No dbm on this machine
3112
3113(P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine should
5f05dabc 3114supply dbm nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM. See L<SDBM_File>.
a0d0e21e 3115
ccafdc96 3116=item No DB::sub routine defined
a0d0e21e 3117
ccafdc96
RGS
3118(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
3119for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
3120module) didn't define a C<DB::sub> routine to be called at the beginning
3121of each ordinary subroutine call.
a0d0e21e 3122
6651ba0b
FC
3123=item No directory specified for -I
3124
3125(F) The B<-I> command-line switch requires a directory name as part of the
3126I<same> argument. Use B<-Ilib>, for instance. B<-I lib> won't work.
3127
c47ff5f1 3128=item No error file after 2> or 2>> on command line
748a9306 3129
be771a83
GS
3130(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
3131redirection, and found a '2>' or a '2>>' on the command line, but can't
3132find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stderr.
748a9306 3133
49704364
LW
3134=item No group ending character '%c' found in template
3135
3136(F) A pack or unpack template has an opening '(' or '[' without its
6903afa2 3137matching counterpart. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
49704364 3138
c47ff5f1 3139=item No input file after < on command line
748a9306 3140
be771a83
GS
3141(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
3142redirection, and found a '<' on the command line, but can't find the
3143name of the file from which to read data for stdin.
748a9306 3144
2c7d6b9c
RGS
3145=item No next::method '%s' found for %s
3146
3147(F) C<next::method> found no further instances of this method name
3148in the remaining packages of the MRO of this class. If you don't want
3149it throwing an exception, use C<maybe::next::method>
fa816bf3 3150or C<next::can>. See L<mro>.
2c7d6b9c 3151
6df41af2
GS
3152=item "no" not allowed in expression
3153
be771a83
GS
3154(F) The "no" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and
3155returns no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
6df41af2 3156
c47ff5f1 3157=item No output file after > on command line
748a9306 3158
be771a83
GS
3159(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
3160redirection, and found a lone '>' at the end of the command line, so it
3161doesn't know where you wanted to redirect stdout.
748a9306 3162
c47ff5f1 3163=item No output file after > or >> on command line
748a9306 3164
be771a83
GS
3165(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
3166redirection, and found a '>' or a '>>' on the command line, but can't
3167find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stdout.
748a9306 3168
1ec3e8de
GS
3169=item No package name allowed for variable %s in "our"
3170
be771a83
GS
3171(F) Fully qualified variable names are not allowed in "our"
3172declarations, because that doesn't make much sense under existing
3173semantics. Such syntax is reserved for future extensions.
1ec3e8de 3174
a0d0e21e
LW
3175=item No Perl script found in input
3176
3177(F) You called C<perl -x>, but no line was found in the file beginning
3178with #! and containing the word "perl".
3179
3180=item No setregid available
3181
3182(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setregid() call for
3183your system.
3184
3185=item No setreuid available
3186
3187(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setreuid() call for
3188your system.
3189
e75d1f10
RD
3190=item No such class field "%s" in variable %s of type %s
3191
b7e4ecc1
FC
3192(F) You tried to access a key from a hash through the indicated typed
3193variable but that key is not allowed by the package of the same type.
3194The indicated package has restricted the set of allowed keys using the
3195L<fields> pragma.
e75d1f10 3196
2c692339
RGS
3197=item No such class %s
3198
dc7e5945
FC
3199(F) You provided a class qualifier in a "my", "our" or "state"
3200declaration, but this class doesn't exist at this point in your program.
2c692339 3201
3c20a832
SP
3202=item No such hook: %s
3203
dc7e5945
FC
3204(F) You specified a signal hook that was not recognized by Perl.
3205Currently, Perl accepts C<__DIE__> and C<__WARN__> as valid signal hooks.
3c20a832 3206
6df41af2
GS
3207=item No such pipe open
3208
3209(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The internal routine my_pclose() tried to
be771a83
GS
3210close a pipe which hadn't been opened. This should have been caught
3211earlier as an attempt to close an unopened filehandle.
6df41af2 3212
a0d0e21e
LW
3213=item No such signal: SIG%s
3214
be771a83
GS
3215(W signal) You specified a signal name as a subscript to %SIG that was
3216not recognized. Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal
3217names on your system.
a0d0e21e
LW
3218
3219=item Not a CODE reference
3220
3221(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
3222subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
3223use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
3224also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 3225
a0d0e21e
LW
3226=item Not a GLOB reference
3227
be771a83
GS
3228(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a "typeglob" (that is, a
3229symbol table entry that looks like C<*foo>), but found a reference to
3230something else instead. You can use the ref() function to find out what
3231kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3232
3233=item Not a HASH reference
3234
be771a83
GS
3235(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a hash value, but found a
3236reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function to
3237find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 3238
6df41af2
GS
3239=item Not an ARRAY reference
3240
be771a83
GS
3241(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to an array value, but found
3242a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
3243to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 3244
d4fc4415
FC
3245=item Not an unblessed ARRAY reference
3246
3247(F) You passed a reference to a blessed array to C<push>, C<shift> or
3248another array function. These only accept unblessed array references
3249or arrays beginning explicitly with C<@>.
3250
a0d0e21e
LW
3251=item Not a SCALAR reference
3252
be771a83
GS
3253(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a scalar value, but found
3254a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
3255to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3256
3257=item Not a subroutine reference
3258
3259(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
3260subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
3261use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
3262also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 3263
e7ea3e70 3264=item Not a subroutine reference in overload table
a0d0e21e
LW
3265
3266(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
8b1a09fc 3267doesn't somehow point to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 3268
a0d0e21e
LW
3269=item Not enough arguments for %s
3270
3271(F) The function requires more arguments than you specified.
3272
6df41af2
GS
3273=item Not enough format arguments
3274
be771a83
GS
3275(W syntax) A format specified more picture fields than the next line
3276supplied. See L<perlform>.
6df41af2
GS
3277
3278=item %s: not found
3279
be771a83
GS
3280(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell instead
3281of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl
3282yourself.
6df41af2
GS
3283
3284=item no UTC offset information; assuming local time is UTC
a0d0e21e 3285
6df41af2
GS
3286(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl was unable to find the local
3287timezone offset, so it's assuming that local system time is equivalent
be771a83
GS
3288to UTC. If it's not, define the logical name
3289F<SYS$TIMEZONE_DIFFERENTIAL> to translate to the number of seconds which
3290need to be added to UTC to get local time.