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pod/perldiag: Document new messages for qr/(?[ ])/
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1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
d1d15184 11 (D) A deprecation (enabled by default).
00eb3f2b 12 (S) A severe warning (enabled by default).
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13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
75b44862 18The majority of messages from the first three classifications above
64977eb6 19(W, D & S) can be controlled using the C<warnings> pragma.
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20
21If a message can be controlled by the C<warnings> pragma, its warning
22category is included with the classification letter in the description
466416ed 23below. E.g. C<(W closed)> means a warning in the C<closed> category.
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24
25Optional warnings are enabled by using the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-w>
fa816bf3 26and B<-W> switches. Warnings may be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}>
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27to a reference to a routine that will be called on each warning instead
28of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
29
b7eceb5b 30Severe warnings are always enabled, unless they are explicitly disabled
e476b1b5 31with the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-X> switch.
4438c4b7 32
748a9306 33Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
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34L<perlfunc/eval>. In almost all cases, warnings may be selectively
35disabled or promoted to fatal errors using the C<warnings> pragma.
36See L<warnings>.
a0d0e21e 37
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38The messages are in alphabetical order, without regard to upper or
39lower-case. Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are
40denoted with a %s or other printf-style escape. These escapes are
41ignored by the alphabetical order, as are all characters other than
42letters. To look up your message, just ignore anything that is not a
43letter.
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44
45=over 4
46
6df41af2 47=item accept() on closed socket %s
33633739 48
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49(W closed) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget
50to check the return value of your socket() call? See
51L<perlfunc/accept>.
33633739 52
de42a5a9 53=item Allocation too large: %x
a0d0e21e 54
6df41af2 55(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e 56
1109a392 57=item '%c' allowed only after types %s
ef54e1a4 58
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59(F) The modifiers '!', '<' and '>' are allowed in pack() or unpack() only
60after certain types. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
ef54e1a4 61
6df41af2 62=item Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
43192e07 63
75b44862 64(W ambiguous) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl
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65keyword, and you have used the name without qualification for calling
66one or the other. Perl decided to call the builtin because the
67subroutine is not imported.
43192e07 68
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69To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand
70before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.
71Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's
72imported with the C<use subs> pragma).
43192e07 73
6df41af2 74To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the C<CORE::> prefix
496a33f5 75on the operator (e.g. C<CORE::log($x)>) or declare the subroutine
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76to be an object method (see L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes"> or
77L<attributes>).
43192e07 78
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79=item Ambiguous range in transliteration operator
80
81(F) You wrote something like C<tr/a-z-0//> which doesn't mean anything at
82all. To include a C<-> character in a transliteration, put it either
83first or last. (In the past, C<tr/a-z-0//> was synonymous with
84C<tr/a-y//>, which was probably not what you would have expected.)
85
6df41af2 86=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
43192e07 87
7c7af292 88(S ambiguous) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
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89you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
90a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
a0d0e21e 91
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92=item Ambiguous use of %c resolved as operator %c
93
7c7af292 94(S ambiguous) C<%>, C<&>, and C<*> are both infix operators (modulus,
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95bitwise and, and multiplication) I<and> initial special characters
96(denoting hashes, subroutines and typeglobs), and you said something
97like C<*foo * foo> that might be interpreted as either of them. We
98assumed you meant the infix operator, but please try to make it more
99clear -- in the example given, you might write C<*foo * foo()> if you
100really meant to multiply a glob by the result of calling a function.
d8225693 101
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102=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s} resolved to %c%s
103
104(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<@{foo}>, which might be
105asking for the variable C<@foo>, or it might be calling a function
106named foo, and dereferencing it as an array reference. If you wanted
1cecf2c0 107the variable, you can just write C<@foo>. If you wanted to call the
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108function, write C<@{foo()}> ... or you could just not have a variable
109and a function with the same name, and save yourself a lot of trouble.
110
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111=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s[...]} resolved to %c%s[...]
112
113=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s{...}} resolved to %c%s{...}
4da60377 114
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115(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<${foo[2]}> (where foo represents
116the name of a Perl keyword), which might be looking for element number
1172 of the array named C<@foo>, in which case please write C<$foo[2]>, or you
118might have meant to pass an anonymous arrayref to the function named
119foo, and then do a scalar deref on the value it returns. If you meant
120that, write C<${foo([2])}>.
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121
122In regular expressions, the C<${foo[2]}> syntax is sometimes necessary
123to disambiguate between array subscripts and character classes.
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124C</$length[2345]/>, for instance, will be interpreted as C<$length> followed
125by the character class C<[2345]>. If an array subscript is what you
126want, you can avoid the warning by changing C</${length[2345]}/> to the
127unsightly C</${\$length[2345]}/>, by renaming your array to something
128that does not coincide with a built-in keyword, or by simply turning
129off warnings with C<no warnings 'ambiguous';>.
4da60377 130
bdac9d71 131=item Ambiguous use of -%s resolved as -&%s()
397d0f13 132
7c7af292 133(S ambiguous) You wrote something like C<-foo>, which might be the
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134string C<"-foo">, or a call to the function C<foo>, negated. If you meant
135the string, just write C<"-foo">. If you meant the function call,
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136write C<-foo()>.
137
6df41af2 138=item '|' and '<' may not both be specified on command line
a0d0e21e 139
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140(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
141redirection, and found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to
142redirect STDIN using '<'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
c9f97d15 143
6df41af2 144=item '|' and '>' may not both be specified on command line
1028017a 145
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146(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
147redirection, and thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and
148into a pipe to another command. You need to choose one or the other,
149though nothing's stopping you from piping into a program or Perl script
150which 'splits' output into two streams, such as
1028017a 151
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152 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
153 while (<STDIN>) {
154 print;
155 print OUT;
156 }
157 close OUT;
c9f97d15 158
6df41af2 159=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
eb6e2d6f 160
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161(W misc) The pattern match (C<//>), substitution (C<s///>), and
162transliteration (C<tr///>) operators work on scalar values. If you apply
be771a83 163one of them to an array or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to
ac036724 164a scalar value (the length of an array, or the population info of a
165hash) and then work on that scalar value. This is probably not what
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166you meant to do. See L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for
167alternatives.
eb6e2d6f 168
6df41af2 169=item Arg too short for msgsnd
76cd736e 170
6df41af2 171(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
76cd736e 172
b0fdf69e 173=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or a subroutine
a0d0e21e 174
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175(F) The argument to exists() must be a hash or array element or a
176subroutine with an ampersand, such as:
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177
178 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 179 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
cc1c2e42 180 &do_something
a0d0e21e 181
8ea97a1e 182=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice
5f05dabc 183
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184(F) The argument to delete() must be either a hash or array element,
185such as:
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186
187 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 188 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
5f05dabc 189
8ea97a1e 190or a hash or array slice, such as:
5f05dabc 191
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192 @foo[$bar, $baz, $xyzzy]
193 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
5315574d 194
6df41af2 195=item %s argument is not a subroutine name
a0d0e21e 196
6df41af2 197(F) The argument to exists() for C<exists &sub> must be a subroutine
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198name, and not a subroutine call. C<exists &sub()> will generate this
199error.
a0d0e21e 200
f86702cc 201=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
a0d0e21e 202
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203(W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator
204that expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
205will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
a0d0e21e 206
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207=item Argument list not closed for PerlIO layer "%s"
208
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209(W layer) When pushing a layer with arguments onto the Perl I/O
210system you forgot the ) that closes the argument list. (Layers
211take care of transforming data between external and internal
212representations.) Perl stopped parsing the layer list at this
213point and did not attempt to push this layer. If your program
214didn't explicitly request the failing operation, it may be the
215result of the value of the environment variable PERLIO.
b4581f09 216
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217=item Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
218
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219(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some
220spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
a0d0e21e 221
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222=item A sequence of multiple spaces in a charnames alias definition is deprecated
223
224(D) You defined a character name which had multiple space characters in
225a row. Change them to single spaces. Usually these names are defined
226in the C<:alias> import argument to C<use charnames>, but they could be
227defined by a translator installed into C<$^H{charnames}>. See
228L<charnames/CUSTOM ALIASES>.
229
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230=item assertion botched: %s
231
21b5e840 232(X) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
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233
234=item Assertion failed: file "%s"
235
21b5e840 236(X) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
a0d0e21e 237
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238=item Assigning non-zero to $[ is no longer possible
239
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240(F) When the "array_base" feature is disabled (e.g., under C<use v5.16;>)
241the special variable C<$[>, which is deprecated, is now a fixed zero value.
82122228 242
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243=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
244
245(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
246must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
247know which context to supply to the right side.
248
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249=item A thread exited while %d threads were running
250
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251(W threads)(S) When using threaded Perl, a thread (not necessarily
252the main thread) exited while there were still other threads running.
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253Usually it's a good idea first to collect the return values of the
254created threads by joining them, and only then to exit from the main
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255thread. See L<threads>.
256
2393f1b9 257=item Attempt to access disallowed key '%s' in a restricted hash
1b1f1335 258
49293501 259(F) The failing code has attempted to get or set a key which is not in
2393f1b9 260the current set of allowed keys of a restricted hash.
49293501 261
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262=item Attempt to bless into a reference
263
264(F) The CLASSNAME argument to the bless() operator is expected to be
57dedab9 265the name of the package to bless the resulting object into. You've
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266supplied instead a reference to something: perhaps you wrote
267
268 bless $self, $proto;
269
270when you intended
271
272 bless $self, ref($proto) || $proto;
273
274If you actually want to bless into the stringified version
275of the reference supplied, you need to stringify it yourself, for
276example by:
277
278 bless $self, "$proto";
279
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280=item Attempt to clear deleted array
281
282(S debugging) An array was assigned to when it was being freed.
283Freed values are not supposed to be visible to Perl code. This
284can also happen if XS code calls C<av_clear> from a custom magic
285callback on the array.
286
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287=item Attempt to delete disallowed key '%s' from a restricted hash
288
289(F) The failing code attempted to delete from a restricted hash a key
290which is not in its key set.
291
292=item Attempt to delete readonly key '%s' from a restricted hash
293
294(F) The failing code attempted to delete a key whose value has been
295declared readonly from a restricted hash.
296
de42a5a9 297=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%x
a0d0e21e 298
f84fe999 299(S internal) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas
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300that will be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be
301outside any of those arenas.
a0d0e21e 302
12578ffb 303=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string '%s'%s
bbce6d69 304
f84fe999 305(S internal) Perl maintains a reference-counted internal table of
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306strings to optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other
307strings. This indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count
308of a string that can no longer be found in the table.
bbce6d69 309
7d5b40b4 310=item Attempt to free temp prematurely: SV 0x%x
a0d0e21e 311
f84fe999 312(S debugging) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the
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313free_tmps() routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the
314SV before the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the
315free_tmps() routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does
316try to free it.
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317
318=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
319
f84fe999 320(S internal) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
a0d0e21e 321
7d5b40b4 322=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar: SV 0x%x
a0d0e21e 323
8f7e4d2c 324(S internal) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to
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325see if it would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0
326earlier, and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed.
327This could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or
328that SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was
329mortalized when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been
330corrupted.
a0d0e21e 331
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332=item Attempt to join self
333
334(F) You tried to join a thread from within itself, which is an
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335impossible task. You may be joining the wrong thread, or you may need
336to move the join() to some other thread.
dcdda58d 337
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338=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
339
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340(W pack) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
341function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
342means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
343invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
344literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
345avoid this warning.
84902520 346
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347=item Attempt to reload %s aborted.
348
349(F) You tried to load a file with C<use> or C<require> that failed to
350compile once already. Perl will not try to compile this file again
351unless you delete its entry from %INC. See L<perlfunc/require> and
352L<perlvar/%INC>.
353
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NC
354=item Attempt to set length of freed array
355
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FC
356(W misc) You tried to set the length of an array which has
357been freed. You can do this by storing a reference to the
358scalar representing the last index of an array and later
359assigning through that reference. For example
1b20cd17
NC
360
361 $r = do {my @a; \$#a};
362 $$r = 503
363
b7a902f4
PP
364=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
365
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366(W substr) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr()
367used as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
368dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
b7a902f4 369
c32124fe
NC
370=item Attribute "locked" is deprecated
371
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FC
372(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragma to modify the
373"locked" attribute on a code reference. The :locked attribute is
374obsolete, has had no effect since 5005 threads were removed, and
375will be removed in a future release of Perl 5.
c32124fe 376
f1a3ce43
NC
377=item Attribute "unique" is deprecated
378
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FC
379(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragma to modify
380the "unique" attribute on an array, hash or scalar reference.
381The :unique attribute has had no effect since Perl 5.8.8, and
382will be removed in a future release of Perl 5.
f1a3ce43 383
ccce04a4
FC
384=item av_reify called on tied array
385
386(S debugging) This indicates that something went wrong and Perl got I<very>
387confused about C<@_> or C<@DB::args> being tied.
388
de42a5a9 389=item Bad arg length for %s, is %u, should be %d
a0d0e21e 390
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391(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl()
392or shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 393S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
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394S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
395
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396=item Bad evalled substitution pattern
397
496a33f5 398(F) You've used the C</e> switch to evaluate the replacement for a
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399substitution, but perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate,
400most likely an unexpected right brace '}'.
401
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402=item Bad filehandle: %s
403
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404(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the
405symbol has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an
406open(), or did it in another package.
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407
408=item Bad free() ignored
409
be771a83 410(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had never
fa816bf3 411been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
9ea8bc6d 412setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 0.
33c8a3fe 413
9ea8bc6d 414This message can be seen quite often with DB_File on systems with "hard"
6903afa2 415dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of C<Berkeley DB>
be771a83 416which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving> system malloc().
a0d0e21e 417
aa689395
PP
418=item Bad hash
419
420(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
421
6df41af2
GS
422=item Badly placed ()'s
423
424(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
425of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
426Perl yourself.
427
a7cb8dae 428=item Bad name after %s
a0d0e21e 429
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430(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then
431didn't finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside
432of quotes, so
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433
434 $var = 'myvar';
435 $sym = mypack::$var;
436
437is not the same as
438
439 $var = 'myvar';
440 $sym = "mypack::$var";
441
88e1f1a2
JV
442=item Bad plugin affecting keyword '%s'
443
444(F) An extension using the keyword plugin mechanism violated the
445plugin API.
446
4ad56ec9
IZ
447=item Bad realloc() ignored
448
6903afa2
FC
449(S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that
450had never been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can
451be disabled by setting the environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
4ad56ec9 452
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453=item Bad symbol for array
454
455(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
456wasn't a symbol table entry.
457
4df3f177
SP
458=item Bad symbol for dirhandle
459
460(P) An internal request asked to add a dirhandle entry to something
461that wasn't a symbol table entry.
462
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463=item Bad symbol for filehandle
464
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465(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something
466that wasn't a symbol table entry.
a0d0e21e
LW
467
468=item Bad symbol for hash
469
470(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
471wasn't a symbol table entry.
472
34d09196
GS
473=item Bareword found in conditional
474
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475(W bareword) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a
476conditional, which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part
477of the last argument of the previous construct, for example:
34d09196
GS
478
479 open FOO || die;
480
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481It may also indicate a misspelled constant that has been interpreted as
482a bareword:
34d09196
GS
483
484 use constant TYPO => 1;
485 if (TYOP) { print "foo" }
486
487The C<strict> pragma is useful in avoiding such errors.
488
6df41af2
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489=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
490
491(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
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492subroutine identifier, in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>"
493symbol. Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
6df41af2
GS
494
495=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
496
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497(W bareword) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but the
498compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point. Perhaps
499you need to predeclare a package?
6df41af2 500
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501=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
502
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GS
503(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN
504subroutine. Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is
505exited.
a0d0e21e 506
68dc0745
PP
507=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
508
509(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
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510implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had already
511occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}> could not
512be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code likely
513depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
68dc0745 514
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515=item \1 better written as $1
516
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GS
517(W syntax) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables.
518The use of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
519substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
520because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better if
521there are more than 9 backreferences.
6df41af2 522
252aa082
JH
523=item Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable
524
e476b1b5 525(W portable) The binary number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
526(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
527L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 528
69282e91 529=item bind() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 530
be771a83
GS
531(W closed) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to
532check the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
a0d0e21e 533
c289d2f7
JH
534=item binmode() on closed filehandle %s
535
536(W unopened) You tried binmode() on a filehandle that was never opened.
4dcecea4 537Check your control flow and number of arguments.
c289d2f7 538
d7bb0749 539=item "\b{" is deprecated; use "\b\{" or "\b[{]" instead in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
f866a7cd 540
d7bb0749 541=item "\B{" is deprecated; use "\B\{" or "\B[{]" instead in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
f866a7cd 542
7a88bca7 543(W deprecated) Use of an unescaped "{" immediately following a
f866a7cd 544C<\b> or C<\B> is now deprecated so as to reserve its use for Perl
d7bb0749
KW
545itself in a future release. You can either precede the brace with a
546backslash, or enclose it in square brackets; the latter is the way to go
547if the pattern delimiters are C<{}>.
f866a7cd 548
c5a0f51a
JH
549=item Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
550
e476b1b5 551(W portable) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is non-portable.
c5a0f51a 552
043c750c 553=item Bizarre copy of %s
4633a7c4 554
be771a83 555(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not
4dcecea4 556copiable.
4633a7c4 557
f675dbe5
CB
558=item Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
559
be771a83
GS
560(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. While Perl was preparing to
561iterate over %ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition
562which was too long, so it was truncated to the string shown.
f675dbe5 563
7fcfef4d
FC
564=item Bizarre SvTYPE [%d]
565
566(P) When starting a new thread or return values from a thread, Perl
567encountered an invalid data type.
568
a0d0e21e
LW
569=item Callback called exit
570
4929bf7b 571(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via call_sv()
a0d0e21e
LW
572exited by calling exit.
573
6df41af2 574=item %s() called too early to check prototype
f675dbe5 575
be771a83
GS
576(W prototype) You've called a function that has a prototype before the
577parser saw a definition or declaration for it, and Perl could not check
578that the call conforms to the prototype. You need to either add an
579early prototype declaration for the subroutine in question, or move the
580subroutine definition ahead of the call to get proper prototype
581checking. Alternatively, if you are certain that you're calling the
582function correctly, you may put an ampersand before the name to avoid
583the warning. See L<perlsub>.
f675dbe5 584
49704364 585=item Cannot compress integer in pack
0258719b
NC
586
587(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was too large to compress. The BER
588compressed integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you
589attempted to compress Infinity or a very large number (> 1e308).
590See L<perlfunc/pack>.
591
49704364 592=item Cannot compress negative numbers in pack
0258719b
NC
593
594(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was negative. The BER compressed integer
595format can only be used with positive integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
596
5c1f4d79
NC
597=item Cannot convert a reference to %s to typeglob
598
6903afa2
FC
599(F) You manipulated Perl's symbol table directly, stored a reference
600in it, then tried to access that symbol via conventional Perl syntax.
601The access triggers Perl to autovivify that typeglob, but it there is
602no legal conversion from that type of reference to a typeglob.
5c1f4d79 603
4040665a 604=item Cannot copy to %s
ba2fdce6
NC
605
606(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy a value to an internal type that cannot
4dcecea4 607be directly assigned to.
ba2fdce6 608
b5d97229
RGS
609=item Cannot find encoding "%s"
610
611(S io) You tried to apply an encoding that did not exist to a filehandle,
612either with open() or binmode().
613
7355df7e
FC
614=item Cannot set tied @DB::args
615
616(F) C<caller> tried to set C<@DB::args>, but found it tied. Tying C<@DB::args>
617is not supported. (Before this error was added, it used to crash.)
618
ce65bc73
FC
619=item Cannot tie unreifiable array
620
621(P) You somehow managed to call C<tie> on an array that does not
622keep a reference count on its arguments and cannot be made to
623do so. Such arrays are not even supposed to be accessible to
624Perl code, but are only used internally.
625
96ebfdd7
RK
626=item Can only compress unsigned integers in pack
627
628(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was not an integer. The BER compressed
629integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you attempted
630to compress something else. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
631
a0d0e21e
LW
632=item Can't bless non-reference value
633
634(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
635encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
636
dc57907a
RGS
637=item Can't "break" in a loop topicalizer
638
0d863452 639(F) You called C<break>, but you're in a C<foreach> block rather than
6903afa2 640a C<given> block. You probably meant to use C<next> or C<last>.
0d863452
RH
641
642=item Can't "break" outside a given block
dc57907a 643
0d863452
RH
644(F) You called C<break>, but you're not inside a C<given> block.
645
6df41af2
GS
646=item Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
647
648(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
649object reference or package name contains an undefined value. Something
650like this will reproduce the error:
6df41af2
GS
651
652 $BADREF = undef;
653 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
654 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
655
a0d0e21e
LW
656=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
657
54310121 658(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
be771a83
GS
659ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but you
660didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't an
661object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
662
663=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
664
665(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
666object reference or package name contains an expression that returns a
667defined value which is neither an object reference nor a package name.
72b5445b
GS
668Something like this will reproduce the error:
669
670 $BADREF = 42;
671 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
672 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
673
a0d0e21e
LW
674=item Can't chdir to %s
675
f703fc96 676(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but F</foo/bar> is not a directory
a0d0e21e
LW
677that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
678
0545a864 679=item Can't check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid
104d25b7 680
be771a83
GS
681(P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for
682nosuid.
104d25b7 683
22e74366 684=item Can't coerce %s to %s in %s
a0d0e21e
LW
685
686(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 687(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
a0d0e21e
LW
688say things like:
689
690 *foo += 1;
691
692You CAN say
693
694 $foo = *foo;
695 $foo += 1;
696
697but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
698
0d863452 699=item Can't "continue" outside a when block
dc57907a 700
0d863452
RH
701(F) You called C<continue>, but you're not inside a C<when>
702or C<default> block.
703
a0d0e21e
LW
704=item Can't create pipe mailbox
705
be771a83
GS
706(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted
707quotas or other plumbing problems.
a0d0e21e 708
eb64745e
GS
709=item Can't declare %s in "%s"
710
30c282f6
NC
711(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as "my", "our" or
712"state" variables. They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
a0d0e21e 713
fc7debfb
FC
714=item Can't "default" outside a topicalizer
715
716(F) You have used a C<default> block that is neither inside a
717C<foreach> loop nor a C<given> block. (Note that this error is
718issued on exit from the C<default> block, so you won't get the
719error if you use an explicit C<continue>.)
720
6df41af2
GS
721=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
722
be771a83 723(S inplace) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as
df7075a8 724a file in /dev, a FIFO or an uneditable directory. The file was ignored.
6df41af2 725
a0d0e21e
LW
726=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
727
be771a83
GS
728(S inplace) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated
729reason.
a0d0e21e 730
54310121 731=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
a0d0e21e 732
be771a83
GS
733(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try
734reading from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say
735C<-i.bak>, or some such.
a0d0e21e 736
10f9c03d 737=item Can't do inplace edit: %s would not be unique
a0d0e21e 738
e476b1b5 739(S inplace) Your filesystem does not support filenames longer than 14
10f9c03d
CK
740characters and Perl was unable to create a unique filename during
741inplace editing with the B<-i> switch. The file was ignored.
a0d0e21e 742
a0d0e21e
LW
743=item Can't do waitpid with flags
744
be771a83
GS
745(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only
746waitpid() without flags is emulated.
a0d0e21e 747
a0d0e21e
LW
748=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
749
be771a83
GS
750(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this
751point. For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #!
752line.
a0d0e21e 753
1109a392
MHM
754=item Can't %s %s-endian %ss on this platform
755
756(F) Your platform's byte-order is neither big-endian nor little-endian,
757or it has a very strange pointer size. Packing and unpacking big- or
758little-endian floating point values and pointers may not be possible.
759See L<perlfunc/pack>.
760
a0d0e21e
LW
761=item Can't exec "%s": %s
762
d1be9408 763(W exec) A system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the
be771a83
GS
764named program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the
765permissions were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in
766C<$ENV{PATH}>, the executable in question was compiled for another
767architecture, or the #! line in a script points to an interpreter that
768can't be run for similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support
769#! at all.)
a0d0e21e
LW
770
771=item Can't exec %s
772
be771a83
GS
773(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because
774that's what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may
775need to mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
a0d0e21e
LW
776
777=item Can't execute %s
778
be771a83
GS
779(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute
780found in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
2a92aaa0 781
6df41af2 782=item Can't find an opnumber for "%s"
2a92aaa0 783
be771a83
GS
784(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but there
785is no builtin with the name C<word>.
6df41af2 786
56ca2fc0
JH
787=item Can't find %s character property "%s"
788
789(F) You used C<\p{}> or C<\P{}> but the character property by that name
6903afa2 790could not be found. Maybe you misspelled the name of the property?
e1b711da 791See L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
9b73678d 792for a complete list of available official properties.
56ca2fc0 793
6df41af2
GS
794=item Can't find label %s
795
be771a83
GS
796(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's
797possible for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2a92aaa0
GS
798
799=item Can't find %s on PATH
800
be771a83
GS
801(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
802found in the PATH.
a0d0e21e 803
6df41af2 804=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
a0d0e21e 805
be771a83
GS
806(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
807found in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The
808script exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
a0d0e21e
LW
809
810=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
811
be771a83
GS
812(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means
813that the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count
814nesting levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
a0d0e21e 815
fb73857a
PP
816 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
817
97b3d10f 818If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have
b6b8cb97
FC
819included unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag or there
820may not be a linebreak after it. A good programmer's editor will have
821a way to help you find these characters (or lack of characters). See
822L<perlop> for the full details on here-documents.
a0d0e21e 823
660a4616
ST
824=item Can't find Unicode property definition "%s"
825
5f8ad6b6
FC
826(F) You may have tried to use C<\p> which means a Unicode
827property (for example C<\p{Lu}> matches all uppercase
fa816bf3 828letters). If you did mean to use a Unicode property, see
e1b711da 829L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
6903afa2 830for a complete list of available properties. If you didn't
fa816bf3
FC
831mean to use a Unicode property, escape the C<\p>, either by
832C<\\p> (just the C<\p>) or by C<\Q\p> (the rest of the string, or
5f8ad6b6 833until C<\E>).
660a4616 834
b3647a36 835=item Can't fork: %s
a0d0e21e 836
be771a83
GS
837(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a
838pipeline.
a0d0e21e 839
b3647a36
SR
840=item Can't fork, trying again in 5 seconds
841
c973c02e 842(W pipe) A fork in a piped open failed with EAGAIN and will be retried
b3647a36
SR
843after five seconds.
844
748a9306
LW
845=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
846
be771a83
GS
847(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference
848between access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes.
849Under VMS, access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in
850the stat buffer, so that ACLs and other protections can be taken into
851account. Unfortunately, Perl assumes that the stat buffer contains all
852the necessary information, and passes it, instead of the filespec, to
2fe2bdfd 853the access-checking routine. It will try to retrieve the filespec using
be771a83
GS
854the device name and FID present in the stat buffer, but this works only
855if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat() routine,
856because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
2fe2bdfd
FC
857appears, the name lookup failed, and the access-checking routine gave up
858and returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access-checking
be771a83
GS
859routine knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you
860shouldn't ever see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises
861only if some internal code takes stat buffers lightly.)
748a9306 862
a0d0e21e
LW
863=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
864
be771a83
GS
865(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a
866pipe, Perl can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
867
868=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
869
748a9306
LW
870(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
871mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e 872
6df41af2 873=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
a0d0e21e 874
be771a83
GS
875(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a foreach
876loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2
GS
877
878=item Can't "goto" out of a pseudo block
879
be771a83
GS
880(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look like
881a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually occurs if
882you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which is a no-no.
883See L<perlfunc/goto>.
a0d0e21e 884
9850bf21 885=item Can't goto subroutine from a sort sub (or similar callback)
cd299c6e 886
9850bf21
RH
887(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of the
888comparison sub for a sort(), or from a similar callback (such
889as the reduce() function in List::Util).
890
c74ace89 891=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-%s
b150fb22 892
be771a83 893(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval
c74ace89 894"string" or block.
b150fb22 895
6df41af2
GS
896=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
897
be771a83
GS
898(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one
899subroutine call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole
900cloth. In general you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD
901routine anyway. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2 902
0b5b802d
GS
903=item Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default
904
be771a83
GS
905(W signal) Perl has detected that it is being run with the SIGCHLD
906signal (sometimes known as SIGCLD) disabled. Since disabling this
907signal will interfere with proper determination of exit status of child
908processes, Perl has reset the signal to its default value. This
909situation typically indicates that the parent program under which Perl
910may be running (e.g. cron) is being very careless.
0b5b802d 911
e2c0f81f
DG
912=item Can't kill a non-numeric process ID
913
914(F) Process identifiers must be (signed) integers. It is a fatal error to
915attempt to kill() an undefined, empty-string or otherwise non-numeric
916process identifier.
917
6df41af2 918=item Can't "last" outside a loop block
4633a7c4 919
6df41af2 920(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
be771a83
GS
921except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a current
922block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a "loopish"
923block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or grep(). You can
924usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the
925inner curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See
926L<perlfunc/last>.
4633a7c4 927
2c7d6b9c
RGS
928=item Can't linearize anonymous symbol table
929
930(F) Perl tried to calculate the method resolution order (MRO) of a
931package, but failed because the package stash has no name.
932
b8170e59
JB
933=item Can't load '%s' for module %s
934
6903afa2
FC
935(F) The module you tried to load failed to load a dynamic extension.
936This may either mean that you upgraded your version of perl to one
937that is incompatible with your old dynamic extensions (which is known
938to happen between major versions of perl), or (more likely) that your
939dynamic extension was built against an older version of the library
940that is installed on your system. You may need to rebuild your old
941dynamic extensions.
b8170e59 942
748a9306
LW
943=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
944
2ba9eb46 945(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
b7e4ecc1
FC
946lexical variable using "my" or "state". This is not allowed. If you
947want to localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with
948the package name.
748a9306 949
6df41af2 950=item Can't localize through a reference
4727527e 951
6df41af2
GS
952(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
953handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
be771a83 954pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be sure
64977eb6 955that $ref will still be a reference.
4727527e 956
ea071790 957=item Can't locate %s
ec889f3a 958
fa816bf3
FC
959(F) You said to C<do> (or C<require>, or C<use>) a file that couldn't be found.
960Perl looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in @INC, unless
961the file name included the full path to the file. Perhaps you need
962to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where the
963extra library is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name
be771a83
GS
964to @INC. Or maybe you just misspelled the name of the file. See
965L<perlfunc/require> and L<lib>.
a0d0e21e 966
6df41af2
GS
967=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
968
be771a83
GS
969(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows
970autoload, but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes
971are a misprint in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit>
972the file, say, by doing C<make install>.
6df41af2 973
b8170e59
JB
974=item Can't locate loadable object for module %s in @INC
975
976(F) The module you loaded is trying to load an external library, like
d70d8e57 977for example, F<foo.so> or F<bar.dll>, but the L<DynaLoader> module was
b8170e59
JB
978unable to locate this library. See L<DynaLoader>.
979
a0d0e21e
LW
980=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
981
982(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
983functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 984method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
985
986=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
987
be771a83
GS
988(W syntax) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that
989doesn't seem to exist.
a0d0e21e 990
2f7da168
RK
991=item Can't locate PerlIO%s
992
993(F) You tried to use in open() a PerlIO layer that does not exist,
994e.g. open(FH, ">:nosuchlayer", "somefile").
995
f4ad53f4 996=item Can't make list assignment to %ENV on this system
3e3baf6d 997
be771a83
GS
998(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably
999VMS.
3e3baf6d 1000
cd40cd58
NC
1001=item Can't make loaded symbols global on this platform while loading %s
1002
1003(W) A module passed the flag 0x01 to DynaLoader::dl_load_file() to request
1004that symbols from the stated file are made available globally within the
1005process, but that functionality is not available on this platform. Whilst
1006the module likely will still work, this may prevent the perl interpreter
1007from loading other XS-based extensions which need to link directly to
1008functions defined in the C or XS code in the stated file.
1009
a0d0e21e
LW
1010=item Can't modify %s in %s
1011
be771a83
GS
1012(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try
1013to change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 1014
54310121 1015=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
1016
1017(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
1018a NULL.
1019
6df41af2
GS
1020=item Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call
1021
1022(F) Subroutines meant to be used in lvalue context should be declared as
2fe2bdfd 1023such. See L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
6df41af2 1024
5f05dabc 1025=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 1026
5f05dabc 1027(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
1028buffer.
1029
6df41af2
GS
1030=item Can't "next" outside a loop block
1031
1032(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
1033there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
be771a83
GS
1034count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or
1035grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1036though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that loops
1037once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
6df41af2 1038
46fa9b26
FC
1039=item Can't open %s
1040
1041(F) You tried to run a perl built with MAD support with
1042the PERL_XMLDUMP environment variable set, but the file
1043named by that variable could not be opened.
1044
a0d0e21e
LW
1045=item Can't open %s: %s
1046
c47ff5f1 1047(S inplace) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<< <> >>
08e9d68e 1048filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
46fa9b26
FC
1049switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually
1050this is because you don't have read permission for a file which
1051you named on the command line.
1052
1053(F) You tried to call perl with the B<-e> switch, but F</dev/null> (or
1054your operating system's equivalent) could not be opened.
a0d0e21e 1055
9a869a14
RGS
1056=item Can't open a reference
1057
1058(W io) You tried to open a scalar reference for reading or writing,
2fe2bdfd 1059using the 3-arg open() syntax:
9a869a14
RGS
1060
1061 open FH, '>', $ref;
1062
1063but your version of perl is compiled without perlio, and this form of
1064open is not supported.
1065
a0d0e21e
LW
1066=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
1067
be771a83
GS
1068(W pipe) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported.
1069You can try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such
1070as IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using
1071">", and then read it in under a different file handle.
a0d0e21e 1072
748a9306
LW
1073=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
1074
be771a83
GS
1075(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1076redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '2>' or '2>>' on
1077the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1078
1079=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
1080
be771a83
GS
1081(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1082redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '<' on the
1083command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
1084
1085=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
1086
be771a83
GS
1087(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1088redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '>' or '>>' on
1089the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1090
1091=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
1092
be771a83
GS
1093(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1094redirection, and couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined
1095for stdout.
748a9306 1096
3b1cf97d 1097=item Can't open perl script "%s": %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1098
1099(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
1100
fa3aa65a
JC
1101If you're debugging a script that uses #!, and normally relies on the
1102shell's $PATH search, the -S option causes perl to do that search, so
1103you don't have to type the path or C<`which $scriptname`>.
1104
6df41af2
GS
1105=item Can't read CRTL environ
1106
1107(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read an element of %ENV
1108from the CRTL's internal environment array and discovered the array was
1109missing. You need to figure out where your CRTL misplaced its environ
be771a83
GS
1110or define F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that environ is not
1111searched.
6df41af2 1112
6df41af2
GS
1113=item Can't "redo" outside a loop block
1114
1115(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
1116there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
1117count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map()
1118or grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1119though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that
1120loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
1121
64977eb6 1122=item Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file
10f9c03d 1123
be771a83
GS
1124(S inplace) You requested an inplace edit without creating a backup
1125file. Perl was unable to remove the original file to replace it with
1126the modified file. The file was left unmodified.
10f9c03d 1127
a0d0e21e
LW
1128=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
1129
e476b1b5 1130(S inplace) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason,
10f9c03d 1131probably because you don't have write permission to the directory.
a0d0e21e 1132
748a9306
LW
1133=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
1134
be771a83
GS
1135(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried
1136to reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
748a9306 1137
4f12ec0e
FC
1138=item Can't reset %ENV on this system
1139
1140(F) You called C<reset('E')> or similar, which tried to reset
1141all variables in the current package beginning with "E". In
1142the main package, that includes %ENV. Resetting %ENV is not
1143supported on some systems, notably VMS.
1144
fe13d51d 1145=item Can't resolve method "%s" overloading "%s" in package "%s"
6df41af2 1146
1fa582fa
FC
1147(F)(P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as
1148opposed to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the
1149package. If the method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
6df41af2 1150
cd06dffe
GS
1151=item Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine
1152
be771a83
GS
1153(F) Perl detected an attempt to return illegal lvalues (such as
1154temporary or readonly values) from a subroutine used as an lvalue. This
1155is not allowed.
cd06dffe 1156
96ebfdd7
RK
1157=item Can't return outside a subroutine
1158
1159(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
1160there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
1161
78f9721b
SM
1162=item Can't return %s to lvalue scalar context
1163
6903afa2
FC
1164(F) You tried to return a complete array or hash from an lvalue
1165subroutine, but you called the subroutine in a way that made Perl
1166think you meant to return only one value. You probably meant to
1167write parentheses around the call to the subroutine, which tell
1168Perl that the call should be in list context.
78f9721b 1169
a0d0e21e
LW
1170=item Can't stat script "%s"
1171
be771a83
GS
1172(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have it
1173open already. Bizarre.
a0d0e21e 1174
a0d0e21e
LW
1175=item Can't take log of %g
1176
fb73857a 1177(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
6903afa2 1178negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
be771a83
GS
1179standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for the
1180negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
1181
1182=item Can't take sqrt of %g
1183
1184(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a
PP
1185negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
1186with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
1187
1188=item Can't undef active subroutine
1189
1190(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
1191however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
1192redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
1193
c81225bc 1194=item Can't upgrade %s (%d) to %d
a0d0e21e 1195
be771a83
GS
1196(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making it
1197into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are so
1198specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This message
1199indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
a0d0e21e 1200
6651ba0b
FC
1201=item Can't use '%c' after -mname
1202
1203(F) You tried to call perl with the B<-m> switch, but you put something
1204other than "=" after the module name.
1205
1db89ea5
BS
1206=item Can't use anonymous symbol table for method lookup
1207
e27ad1f2 1208(F) The internal routine that does method lookup was handed a symbol
1db89ea5
BS
1209table that doesn't have a name. Symbol tables can become anonymous
1210for example by undefining stashes: C<undef %Some::Package::>.
1211
96ebfdd7
RK
1212=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
1213
1214(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
1215be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
1216
6df41af2
GS
1217=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
1218
be771a83
GS
1219(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1220references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 1221
90b75b61 1222=item Can't use %! because Errno.pm is not available
1d2dff63 1223
20561843 1224(F) The first time the C<%!> hash is used, perl automatically loads the
6903afa2 1225Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
1d2dff63
GS
1226provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
1227
1109a392
MHM
1228=item Can't use both '<' and '>' after type '%c' in %s
1229
1230(F) A type cannot be forced to have both big-endian and little-endian
1231byte-order at the same time, so this combination of modifiers is not
1232allowed. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1233
6df41af2
GS
1234=item Can't use %s for loop variable
1235
be771a83
GS
1236(F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a
1237foreach.
6df41af2 1238
aab6a793 1239=item Can't use global %s in "%s"
6df41af2 1240
be771a83
GS
1241(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This
1242is not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location
1243(namely the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to
1244have variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
6df41af2
GS
1245weren't.
1246
6d3b25aa
RGS
1247=item Can't use '%c' in a group with different byte-order in %s
1248
1249(F) You attempted to force a different byte-order on a type
1250that is already inside a group with a byte-order modifier.
1251For example you cannot force little-endianness on a type that
1252is inside a big-endian group.
1253
c07a80fd
PP
1254=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
1255
1256(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
c47ff5f1 1257You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the <=> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd
PP
1258and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
1259Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
1260lexical variable.
1261
a0d0e21e
LW
1262=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
1263
1264(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
1265reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
1266test the type of the reference, if need be.
1267
748a9306 1268=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e 1269
b41bf23f
FC
1270(F) You've told Perl to dereference a string, something which
1271C<use strict> blocks to prevent it happening accidentally. See
1272L<perlref/"Symbolic references">. This can be triggered by an C<@> or C<$>
1273in a double-quoted string immediately before interpolating a variable,
1274for example in C<"user @$twitter_id">, which says to treat the contents
1275of C<$twitter_id> as an array reference; use a C<\> to have a literal C<@>
1276symbol followed by the contents of C<$twitter_id>: C<"user \@$twitter_id">.
a0d0e21e 1277
748a9306
LW
1278=item Can't use subscript on %s
1279
1280(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
1281subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
209e7cf1 1282didn't look like a hash or array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
748a9306 1283
6df41af2
GS
1284=item Can't use \%c to mean $%c in expression
1285
75b44862
GS
1286(W syntax) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that
1287creates a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a
1288backreference to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular
be771a83
GS
1289expression pattern. Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a
1290value that prints out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form
1291instead.
6df41af2 1292
810b8aa5
GS
1293=item Can't weaken a nonreference
1294
1295(F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference. Only
1296references can be weakened.
1297
fc7debfb
FC
1298=item Can't "when" outside a topicalizer
1299
1300(F) You have used a when() block that is neither inside a C<foreach>
1301loop nor a C<given> block. (Note that this error is issued on exit
1302from the C<when> block, so you won't get the error if the match fails,
1303or if you use an explicit C<continue>.)
1304
5f05dabc 1305=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e 1306
be771a83
GS
1307(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value)
1308with an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
a0d0e21e
LW
1309Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
1310
4a68bf9d 1311=item Character following "\c" must be ASCII
f9d13529 1312
1fa582fa 1313(F)(W deprecated, syntax) In C<\cI<X>>, I<X> must be an ASCII character.
79ef86ee 1314It is planned to make this fatal in all instances in Perl 5.18. In the
17a3df4c
KW
1315cases where it isn't fatal, the character this evaluates to is
1316derived by exclusive or'ing the code point of this character with 0x40.
1317
1318Note that non-alphabetic ASCII characters are discouraged here as well.
f9d13529 1319
f337b084 1320=item Character in 'C' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1321
1322(W pack) You said
1323
1324 pack("C", $x)
1325
1326where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255; the C<"C"> format is
1327only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1328and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1329
1330 pack("C", $x & 255)
1331
1332If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1333instead.
1334
f337b084
TH
1335=item Character in 'W' format wrapped in pack
1336
1337(W pack) You said
1338
1339 pack("U0W", $x)
1340
6903afa2
FC
1341where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255. However, C<U0>-mode
1342expects all values to fall in the interval [0, 255], so Perl behaved
1343as if you meant:
f337b084
TH
1344
1345 pack("U0W", $x & 255)
1346
1347=item Character in 'c' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1348
1349(W pack) You said
1350
1351 pack("c", $x)
1352
1353where $x is either less than -128 or more than 127; the C<"c"> format
1354is only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1355and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1356
1357 pack("c", $x & 255);
1358
1359If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1360instead.
1361
f337b084
TH
1362=item Character in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1363
1364(W unpack) You tried something like
1365
1366 unpack("H", "\x{2a1}")
1367
1a147d38 1368where the format expects to process a byte (a character with a value
6903afa2
FC
1369below 256), but a higher value was provided instead. Perl uses the
1370value modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
f337b084
TH
1371
1372 unpack("H", "\x{a1}")
1373
1374=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in pack
1375
1376(W pack) You tried something like
1377
1378 pack("u", "\x{1f3}b")
1379
1a147d38 1380where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
6903afa2 1381value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1382uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1383
1384 pack("u", "\x{f3}b")
1385
1386=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1387
1388(W unpack) You tried something like
1389
1390 unpack("s", "\x{1f3}b")
1391
1a147d38 1392where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
6903afa2 1393value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1394uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1395
1396 unpack("s", "\x{f3}b")
1397
f866a7cd
FC
1398=item "\c{" is deprecated and is more clearly written as ";"
1399
1400(D deprecated, syntax) The C<\cI<X>> construct is intended to be a way
1401to specify non-printable characters. You used it with a "{" which
1402evaluates to ";", which is printable. It is planned to remove the
79ef86ee 1403ability to specify a semi-colon this way in Perl 5.18. Just use a
f866a7cd
FC
1404semi-colon or a backslash-semi-colon without the "\c".
1405
1406=item "\c%c" is more clearly written simply as "%s"
1407
1408(W syntax) The C<\cI<X>> construct is intended to be a way to specify
1409non-printable characters. You used it for a printable one, which is better
1410written as simply itself, perhaps preceded by a backslash for non-word
1411characters.
1412
6651ba0b
FC
1413=item Cloning substitution context is unimplemented
1414
1415(F) Creating a new thread inside the C<s///> operator is not supported.
1416
96ebfdd7
RK
1417=item close() on unopened filehandle %s
1418
1419(W unopened) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
1420
abc7ecad
SP
1421=item closedir() attempted on invalid dirhandle %s
1422
1423(W io) The dirhandle you tried to close is either closed or not really
1424a dirhandle. Check your control flow.
1425
541ed3a9
FC
1426=item Closure prototype called
1427
1428(F) If a closure has attributes, the subroutine passed to an attribute
1429handler is the prototype that is cloned when a new closure is created.
1430This subroutine cannot be called.
1431
49704364
LW
1432=item Code missing after '/'
1433
6903afa2
FC
1434(F) You had a (sub-)template that ends with a '/'. There must be
1435another template code following the slash. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
49704364 1436
0876b9a0
KW
1437=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, may not be portable
1438
6fbc9859
MH
1439=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, all \p{} matches fail; all \P{} matches
1440succeed
9ae3ac1a 1441
e2f4a215 1442(S utf8, non_unicode) You had a code point above the Unicode maximum
1b64326b
FC
1443of U+10FFFF.
1444
1445Perl allows strings to contain a superset of Unicode code points, up
1446to the limit of what is storable in an unsigned integer on your system,
1447but these may not be accepted by other languages/systems. At one time,
1448it was legal in some standards to have code points up to 0x7FFF_FFFF,
1449but not higher. Code points above 0xFFFF_FFFF require larger than a
145032 bit word.
0876b9a0 1451
9ae3ac1a
KW
1452None of the Unicode or Perl-defined properties will match a non-Unicode
1453code point. For example,
1454
1455 chr(0x7FF_FFFF) =~ /\p{Any}/
1456
1457will not match, because the code point is not in Unicode. But
1458
1459 chr(0x7FF_FFFF) =~ /\P{Any}/
1460
1461will match.
1462
94b42e47
KW
1463This may be counterintuitive at times, as both these fail:
1464
f9d4ccdc
FC
1465 chr(0x110000) =~ /\p{ASCII_Hex_Digit=True}/ # Fails.
1466 chr(0x110000) =~ /\p{ASCII_Hex_Digit=False}/ # Also fails!
94b42e47
KW
1467
1468and both these succeed:
1469
f9d4ccdc
FC
1470 chr(0x110000) =~ /\P{ASCII_Hex_Digit=True}/ # Succeeds.
1471 chr(0x110000) =~ /\P{ASCII_Hex_Digit=False}/ # Also succeeds!
94b42e47 1472
6df41af2
GS
1473=item %s: Command not found
1474
a892b81a
FC
1475(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> or another shell
1476shell instead of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script
1477into Perl yourself. The #! line at the top of your file could look like
8f721816
MM
1478
1479 #!/usr/bin/perl -w
6df41af2 1480
7a2e2cd6
PP
1481=item Compilation failed in require
1482
1483(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
be771a83
GS
1484Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it
1485encountered were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
7a2e2cd6 1486
c3464db5
DD
1487=item Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
1488
be771a83
GS
1489(W regexp) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex
1490situations where back-tracking is required. Recursion depth is limited
1491to 32766, or perhaps less in architectures where the stack cannot grow
1492arbitrarily. ("Simple" and "medium" situations are handled without
1493recursion and are not subject to a limit.) Try shortening the string
1494under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with C<while>) rather than
1495in the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular expression so
c2e66d9e 1496that it is simpler or backtracks less. (See L<perlfaq2> for information
be771a83 1497on I<Mastering Regular Expressions>.)
c3464db5 1498
38875929
DM
1499=item cond_broadcast() called on unlocked variable
1500
6903afa2
FC
1501(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to
1502call cond_broadcast() on a variable which wasn't locked.
1503The cond_broadcast() function is used to wake up another thread
1504that is waiting in a cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't
1505sent before the other thread has a chance to enter the wait, it
1506is usual for the signaling thread first to wait for a lock on
1507variable. This lock attempt will only succeed after the other
1508thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the lock.
38875929 1509
38875929
DM
1510=item cond_signal() called on unlocked variable
1511
6903afa2
FC
1512(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to
1513call cond_signal() on a variable which wasn't locked. The
1514cond_signal() function is used to wake up another thread that
1515is waiting in a cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't
1516sent before the other thread has a chance to enter the wait, it
1517is usual for the signaling thread first to wait for a lock on
1518variable. This lock attempt will only succeed after the other
1519thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the lock.
38875929 1520
69282e91 1521=item connect() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1522
be771a83
GS
1523(W closed) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget
1524to check the return value of your socket() call? See
1525L<perlfunc/connect>.
a0d0e21e 1526
e21e7c6a
FC
1527=item Constant(%s): Call to &{$^H{%s}} did not return a defined value
1528
1529(F) The subroutine registered to handle constant overloading
1530(see L<overload>) or a custom charnames handler (see
1531L<charnames/CUSTOM TRANSLATORS>) returned an undefined value.
1532
1533=item Constant(%s): $^H{%s} is not defined
1534
1535(F) The parser found inconsistencies while attempting to define an
1536overloaded constant. Perhaps you forgot to load the corresponding
1537L<overload> pragma?.
1538
1539=item Constant(%s) unknown
6df41af2 1540
be771a83
GS
1541(F) The parser found inconsistencies either while attempting to define
1542an overloaded constant, or when trying to find the character name
1543specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you forgot to load the
fbb93542 1544corresponding L<overload> pragma?.
6df41af2 1545
779c5bc9
GS
1546=item Constant is not %s reference
1547
1548(F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the C<use constant> pragma)
be771a83 1549is being dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference.
6903afa2 1550The message indicates the type of reference that was expected. This
be771a83 1551usually indicates a syntax error in dereferencing the constant value.
779c5bc9
GS
1552See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> and L<constant>.
1553
4cee8e80
CS
1554=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
1555
aeb94125
FC
1556(W redefine)(S) You redefined a subroutine which had previously
1557been eligible for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions">
1558for commentary and workarounds.
4cee8e80 1559
9607fc9c
PP
1560=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
1561
be771a83
GS
1562(W misc) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible
1563for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1564workarounds.
9607fc9c 1565
e7ea3e70
IZ
1566=item Copy method did not return a reference
1567
6903afa2 1568(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See
13a2d996 1569L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
e7ea3e70 1570
4aaa4757
FC
1571=item &CORE::%s cannot be called directly
1572
1573(F) You tried to call a subroutine in the C<CORE::> namespace
8d605c0d 1574with C<&foo> syntax or through a reference. Some subroutines
4aaa4757
FC
1575in this package cannot yet be called that way, but must be
1576called as barewords. Something like this will work:
1577
1578 BEGIN { *shove = \&CORE::push; }
1579 shove @array, 1,2,3; # pushes on to @array
1580
6798c92b
GS
1581=item CORE::%s is not a keyword
1582
1583(F) The CORE:: namespace is reserved for Perl keywords.
1584
a0d0e21e
LW
1585=item corrupted regexp pointers
1586
1587(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1588expression compiler gave it.
1589
1590=item corrupted regexp program
1591
be771a83
GS
1592(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without a
1593valid magic number.
a0d0e21e 1594
de42a5a9 1595=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%x at 0x%x
6df41af2
GS
1596
1597(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
1598
49704364
LW
1599=item Count after length/code in unpack
1600
1601(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string, but
1602you have also specified an explicit size for the string. See
1603L<perlfunc/pack>.
1604
6651ba0b
FC
1605=item Deep recursion on anonymous subroutine
1606
a0d0e21e
LW
1607=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
1608
be771a83
GS
1609(W recursion) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly)
1610100 times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an
1611infinite recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in
1612which case it indicates something else.
a0d0e21e 1613
aad1d01f
NC
1614This threshold can be changed from 100, by recompiling the F<perl> binary,
1615setting the C pre-processor macro C<PERL_SUB_DEPTH_WARN> to the desired value.
1616
f10b0346 1617=item defined(@array) is deprecated
69794302 1618
be771a83
GS
1619(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on arrays because it
1620checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the
64977eb6 1621array is empty, just use C<if (@array) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1622
f10b0346 1623=item defined(%hash) is deprecated
69794302 1624
f0ec9725
KR
1625(D deprecated) C<defined()> is not usually right on hashes and has been
1626discouraged since 5.004.
1627
1628Although C<defined %hash> is false on a plain not-yet-used hash, it
1629becomes true in several non-obvious circumstances, including iterators,
1630weak references, stash names, even remaining true after C<undef %hash>.
1631These things make C<defined %hash> fairly useless in practice.
1632
1633If a check for non-empty is what you wanted then just put it in boolean
1634context (see L<perldata/Scalar values>):
16546e45
KR
1635
1636 if (%hash) {
1637 # not empty
1638 }
1639
f0ec9725
KR
1640If you had C<defined %Foo::Bar::QUUX> to check whether such a package
1641variable exists then that's never really been reliable, and isn't
1642a good way to enquire about the features of a package, or whether
1643it's loaded, etc.
1644
69794302 1645
6fbc9859
MH
1646=item (?(DEFINE)....) does not allow branches in regex; marked by <-- HERE in
1647m/%s/
bcb95744 1648
6903afa2 1649(F) You used something like C<(?(DEFINE)...|..)> which is illegal. The
bcb95744
FC
1650most likely cause of this error is that you left out a parenthesis inside
1651of the C<....> part.
1652
9e3ec65c 1653The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
bcb95744
FC
1654discovered.
1655
62658f4d
PM
1656=item %s defines neither package nor VERSION--version check failed
1657
1658(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but in the Module file
1659there are neither package declarations nor a C<$VERSION>.
1660
fc36a67e
PP
1661=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1662
be771a83
GS
1663(F) In a here document construct like C<<<FOO>, the label C<FOO> is too
1664long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously twisted to write code
1665that triggers this error.
fc36a67e 1666
6d3b25aa
RGS
1667=item Deprecated use of my() in false conditional
1668
fa816bf3
FC
1669(D deprecated) You used a declaration similar to C<my $x if 0>. There
1670has been a long-standing bug in Perl that causes a lexical variable
6d3b25aa 1671not to be cleared at scope exit when its declaration includes a false
6903afa2 1672conditional. Some people have exploited this bug to achieve a kind of
fa816bf3 1673static variable. Since we intend to fix this bug, we don't want people
6903afa2 1674relying on this behavior. You can achieve a similar static effect by
6d3b25aa 1675declaring the variable in a separate block outside the function, eg
36fb85f3 1676
6d3b25aa
RGS
1677 sub f { my $x if 0; return $x++ }
1678
1679becomes
1680
1681 { my $x; sub f { return $x++ } }
1682
fa816bf3
FC
1683Beginning with perl 5.9.4, you can also use C<state> variables to have
1684lexicals that are initialized only once (see L<feature>):
36fb85f3
RGS
1685
1686 sub f { state $x; return $x++ }
1687
500ab966
RGS
1688=item DESTROY created new reference to dead object '%s'
1689
1690(F) A DESTROY() method created a new reference to the object which is
6903afa2
FC
1691just being DESTROYed. Perl is confused, and prefers to abort rather
1692than to create a dangling reference.
500ab966 1693
3cdd684c
TP
1694=item Did not produce a valid header
1695
1696See Server error.
1697
6df41af2
GS
1698=item %s did not return a true value
1699
1700(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
1701it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
1702traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
1703do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
1704
cc507455 1705=item (Did you mean &%s instead?)
4633a7c4 1706
413ff9f6
FC
1707(W misc) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or
1708some such.
4633a7c4 1709
cc507455 1710=item (Did you mean "local" instead of "our"?)
33633739 1711
be771a83
GS
1712(W misc) Remember that "our" does not localize the declared global
1713variable. You have declared it again in the same lexical scope, which
1714seems superfluous.
33633739 1715
cc507455 1716=item (Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?)
a0d0e21e 1717
be771a83
GS
1718(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or
1719@hash{@keys}. On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got
1720carried away.
748a9306 1721
7e1af8bc 1722=item Died
5f05dabc
PP
1723
1724(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
075b00aa 1725you called it with no args and C<$@> was empty.
5f05dabc 1726
3cdd684c
TP
1727=item Document contains no data
1728
1729See Server error.
1730
62658f4d
PM
1731=item %s does not define %s::VERSION--version check failed
1732
1733(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but the Module did not
943fc58e 1734define a C<$VERSION>.
62658f4d 1735
49704364
LW
1736=item '/' does not take a repeat count
1737
1738(F) You cannot put a repeat count of any kind right after the '/' code.
1739See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1740
a0d0e21e
LW
1741=item Don't know how to handle magic of type '%s'
1742
1743(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
1744
1745=item do_study: out of memory
1746
1747(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
1748
6df41af2
GS
1749=item (Do you need to predeclare %s?)
1750
56da5a46
RGS
1751(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
1752"%s found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
6df41af2
GS
1753name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
1754because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
be771a83
GS
1755"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're referencing
1756something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have to define the
1757subroutine or package before the current location. You can use an empty
1758"sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward" declaration.
6df41af2 1759
ac206dc8
RGS
1760=item dump() better written as CORE::dump()
1761
1762(W misc) You used the obsolescent C<dump()> built-in function, without fully
1763qualifying it as C<CORE::dump()>. Maybe it's a typo. See L<perlfunc/dump>.
1764
84d78eb7
YO
1765=item dump is not supported
1766
1767(F) Your machine doesn't support dump/undump.
1768
a0d0e21e
LW
1769=item Duplicate free() ignored
1770
be771a83
GS
1771(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had
1772already been freed.
a0d0e21e 1773
1109a392
MHM
1774=item Duplicate modifier '%c' after '%c' in %s
1775
35f0cd76
FC
1776(W unpack) You have applied the same modifier more than once after a
1777type in a pack template. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1109a392 1778
4633a7c4
LW
1779=item elseif should be elsif
1780
fa816bf3
FC
1781(S syntax) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks
1782it's ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method
1783named "elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
4633a7c4
LW
1784unlikely to be what you want.
1785
ab13f0c7
JH
1786=item Empty %s
1787
af6f566e 1788(F) C<\p> and C<\P> are used to introduce a named Unicode property, as
6903afa2 1789described in L<perlunicode> and L<perlre>. You used C<\p> or C<\P> in
af6f566e 1790a regular expression without specifying the property name.
ab13f0c7 1791
85ab1d1d 1792=item entering effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1793
85ab1d1d 1794(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1795effective uids or gids failed.
1796
c038024b
RGS
1797=item %ENV is aliased to %s
1798
1799(F) You're running under taint mode, and the C<%ENV> variable has been
1800aliased to another hash, so it doesn't reflect anymore the state of the
6903afa2 1801program's environment. This is potentially insecure.
c038024b 1802
748a9306
LW
1803=item Error converting file specification %s
1804
5f05dabc 1805(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306 1806specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
be771a83
GS
1807single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've passed
1808an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a case the
1809conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
748a9306 1810
ff56e4f1
KW
1811=item Escape literal pattern white space under /x
1812
1813(D deprecated) You compiled a regular expression pattern with C</x> to
1814ignore white space, and you used, as a literal, one of the characters
1815that Perl plans to eventually treat as white space. The character must
1816be escaped somehow, or it will work differently on a future Perl that
1817does treat it as white space. The easiest way is to insert a backslash
1818immediately before it, or to enclose it with square brackets. This
1819change is to bring Perl into conformance with Unicode recommendations.
1820Here are the five characters that generate this warning:
1821U+0085 NEXT LINE,
1822U+200E LEFT-TO-RIGHT MARK,
1823U+200F RIGHT-TO-LEFT MARK,
1824U+2028 LINE SEPARATOR,
1825and
1826U+2029 PARAGRAPH SEPARATOR.
1827
ad19ef22 1828=item Eval-group in insecure regular expression
e4d48cc9 1829
be771a83
GS
1830(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
1831expression that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which
1832is unsafe. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
e4d48cc9 1833
ad19ef22 1834=item Eval-group not allowed at runtime, use re 'eval' in regex m/%s/
e4d48cc9 1835
be771a83
GS
1836(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the
1837C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the
f11307f5
FC
1838pattern contains interpolated values. Since that is a security risk,
1839it is not allowed. If you insist, you may still do this by using the
1840C<re 'eval'> pragma or by explicitly building the pattern from an
1841interpolated string at run time and using that in an eval(). See
1842L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
e4d48cc9 1843
ad19ef22 1844=item Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval' in regex m/%s/
6df41af2 1845
be771a83
GS
1846(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width
1847assertion, but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'>
1848pragma is in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
6df41af2 1849
6fbc9859
MH
1850=item EVAL without pos change exceeded limit in regex; marked by <-- HERE in
1851m/%s/
1a147d38
YO
1852
1853(F) You used a pattern that nested too many EVAL calls without consuming
6903afa2 1854any text. Restructure the pattern so that text is consumed.
1a147d38 1855
9e3ec65c 1856The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
1a147d38
YO
1857discovered.
1858
fc36a67e
PP
1859=item Excessively long <> operator
1860
1861(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
1862Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
1863filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
1864variable and glob that.
1865
ed9aa3b7
SG
1866=item exec? I'm not *that* kind of operating system
1867
af8bb25a 1868(F) The C<exec> function is not implemented on some systems, e.g., Symbian
6903afa2 1869OS. See L<perlport>.
ed9aa3b7 1870
fe13d51d 1871=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors.
a0d0e21e
LW
1872
1873(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
1874
1875=item Exiting eval via %s
1876
be771a83
GS
1877(W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as a
1878goto, or a loop control statement.
e476b1b5
GS
1879
1880=item Exiting format via %s
1881
9a2ff54b 1882(W exiting) You are exiting a format by unconventional means, such as a
be771a83 1883goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1884
0a753a76
PP
1885=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
1886
be771a83
GS
1887(W exiting) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a
1888sort block or subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a
1889loop control statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
0a753a76 1890
a0d0e21e
LW
1891=item Exiting subroutine via %s
1892
be771a83
GS
1893(W exiting) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such
1894as a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
1895
1896=item Exiting substitution via %s
1897
be771a83
GS
1898(W exiting) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such
1899as a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1900
e7d0b801
FC
1901=item Experimental "%s" subs not enabled
1902
1903(F) To use lexical subs, you must first enable them:
1904
f1d34ca8 1905 no warnings 'experimental::lexical_subs';
e7d0b801
FC
1906 use feature 'lexical_subs';
1907 my sub foo { ... }
1908
7b8d334a
GS
1909=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
1910
be771a83
GS
1911(W misc) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
1912the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
1913usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target package,
1914e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');
7b8d334a 1915
6df41af2
GS
1916=item %s: Expression syntax
1917
be771a83
GS
1918(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1919Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2
GS
1920
1921=item %s failed--call queue aborted
1922
3c10abe3
AG
1923(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a UNITCHECK,
1924CHECK, INIT, or END subroutine. Processing of the remainder of the
1925queue of such routines has been prematurely ended.
6df41af2 1926
7253e4e3 1927=item False [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
73b437c8 1928
be771a83 1929(W regexp) A character class range must start and end at a literal
7253e4e3
RK
1930character, not another character class like C<\d> or C<[:alpha:]>. The "-"
1931in your false range is interpreted as a literal "-". Consider quoting the
9e3ec65c 1932"-", "\-". The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the
7253e4e3 1933problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
73b437c8 1934
1b1ee2ef 1935=item Fatal VMS error (status=%d) at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 1936
be771a83
GS
1937(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS
1938system service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more
1939details. The filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell
1940you which section of the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
1941
1942=item fcntl is not implemented
1943
1944(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
1945PDP-11 or something?
1946
22846ab4
AB
1947=item FETCHSIZE returned a negative value
1948
1949(F) A tied array claimed to have a negative number of elements, which
1950is not possible.
1951
f337b084
TH
1952=item Field too wide in 'u' format in pack
1953
d8b5cc61 1954(W pack) Each line in an uuencoded string starts with a length indicator
6903afa2
FC
1955which can't encode values above 63. So there is no point in asking for
1956a line length bigger than that. Perl will behave as if you specified
5c96f6f7 1957C<u63> as the format.
f337b084 1958
af8c498a 1959=item Filehandle %s opened only for input
a0d0e21e 1960
6c8d78fb
HS
1961(W io) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you intended
1962it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with "+<" or
1963"+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you intended only to
1964write the file, use ">" or ">>". See L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 1965
af8c498a 1966=item Filehandle %s opened only for output
a0d0e21e 1967
6c8d78fb
HS
1968(W io) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing, If
1969you intended it to be a read/write filehandle, you needed to open it
89a1bda8
FC
1970with "+<" or "+>" or "+>>" instead of with ">". If you intended only to
1971read from the file, use "<". See L<perlfunc/open>. Another possibility
1972is that you attempted to open filedescriptor 0 (also known as STDIN) for
1973output (maybe you closed STDIN earlier?).
97828cef
RGS
1974
1975=item Filehandle %s reopened as %s only for input
1976
1977(W io) You opened for reading a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
6903afa2 1978as STDOUT or STDERR. This occurred because you closed STDOUT or STDERR
97828cef
RGS
1979previously.
1980
1981=item Filehandle STDIN reopened as %s only for output
1982
1983(W io) You opened for writing a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
fa816bf3 1984as STDIN. This occurred because you closed STDIN previously.
a0d0e21e
LW
1985
1986=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
1987
1988(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
be771a83
GS
1989a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name that
1990happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or the
1991name.
a0d0e21e 1992
56e90b21
GS
1993=item flock() on closed filehandle %s
1994
be771a83 1995(W closed) The filehandle you're attempting to flock() got itself closed
c289d2f7 1996some time before now. Check your control flow. flock() operates on
be771a83
GS
1997filehandles. Are you attempting to call flock() on a dirhandle by the
1998same name?
56e90b21 1999
6df41af2
GS
2000=item Format not terminated
2001
2002(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
2003to the end of your file without finding such a line.
2004
a0d0e21e
LW
2005=item Format %s redefined
2006
e476b1b5 2007(W redefine) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
a0d0e21e
LW
2008
2009 {
271595cc 2010 no warnings 'redefine';
a0d0e21e
LW
2011 eval "format NAME =...";
2012 }
2013
a0d0e21e
LW
2014=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
2015
e476b1b5 2016(W syntax) You said
a0d0e21e
LW
2017
2018 if ($foo = 123)
2019
2020when you meant
2021
2022 if ($foo == 123)
2023
2024(or something like that).
2025
6df41af2
GS
2026=item %s found where operator expected
2027
56da5a46
RGS
2028(S syntax) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator.
2029If it sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an
be771a83
GS
2030operator, it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an
2031operator or delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
6df41af2 2032
a0d0e21e
LW
2033=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
2034
2035(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
2036
2037=item gethostent not implemented
2038
2039(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
2040because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
2041on the Internet.
2042
69282e91 2043=item get%sname() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2044
be771a83
GS
2045(W closed) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed
2046socket. Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
a0d0e21e 2047
748a9306
LW
2048=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
2049
2050(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
2051C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
2052
6df41af2
GS
2053=item getsockopt() on closed socket %s
2054
be771a83
GS
2055(W closed) You tried to get a socket option on a closed socket. Did you
2056forget to check the return value of your socket() call? See
6df41af2
GS
2057L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
2058
2059=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
2060
a4edf47d 2061(F) You've said "use strict" or "use strict vars", which indicates
30c282f6 2062that all variables must either be lexically scoped (using "my" or "state"),
a4edf47d
GS
2063declared beforehand using "our", or explicitly qualified to say
2064which package the global variable is in (using "::").
6df41af2 2065
e476b1b5
GS
2066=item glob failed (%s)
2067
5ead438e 2068(S glob) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used
73c4e9dc
FC
2069for C<glob> and C<< <*.c> >>. Usually, this means that you supplied a C<glob>
2070pattern that caused the external program to fail and exit with a
be771a83 2071nonzero status. If the message indicates that the abnormal exit
73c4e9dc
FC
2072resulted in a coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C shell)
2073is broken. If so, you should change all of the csh-related variables
2074in config.sh: If you have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as
2075if it were csh (e.g. C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them
2076all empty (except that C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will
be771a83 2077think csh is missing. In either case, after editing config.sh, run
75b44862 2078C<./Configure -S> and rebuild Perl.
e476b1b5 2079
a0d0e21e
LW
2080=item Glob not terminated
2081
2082(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
be771a83
GS
2083a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and
2084not finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out
2085earlier in the line, and you really meant a "less than".
a0d0e21e 2086
bcd05b94 2087=item gmtime(%f) too large
8b56d6ff 2088
e9200be3 2089(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with a number that was larger than
fc003d4b 2090it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong
6903afa2 2091date. This warning is also triggered with NaN (the special
fc003d4b
MS
2092not-a-number value).
2093
bcd05b94 2094=item gmtime(%f) too small
fc003d4b 2095
e9200be3 2096(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with a number that was smaller than
e7a1a147 2097it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong date.
8b56d6ff 2098
6df41af2 2099=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
a0d0e21e 2100
6df41af2
GS
2101(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
2102version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
a0d0e21e
LW
2103
2104=item goto must have label
2105
2106(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
2107unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2108
6651ba0b
FC
2109=item Goto undefined subroutine%s
2110
2111(F) You tried to call a subroutine with C<goto &sub> syntax, but
2112the indicated subroutine hasn't been defined, or if it was, it
2113has since been undefined.
2114
49704364 2115=item ()-group starts with a count
18529408 2116
bca4a986
FC
2117(F) A ()-group started with a count. A count is supposed to follow
2118something: a template character or a ()-group. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
18529408 2119
6fbc9859
MH
2120=item Group name must start with a non-digit word character in regex; marked by
2121<-- HERE in m/%s/
1f4f6bf1
YO
2122
2123(F) Group names must follow the rules for perl identifiers, meaning
2124they must start with a non-digit word character. A common cause of
2125this error is using (?&0) instead of (?0). See L<perlre>.
2126
fe13d51d 2127=item %s had compilation errors.
6df41af2
GS
2128
2129(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
2130
a0d0e21e
LW
2131=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
2132
be771a83
GS
2133(S internal) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought
2134to have existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be
2135created on an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
a0d0e21e
LW
2136
2137=item Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
2138
be771a83
GS
2139(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some
2140spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
a0d0e21e 2141
6df41af2
GS
2142=item %s has too many errors
2143
2144(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
2145Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
2146
252aa082
JH
2147=item Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
2148
e476b1b5 2149(W portable) The hexadecimal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
2150(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
2151L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 2152
82f96200
JL
2153=item -i used with no filenames on the command line, reading from STDIN
2154
2155(S inplace) The C<-i> option was passed on the command line, indicating
2156that the script is intended to edit files inplace, but no files were
0421bbaa
FC
2157given. This is usually a mistake, since editing STDIN inplace doesn't
2158make sense, and can be confusing because it can make perl look like
2159it is hanging when it is really just trying to read from STDIN. You
2160should either pass a filename to edit, or remove C<-i> from the command
2161line. See L<perlrun> for more details.
82f96200 2162
8903cb82
PP
2163=item Identifier too long
2164
2165(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e 2166about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
be771a83
GS
2167names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future versions
2168of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 2169
b33c0c71 2170=item Ignoring zero length \N{} in character class in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
fc8cd66c 2171
b33c0c71 2172(W regexp) Named Unicode character escapes C<(\N{...})> may return a zero-length
6903afa2
FC
2173sequence. When such an escape is used in a character class its
2174behaviour is not well defined. Check that the correct escape has
fc8cd66c
YO
2175been used, and the correct charname handler is in scope.
2176
6df41af2 2177=item Illegal binary digit %s
f675dbe5 2178
6df41af2 2179(F) You used a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
f675dbe5 2180
6df41af2 2181=item Illegal binary digit %s ignored
a0d0e21e 2182
be771a83
GS
2183(W digit) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a
2184binary number. Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the
2185offending digit.
a0d0e21e 2186
6597eb22
FC
2187=item Illegal character after '_' in prototype for %s : %s
2188
2189(W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype declaration.
2190Legal characters in prototypes are $, @, %, *, ;, [, ], &, \, and +.
2191
78d0fecf 2192=item Illegal character \%o (carriage return)
4fdae800 2193
d5898338 2194(F) Perl normally treats carriage returns in the program text as it
be771a83
GS
2195would any other whitespace, which means you should never see this error
2196when Perl was built using standard options. For some reason, your
2197version of Perl appears to have been built without this support. Talk
2198to your Perl administrator.
4fdae800 2199
d37a9538
ST
2200=item Illegal character in prototype for %s : %s
2201
197afce1 2202(W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype declaration.
2e9cc7ef 2203Legal characters in prototypes are $, @, %, *, ;, [, ], &, \, and +.
d37a9538 2204
904d85c5
RGS
2205=item Illegal declaration of anonymous subroutine
2206
2207(F) When using the C<sub> keyword to construct an anonymous subroutine,
6903afa2 2208you must always specify a block of code. See L<perlsub>.
904d85c5 2209
8e742a20
MHM
2210=item Illegal declaration of subroutine %s
2211
6903afa2 2212(F) A subroutine was not declared correctly. See L<perlsub>.
8e742a20 2213
a0d0e21e
LW
2214=item Illegal division by zero
2215
be771a83
GS
2216(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in
2217your logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against
2218meaningless input.
a0d0e21e 2219
6df41af2
GS
2220=item Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
2221
be771a83
GS
2222(W digit) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or
2223A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal
2224number stopped before the illegal character.
6df41af2 2225
a0d0e21e
LW
2226=item Illegal modulus zero
2227
be771a83
GS
2228(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most
2229numbers don't take to this kindly.
a0d0e21e 2230
6df41af2 2231=item Illegal number of bits in vec
399388f4 2232
6df41af2
GS
2233(F) The number of bits in vec() (the third argument) must be a power of
2234two from 1 to 32 (or 64, if your platform supports that).
399388f4
GS
2235
2236=item Illegal octal digit %s
a0d0e21e 2237
d1be9408 2238(F) You used an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
a0d0e21e 2239
399388f4 2240=item Illegal octal digit %s ignored
748a9306 2241
d1be9408 2242(W digit) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
75b44862 2243Interpretation of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
748a9306 2244
fe13d51d 2245=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: -%c
6ff81951 2246
6df41af2 2247(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
646ca9b2 2248following switches: B<-[CDIMUdmtw]>.
6ff81951 2249
6df41af2 2250=item Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
81e118e0 2251
75b44862 2252(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the CRTL's
be771a83
GS
2253internal environ array, and encountered an element without the C<=>
2254delimiter used to separate keys from values. The element is ignored.
09bef843 2255
6df41af2 2256=item Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
54310121 2257
be771a83
GS
2258(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read a logical
2259name or CLI symbol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and
2260didn't see the expected delimiter between key and value, so the line was
2261ignored.
54310121 2262
6df41af2 2263=item (in cleanup) %s
9607fc9c 2264
be771a83
GS
2265(W misc) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised
2266the indicated exception. Since destructors are usually called by the
2267system at arbitrary points during execution, and often a vast number of
2268times, the warning is issued only once for any number of failures that
2269would otherwise result in the same message being repeated.
6df41af2 2270
be771a83
GS
2271Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the C<G_KEEPERR> flag could
2272also result in this warning. See L<perlcall/G_KEEPERR>.
9607fc9c 2273
0d0b4b3b
KW
2274=item Incomplete expression within '(?[ ])' in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2275
2276(F)
2277There was a syntax error within the C<(?[ ])>. This can happen if the
2278expression inside the construct was completely empty, or if there are
2279too many or few operands for the number of operators. Perl is not smart
2280enough to give you a more precise indication as to what is wrong.
2281
6fbc9859
MH
2282=item Inconsistent hierarchy during C3 merge of class '%s': merging failed on
2283parent '%s'
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2284
2285(F) The method resolution order (MRO) of the given class is not
2286C3-consistent, and you have enabled the C3 MRO for this class. See the C3
2287documentation in L<mro> for more information.
2288
979699d9
JH
2289=item In EBCDIC the v-string components cannot exceed 2147483647
2290
2291(F) An error peculiar to EBCDIC. Internally, v-strings are stored as
2292Unicode code points, and encoded in EBCDIC as UTF-EBCDIC. The UTF-EBCDIC
2293encoding is limited to code points no larger than 2147483647 (0x7FFFFFFF).
2294
1a147d38
YO
2295=item Infinite recursion in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2296
2297(F) You used a pattern that references itself without consuming any input
6903afa2 2298text. You should check the pattern to ensure that recursive patterns
1a147d38
YO
2299either consume text or fail.
2300
9e3ec65c 2301The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
1a147d38
YO
2302discovered.
2303
6dbe9451
NC
2304=item Initialization of state variables in list context currently forbidden
2305
6903afa2
FC
2306(F) Currently the implementation of "state" only permits the
2307initialization of scalar variables in scalar context. Re-write
2308C<state ($a) = 42> as C<state $a = 42> to change from list to scalar
2309context. Constructions such as C<state (@a) = foo()> will be
2310supported in a future perl release.
6dbe9451 2311
a0d0e21e
LW
2312=item Insecure dependency in %s
2313
8b1a09fc 2314(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
be771a83
GS
2315The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or
2316setgid, or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The
2317tainting mechanism labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly
2318from the user, who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any
2319such data is used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See
2320L<perlsec> for more information.
a0d0e21e
LW
2321
2322=item Insecure directory in %s
2323
be771a83
GS
2324(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
2325setgid script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by
df98f984
RGS
2326the world. Also, the PATH must not contain any relative directory.
2327See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2328
62f468fc 2329=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2330
2331(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc 2332setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
332d5f78
SR
2333C<$ENV{ENV}>, C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> or C<$ENV{TERM}> are derived from data
2334supplied (or potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set
2335the path to a known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2336
0e9be77f
DM
2337=item Insecure user-defined property %s
2338
2339(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
2340expression that contains a call to a user-defined character property
2341function, i.e. C<\p{IsFoo}> or C<\p{InFoo}>.
2342See L<perlunicode/User-Defined Character Properties> and L<perlsec>.
2343
b9ef414d
FC
2344=item Integer overflow in format string for %s
2345
2346(F) The indexes and widths specified in the format string of C<printf()>
2347or C<sprintf()> are too large. The numbers must not overflow the size of
2348integers for your architecture.
2349
a7ae9550
GS
2350=item Integer overflow in %s number
2351
35928bc5 2352(S overflow) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have specified
be771a83
GS
2353either as a literal or as an argument to hex() or oct() is too big for
2354your architecture, and has been converted to a floating point number.
2355On a 32-bit architecture the largest hexadecimal, octal or binary number
9e24b6e2
JH
2356representable without overflow is 0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or
23570b11111111111111111111111111111111 respectively. Note that Perl
2358transparently promotes all numbers to a floating point representation
2359internally--subject to loss of precision errors in subsequent
2360operations.
bbce6d69 2361
fc89ca81
FC
2362=item Integer overflow in srand
2363
2364(S overflow) The number you have passed to srand is too big to fit
2365in your architecture's integer representation. The number has been
2366replaced with the largest integer supported (0xFFFFFFFF on 32-bit
2367architectures). This means you may be getting less randomness than
2368you expect, because different random seeds above the maximum will
2369return the same sequence of random numbers.
2370
46314c13
JP
2371=item Integer overflow in version
2372
18da5252
FC
2373=item Integer overflow in version %d
2374
784d71ed
FC
2375(W overflow) Some portion of a version initialization is too large for
2376the size of integers for your architecture. This is not a warning
f084e84f 2377because there is no rational reason for a version to try and use an
784d71ed
FC
2378element larger than typically 2**32. This is usually caused by trying
2379to use some odd mathematical operation as a version, like 100/9.
46314c13 2380
7253e4e3 2381=item Internal disaster in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2382
2383(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
9e3ec65c 2384The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
b45f050a
JF
2385discovered.
2386
748a9306
LW
2387=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
2388
be771a83
GS
2389(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number of times
2390you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine whether the current call
2391to C<exec> should affect the current script or a subprocess (see
2392L<perlvms/"exec LIST">). Somehow, this count has become scrambled, so
2393Perl is making a guess and treating this C<exec> as a request to
2394terminate the Perl script and execute the specified command.
748a9306 2395
7253e4e3 2396=item Internal urp in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a 2397
fa816bf3 2398(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser. The
9e3ec65c 2399<-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
7253e4e3 2400discovered.
a0d0e21e 2401
6df41af2
GS
2402=item %s (...) interpreted as function
2403
75b44862 2404(W syntax) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator
be771a83 2405followed by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list
64977eb6 2406operators arguments found inside the parentheses. See
13a2d996 2407L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
6df41af2 2408
09bef843
SB
2409=item Invalid %s attribute: %s
2410
a4a4c9e2 2411(F) The indicated attribute for a subroutine or variable was not recognized
09bef843
SB
2412by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
2413
2414=item Invalid %s attributes: %s
2415
a4a4c9e2 2416(F) The indicated attributes for a subroutine or variable were not
be771a83 2417recognized by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2418
4d7cd482
KW
2419=item Invalid character in \N{...}; marked by <-- HERE in \N{%s}
2420
2421(F) Only certain characters are valid for character names. The
2422indicated one isn't. See L<charnames/CUSTOM ALIASES>.
2423
225fb84f
KW
2424=item Invalid character in charnames alias definition; marked by <-- HERE in '%s
2425
2426(F) You tried to create a custom alias for a character name, with
2427the C<:alias> option to C<use charnames> and the specified character in
2428the indicated name isn't valid. See L<charnames/CUSTOM ALIASES>.
2429
c635e13b
PP
2430=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
2431
be771a83
GS
2432(W printf) Perl does not understand the given format conversion. See
2433L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
c635e13b 2434
6fbc9859
MH
2435=item Invalid escape in the specified encoding in regex; marked by <-- HERE in
2436m/%s/
9e08bc66
ST
2437
2438(W regexp) The numeric escape (for example C<\xHH>) of value < 256
2439didn't correspond to a single character through the conversion
2440from the encoding specified by the encoding pragma.
2441The escape was replaced with REPLACEMENT CHARACTER (U+FFFD) instead.
9e3ec65c 2442The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the
9e08bc66
ST
2443escape was discovered.
2444
8149aa9f
FC
2445=item Invalid hexadecimal number in \N{U+...}
2446
6fbc9859
MH
2447=item Invalid hexadecimal number in \N{U+...} in regex; marked by <-- HERE in
2448m/%s/
aec0ef10 2449
8149aa9f 2450(F) The character constant represented by C<...> is not a valid hexadecimal
74f8e9e3
FC
2451number. Either it is empty, or you tried to use a character other than
24520 - 9 or A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number.
8149aa9f 2453
6651ba0b
FC
2454=item Invalid module name %s with -%c option: contains single ':'
2455
2456(F) The module argument to perl's B<-m> and B<-M> command-line options
2457cannot contain single colons in the module name, but only in the
2458arguments after "=". In other words, B<-MFoo::Bar=:baz> is ok, but
2459B<-MFoo:Bar=baz> is not.
2460
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2461=item Invalid mro name: '%s'
2462
162a3e34
FC
2463(F) You tried to C<mro::set_mro("classname", "foo")> or C<use mro 'foo'>,
2464where C<foo> is not a valid method resolution order (MRO). Currently,
2465the only valid ones supported are C<dfs> and C<c3>, unless you have loaded
2466a module that is a MRO plugin. See L<mro> and L<perlmroapi>.
2c7d6b9c 2467
40e4140b
FC
2468=item Invalid negative number (%s) in chr
2469
2470(W utf8) You passed a negative number to C<chr>. Negative numbers are
2471not valid characters numbers, so it return the Unicode replacement
2472character (U+FFFD).
2473
6651ba0b
FC
2474=item invalid option -D%c, use -D'' to see choices
2475
8ff21bfe
FC
2476(S debugging) Perl was called with invalid debugger flags. Call perl
2477with the B<-D> option with no flags to see the list of acceptable values.
982c4ecb 2478See also L<perlrun/-Dletters>.
6651ba0b 2479
7253e4e3 2480=item Invalid [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2481
2482(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
7253e4e3
RK
2483greater than the maximum character. One possibility is that you forgot the
2484C<{}> from your ending C<\x{}> - C<\x> without the curly braces can go only
9e3ec65c 2485up to C<ff>. The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the
7253e4e3 2486problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 2487
d1573ac7 2488=item Invalid range "%s" in transliteration operator
c2e66d9e
GS
2489
2490(F) The range specified in the tr/// or y/// operator had a minimum
2491character greater than the maximum character. See L<perlop>.
2492
09bef843
SB
2493=item Invalid separator character %s in attribute list
2494
0120eecf 2495(F) Something other than a colon or whitespace was seen between the
be771a83
GS
2496elements of an attribute list. If the previous attribute had a
2497parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that list was terminated too soon.
2498See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2499
b4581f09
JH
2500=item Invalid separator character %s in PerlIO layer specification %s
2501
2bfc5f71
FC
2502(W layer) When pushing layers onto the Perl I/O system, something other
2503than a colon or whitespace was seen between the elements of a layer list.
b4581f09
JH
2504If the previous attribute had a parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that
2505list was terminated too soon.
2506
2c86d456
DG
2507=item Invalid strict version format (%s)
2508
fa816bf3 2509(F) A version number did not meet the "strict" criteria for versions.
2c86d456
DG
2510A "strict" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2511decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
2512v-string with a leading 'v' character and at least three components.
a6485a24 2513The parenthesized text indicates which criteria were not met.
2c86d456
DG
2514See the L<version> module for more details on allowed version formats.
2515
49704364 2516=item Invalid type '%s' in %s
96e4d5b1 2517
49704364
LW
2518(F) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type.
2519See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6728c851 2520
49704364 2521(W) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type but used to be
75b44862 2522silently ignored.
96e4d5b1 2523
2c86d456
DG
2524=item Invalid version format (%s)
2525
fa816bf3 2526(F) A version number did not meet the "lax" criteria for versions.
2c86d456
DG
2527A "lax" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2528decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
fa816bf3
FC
2529v-string. If the v-string has fewer than three components, it
2530must have a leading 'v' character. Otherwise, the leading 'v' is
2531optional. Both decimal and dotted-decimal versions may have a
2532trailing "alpha" component separated by an underscore character
2533after a fractional or dotted-decimal component. The parenthesized
2534text indicates which criteria were not met. See the L<version> module
2535for more details on allowed version formats.
46314c13 2536
798ae1b7
DG
2537=item Invalid version object
2538
fa816bf3
FC
2539(F) The internal structure of the version object was invalid.
2540Perhaps the internals were modified directly in some way or
2541an arbitrary reference was blessed into the "version" class.
798ae1b7 2542
a0d0e21e
LW
2543=item ioctl is not implemented
2544
2545(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
2546strange for a machine that supports C.
2547
c289d2f7
JH
2548=item ioctl() on unopened %s
2549
2550(W unopened) You tried ioctl() on a filehandle that was never opened.
34b6fd5e 2551Check your control flow and number of arguments.
c289d2f7 2552
fe13d51d 2553=item IO layers (like '%s') unavailable
363c40c4
SB
2554
2555(F) Your Perl has not been configured to have PerlIO, and therefore
34b6fd5e 2556you cannot use IO layers. To have PerlIO, Perl must be configured
363c40c4
SB
2557with 'useperlio'.
2558
80cbd5ad
JH
2559=item IO::Socket::atmark not implemented on this architecture
2560
2561(F) Your machine doesn't implement the sockatmark() functionality,
34b6fd5e 2562neither as a system call nor an ioctl call (SIOCATMARK).
80cbd5ad 2563
b4581f09
JH
2564=item $* is no longer supported
2565
a58ac25e 2566(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$*>, deprecated in older
6903afa2 2567perls, has been removed as of 5.9.0 and is no longer supported. In
a58ac25e
FC
2568previous versions of perl the use of C<$*> enabled or disabled multi-line
2569matching within a string.
4fd19576
B
2570
2571Instead of using C<$*> you should use the C</m> (and maybe C</s>) regexp
6903afa2
FC
2572modifiers. You can enable C</m> for a lexical scope (even a whole file)
2573with C<use re '/m'>. (In older versions: when C<$*> was set to a true value
570dedd4 2574then all regular expressions behaved as if they were written using C</m>.)
b4581f09 2575
8ae1fe26
RGS
2576=item $# is no longer supported
2577
a58ac25e 2578(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$#>, deprecated in older
6903afa2 2579perls, has been removed as of 5.9.3 and is no longer supported. You
a58ac25e 2580should use the printf/sprintf functions instead.
8ae1fe26 2581
ccf3535a 2582=item '%s' is not a code reference
6ad11d81 2583
6903afa2
FC
2584(W overload) The second (fourth, sixth, ...) argument of
2585overload::constant needs to be a code reference. Either
2586an anonymous subroutine, or a reference to a subroutine.
6ad11d81 2587
ccf3535a 2588=item '%s' is not an overloadable type
6ad11d81 2589
04a80ee0
RGS
2590(W overload) You tried to overload a constant type the overload package is
2591unaware of.
6ad11d81 2592
aec0ef10 2593=item Junk on end of regexp in regex m/%s/
a0d0e21e
LW
2594
2595(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
2596
2597=item Label not found for "last %s"
2598
be771a83
GS
2599(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a loop
2600of that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2601L<perlfunc/last>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2602
2603=item Label not found for "next %s"
2604
2605(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
2606that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2607L<perlfunc/last>.
2608
2609=item Label not found for "redo %s"
2610
2611(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
2612that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2613L<perlfunc/last>.
2614
85ab1d1d 2615=item leaving effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 2616
85ab1d1d 2617(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
2618effective uids or gids failed.
2619
49704364
LW
2620=item length/code after end of string in unpack
2621
d7f8936a 2622(F) While unpacking, the string buffer was already used up when an unpack
6903afa2
FC
2623length/code combination tried to obtain more data. This results in
2624an undefined value for the length. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
49704364 2625
e508c8a4
MH
2626=item length() used on %s
2627
0d46a4e7
FC
2628(W syntax) You used length() on either an array or a hash when you
2629probably wanted a count of the items.
e508c8a4
MH
2630
2631Array size can be obtained by doing:
2632
2633 scalar(@array);
2634
2635The number of items in a hash can be obtained by doing:
2636
2637 scalar(keys %hash);
2638
f0e67a1d
Z
2639=item Lexing code attempted to stuff non-Latin-1 character into Latin-1 input
2640
2641(F) An extension is attempting to insert text into the current parse
6903afa2
FC
2642(using L<lex_stuff_pvn|perlapi/lex_stuff_pvn> or similar), but tried to insert a character that
2643couldn't be part of the current input. This is an inherent pitfall
2644of the stuffing mechanism, and one of the reasons to avoid it. Where
2645it is necessary to stuff, stuffing only plain ASCII is recommended.
f0e67a1d
Z
2646
2647=item Lexing code internal error (%s)
2648
2649(F) Lexing code supplied by an extension violated the lexer's API in a
2650detectable way.
2651
69282e91 2652=item listen() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2653
be771a83
GS
2654(W closed) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget
2655to check the return value of your socket() call? See
2656L<perlfunc/listen>.
a0d0e21e 2657
6651ba0b
FC
2658=item List form of piped open not implemented
2659
2660(F) On some platforms, notably Windows, the three-or-more-arguments
2661form of C<open> does not support pipes, such as C<open($pipe, '|-', @args)>.
2662Use the two-argument C<open($pipe, '|prog arg1 arg2...')> form instead.
2663
bcd05b94 2664=item localtime(%f) too large
8b56d6ff 2665
e9200be3 2666(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with a number that was larger
fc003d4b 2667than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
6903afa2 2668wrong date. This warning is also triggered with NaN (the special
fc003d4b
MS
2669not-a-number value).
2670
bcd05b94 2671=item localtime(%f) too small
fc003d4b 2672
e9200be3 2673(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with a number that was smaller
fc003d4b 2674than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
e7a1a147 2675wrong date.
8b56d6ff 2676
58e23c8d 2677=item Lookbehind longer than %d not implemented in regex m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
2678
2679(F) There is currently a limit on the length of string which lookbehind can
6903afa2 2680handle. This restriction may be eased in a future release.
2e50fd82 2681
b88df990
NC
2682=item Lost precision when %s %f by 1
2683
e63e8a91
FC
2684(W imprecision) The value you attempted to increment or decrement by one
2685is too large for the underlying floating point representation to store
2686accurately, hence the target of C<++> or C<--> is unchanged. Perl issues this
2687warning because it has already switched from integers to floating point
2688when values are too large for integers, and now even floating point is
2689insufficient. You may wish to switch to using L<Math::BigInt> explicitly.
b88df990 2690
93fad930 2691=item lstat() on filehandle%s
2f7da168
RK
2692
2693(W io) You tried to do an lstat on a filehandle. What did you mean
2694by that? lstat() makes sense only on filenames. (Perl did a fstat()
2695instead on the filehandle.)
2696
345d70e3 2697=item lvalue attribute %s already-defined subroutine
bb3abb05 2698
345d70e3
FC
2699(W misc) Although L<attributes.pm|attributes> allows this, turning the lvalue
2700attribute on or off on a Perl subroutine that is already defined
2701does not always work properly. It may or may not do what you
2702want, depending on what code is inside the subroutine, with exact
2703details subject to change between Perl versions. Only do this
2704if you really know what you are doing.
bb3abb05 2705
885ef6f5
GG
2706=item lvalue attribute ignored after the subroutine has been defined
2707
345d70e3
FC
2708(W misc) Using the C<:lvalue> declarative syntax to make a Perl
2709subroutine an lvalue subroutine after it has been defined is
2710not permitted. To make the subroutine an lvalue subroutine,
2711add the lvalue attribute to the definition, or put the C<sub
2712foo :lvalue;> declaration before the definition.
2713
2714See also L<attributes.pm|attributes>.
885ef6f5 2715
2db62bbc 2716=item Malformed integer in [] in pack
49704364 2717
2db62bbc 2718(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
49704364
LW
2719are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2720
2721=item Malformed integer in [] in unpack
2722
2db62bbc 2723(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
49704364
LW
2724are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2725
6df41af2
GS
2726=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
2727
2728(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
2729
2730 prefix1;prefix2
2731
2732or
6df41af2
GS
2733 prefix1 prefix2
2734
be771a83
GS
2735with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix of
2736a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error may
2737appear if components are not found, or are too long. See
fecfaeb8 2738"PERLLIB_PREFIX" in L<perlos2>.
6df41af2 2739
2f758a16
ST
2740=item Malformed prototype for %s: %s
2741
d37a9538
ST
2742(F) You tried to use a function with a malformed prototype. The
2743syntax of function prototypes is given a brief compile-time check for
2744obvious errors like invalid characters. A more rigorous check is run
2745when the function is called.
2f758a16 2746
ba210ebe
JH
2747=item Malformed UTF-8 character (%s)
2748
4d6f11e5 2749(S utf8)(F) Perl detected a string that didn't comply with UTF-8
2575c402 2750encoding rules, even though it had the UTF8 flag on.
ba210ebe 2751
2575c402
JW
2752One possible cause is that you set the UTF8 flag yourself for data that
2753you thought to be in UTF-8 but it wasn't (it was for example legacy
6903afa2 27548-bit data). To guard against this, you can use Encode::decode_utf8.
2575c402
JW
2755
2756If you use the C<:encoding(UTF-8)> PerlIO layer for input, invalid byte
2757sequences are handled gracefully, but if you use C<:utf8>, the flag is
2758set without validating the data, possibly resulting in this error
2759message.
2760
2761See also L<Encode/"Handling Malformed Data">.
901b21bf 2762
107160e2
KW
2763=item Malformed UTF-8 character immediately after '%s'
2764
2765(F) You said C<use utf8>, but the program file doesn't comply with UTF-8
2766encoding rules. The message prints out the properly encoded characters
2767just before the first bad one. If C<utf8> warnings are enabled, a
2768warning is generated that gives more details about the type of
2769malformation.
2770
bde9e88d 2771=item Malformed UTF-8 returned by \N{%s} immediately after '%s'
ff3f963a
KW
2772
2773(F) The charnames handler returned malformed UTF-8.
2774
4a5d3a93
FC
2775=item Malformed UTF-8 string in '%c' format in unpack
2776
2777(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2778rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2779
f337b084
TH
2780=item Malformed UTF-8 string in pack
2781
2782(F) You tried to pack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2783rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2784
2785=item Malformed UTF-8 string in unpack
2786
2787(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2788rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2789
4a5d3a93 2790=item Malformed UTF-16 surrogate
f337b084 2791
4a5d3a93
FC
2792(F) Perl thought it was reading UTF-16 encoded character data but while
2793doing it Perl met a malformed Unicode surrogate.
2794
2795=item %s matches null string many times in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2796
2797(W regexp) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
2798regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. The <-- HERE
9e3ec65c 2799shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was discovered.
4a5d3a93 2800See L<perlre>.
f337b084 2801
de42a5a9 2802=item Maximal count of pending signals (%u) exceeded
2563cec5 2803
6903afa2 2804(F) Perl aborted due to too high a number of signals pending. This
2563cec5
IZ
2805usually indicates that your operating system tried to deliver signals
2806too fast (with a very high priority), starving the perl process from
2807resources it would need to reach a point where it can process signals
6903afa2 2808safely. (See L<perlipc/"Deferred Signals (Safe Signals)">.)
2563cec5 2809
25f58aea
PN
2810=item "%s" may clash with future reserved word
2811
2812(W) This warning may be due to running a perl5 script through a perl4
2813interpreter, especially if the word that is being warned about is
2814"use" or "my".
2815
0d2487cd 2816=item '%' may not be used in pack
6df41af2
GS
2817
2818(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
be771a83
GS
2819checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other way.
2820See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
6df41af2 2821
a0d0e21e
LW
2822=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
2823
2824(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
e7ea3e70 2825doesn't resolve to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 2826
3cdd684c
TP
2827=item Method %s not permitted
2828
2829See Server error.
2830
a0d0e21e
LW
2831=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
2832
2833(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
2834by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
2835ended earlier on the current line.
2836
2837=item Misplaced _ in number
2838
d4ced10d
JH
2839(W syntax) An underscore (underbar) in a numeric constant did not
2840separate two digits.
a0d0e21e 2841
7baa4690
HS
2842=item Missing argument in %s
2843
2844(W uninitialized) A printf-type format required more arguments than were
2845supplied.
2846
9e81e6a1
RGS
2847=item Missing argument to -%c
2848
2849(F) The argument to the indicated command line switch must follow
2850immediately after the switch, without intervening spaces.
2851
ff3f963a 2852=item Missing braces on \N{}
423cee85 2853
aec0ef10
FC
2854=item Missing braces on \N{} in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2855
4a2d328f 2856(F) Wrong syntax of character name literal C<\N{charname}> within
532cb70d
FC
2857double-quotish context. This can also happen when there is a space
2858(or comment) between the C<\N> and the C<{> in a regex with the C</x> modifier.
2859This modifier does not change the requirement that the brace immediately
2860follow the C<\N>.
423cee85 2861
f0a2b745
KW
2862=item Missing braces on \o{}
2863
2864(F) A C<\o> must be followed immediately by a C<{> in double-quotish context.
2865
a0d0e21e
LW
2866=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
2867
2868(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
2869"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
2870
06eaf0bc
GS
2871=item Missing command in piped open
2872
be771a83
GS
2873(W pipe) You used the C<open(FH, "| command")> or
2874C<open(FH, "command |")> construction, but the command was missing or
2875blank.
06eaf0bc 2876
961ce445
RGS
2877=item Missing control char name in \c
2878
2879(F) A double-quoted string ended with "\c", without the required control
2880character name.
2881
8767b1ab 2882=item Missing name in "%s sub"
6df41af2 2883
be771a83
GS
2884(F) The reserved syntax for lexically scoped subroutines requires that
2885they have a name with which they can be found.
6df41af2
GS
2886
2887=item Missing $ on loop variable
2888
be771a83
GS
2889(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables
2890are always mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it
2891can vary from one line to the next.
6df41af2 2892
cc507455 2893=item (Missing operator before %s?)
748a9306 2894
56da5a46
RGS
2895(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2896"%s found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
748a9306 2897
aec0ef10 2898=item Missing right brace on \%c{} in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
ab13f0c7 2899
ff3f963a
KW
2900(F) Missing right brace in C<\x{...}>, C<\p{...}>, C<\P{...}>, or C<\N{...}>.
2901
4a68bf9d 2902=item Missing right brace on \N{} or unescaped left brace after \N
ff3f963a 2903
d32207c9
FC
2904(F) C<\N> has two meanings.
2905
2906The traditional one has it followed by a name enclosed in braces,
2907meaning the character (or sequence of characters) given by that
fa816bf3 2908name. Thus C<\N{ASTERISK}> is another way of writing C<*>, valid in both
d32207c9
FC
2909double-quoted strings and regular expression patterns. In patterns,
2910it doesn't have the meaning an unescaped C<*> does.
2911
2912Starting in Perl 5.12.0, C<\N> also can have an additional meaning (only)
2913in patterns, namely to match a non-newline character. (This is short
2914for C<[^\n]>, and like C<.> but is not affected by the C</s> regex modifier.)
2915
2916This can lead to some ambiguities. When C<\N> is not followed immediately
2917by a left brace, Perl assumes the C<[^\n]> meaning. Also, if the braces
2918form a valid quantifier such as C<\N{3}> or C<\N{5,}>, Perl assumes that this
2919means to match the given quantity of non-newlines (in these examples,
29203; and 5 or more, respectively). In all other case, where there is a
2921C<\N{> and a matching C<}>, Perl assumes that a character name is desired.
2922
2923However, if there is no matching C<}>, Perl doesn't know if it was
2924mistakenly omitted, or if C<[^\n]{> was desired, and raises this error.
2925If you meant the former, add the right brace; if you meant the latter,
2926escape the brace with a backslash, like so: C<\N\{>
ab13f0c7 2927
d98d5fff 2928=item Missing right curly or square bracket
a0d0e21e 2929
be771a83
GS
2930(F) The lexer counted more opening curly or square brackets than closing
2931ones. As a general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place you
2932were last editing.
a0d0e21e 2933
6df41af2
GS
2934=item (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
2935
56da5a46
RGS
2936(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2937"%s found where operator expected". Don't automatically put a semicolon on
6df41af2
GS
2938the previous line just because you saw this message.
2939
a0d0e21e
LW
2940=item Modification of a read-only value attempted
2941
2942(F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
5f05dabc 2943constant. You didn't, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
a0d0e21e
LW
2944catches that. But an easy way to do the same thing is:
2945
2946 sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
2947 mod(2);
2948
2949Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.
2950
c5674021
PDF
2951Yet another way is to assign to a C<foreach> loop I<VAR> when I<VAR>
2952is aliased to a constant in the look I<LIST>:
2953
b7e4ecc1
FC
2954 $x = 1;
2955 foreach my $n ($x, 2) {
2956 $n *= 2; # modifies the $x, but fails on attempt to
2957 } # modify the 2
c5674021 2958
7a4340ed 2959=item Modification of non-creatable array value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2960
2961(F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
2962subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the array
2963backwards.
2964
7a4340ed 2965=item Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e 2966
be771a83
GS
2967(P) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it
2968couldn't be created for some peculiar reason.
a0d0e21e
LW
2969
2970=item Module name must be constant
2971
2972(F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".
2973
be98fb35 2974=item Module name required with -%c option
6df41af2 2975
be98fb35
GS
2976(F) The C<-M> or C<-m> options say that Perl should load some module, but
2977you omitted the name of the module. Consult L<perlrun> for full details
2978about C<-M> and C<-m>.
6df41af2 2979
fe13d51d 2980=item More than one argument to '%s' open
ed9aa3b7 2981
6903afa2 2982(F) The C<open> function has been asked to open multiple files. This
ed9aa3b7
SG
2983can happen if you are trying to open a pipe to a command that takes a
2984list of arguments, but have forgotten to specify a piped open mode.
2985See L<perlfunc/open> for details.
2986
a0d0e21e
LW
2987=item msg%s not implemented
2988
2989(F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.
2990
2991=item Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
2992
75b44862
GS
2993(W syntax) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like C<$foo[1,2,3]>.
2994They're written like C<$foo[1][2][3]>, as in C.
8b1a09fc 2995
49704364 2996=item '/' must follow a numeric type in unpack
6df41af2 2997
49704364
LW
2998(F) You had an unpack template that contained a '/', but this did not
2999follow some unpack specification producing a numeric value.
3000See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6df41af2
GS
3001
3002=item "my sub" not yet implemented
3003
be771a83
GS
3004(F) Lexically scoped subroutines are not yet implemented. Don't try
3005that yet.
6df41af2 3006
fd1b7234 3007=item "my" variable %s can't be in a package
6df41af2 3008
be771a83
GS
3009(F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make
3010sense to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the front. Use
3011local() if you want to localize a package variable.
09bef843 3012
8149aa9f
FC
3013=item Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
3014
3015(W once) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable names.
3016If you had a good reason for having a unique name, then just mention it
3017again somehow to suppress the message. The C<our> declaration is
3018provided for this purpose.
3019
3020NOTE: This warning detects symbols that have been used only once so $c, @c,
3021%c, *c, &c, sub c{}, c(), and c (the filehandle or format) are considered
3022the same; if a program uses $c only once but also uses any of the others it
3023will not trigger this warning.
3024
6fbc9859
MH
3025=item \N in a character class must be a named character: \N{...} in regex;
3026marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
ff3f963a 3027
c3c41406 3028(F) The new (5.12) meaning of C<\N> as C<[^\n]> is not valid in a bracketed
f4e361c7
FC
3029character class, for the same reason that C<.> in a character class loses
3030its specialness: it matches almost everything, which is probably not
3031what you want.
c3c41406 3032
aec0ef10 3033=item \N{NAME} must be resolved by the lexer in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
c3c41406 3034
f4e361c7
FC
3035(F) When compiling a regex pattern, an unresolved named character or
3036sequence was encountered. This can happen in any of several ways that
3037bypass the lexer, such as using single-quotish context, or an extra
7fae04b9 3038backslash in double-quotish:
c3c41406
KW
3039
3040 $re = '\N{SPACE}'; # Wrong!
b09c05e6 3041 $re = "\\N{SPACE}"; # Wrong!
c3c41406
KW
3042 /$re/;
3043
b09c05e6 3044Instead, use double-quotes with a single backslash:
c3c41406
KW
3045
3046 $re = "\N{SPACE}"; # ok
3047 /$re/;
3048
3049The lexer can be bypassed as well by creating the pattern from smaller
3050components:
3051
3052 $re = '\N';
3053 /${re}{SPACE}/; # Wrong!
3054
3055It's not a good idea to split a construct in the middle like this, and it
3056doesn't work here. Instead use the solution above.
3057
3058Finally, the message also can happen under the C</x> regex modifier when the
3059C<\N> is separated by spaces from the C<{>, in which case, remove the spaces.
3060
3061 /\N {SPACE}/x; # Wrong!
3062 /\N{SPACE}/x; # ok
ff3f963a 3063
0d0b4b3b
KW
3064=item Need exactly 3 octal digits in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
3065
3066(F) Within S<C<(?[ ])>>, all constants interpreted as octal need to be
3067exactly 3 digits long. This helps catch some ambiguities. If your
3068constant is too short, add leading zeros, like
3069
3070 (?[ [ \078 ] ]) # Syntax error!
3071 (?[ [ \0078 ] ]) # Works
3072 (?[ [ \007 8 ] ]) # Clearer
3073
3074The maximum number this construct can express is C<\777>. If you
3075need a larger one, you need to use L<\o{}|perlrebackslash/Octal escapes>
3076instead. If you meant two separate things, you need to separate them
3077
3078 (?[ [ \7776 ] ]) # Syntax error!
3079 (?[ [ \o{7776} ] ]) # One meaning
3080 (?[ [ \777 6 ] ]) # Another meaning
3081 (?[ [ \777 \006 ] ]) # Still another
3082
49704364
LW
3083=item Negative '/' count in unpack
3084
3085(F) The length count obtained from a length/code unpack operation was
3086negative. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3087
a0d0e21e
LW
3088=item Negative length
3089
be771a83
GS
3090(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer
3091length that is less than 0. This is difficult to imagine.
a0d0e21e 3092
ed9aa3b7
SG
3093=item Negative offset to vec in lvalue context
3094
3095(F) When C<vec> is called in an lvalue context, the second argument must be
3096greater than or equal to zero.
3097
7253e4e3 3098=item Nested quantifiers in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 3099
6903afa2 3100(F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses.
9e3ec65c
FC
3101So things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal. The <-- HERE shows
3102whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was discovered.
a0d0e21e 3103
7253e4e3 3104Note that the minimal matching quantifiers, C<*?>, C<+?>, and
be771a83 3105C<??> appear to be nested quantifiers, but aren't. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 3106
6df41af2 3107=item %s never introduced
a0d0e21e 3108
be771a83
GS
3109(S internal) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of
3110scope before it could possibly have been used.
a0d0e21e 3111
2c7d6b9c
RGS
3112=item next::method/next::can/maybe::next::method cannot find enclosing method
3113
3114(F) C<next::method> needs to be called within the context of a
3115real method in a real package, and it could not find such a context.
3116See L<mro>.
3117
a0d0e21e
LW
3118=item No %s allowed while running setuid
3119
be771a83
GS
3120(F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or
3121setgid script to even be allowed to attempt. Generally speaking there
3122will be another way to do what you want that is, if not secure, at least
3123securable. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 3124
6651ba0b
FC
3125=item No code specified for -%c
3126
3127(F) Perl's B<-e> and B<-E> command-line options require an argument. If
3128you want to run an empty program, pass the empty string as a separate
3129argument or run a program consisting of a single 0 or 1:
3130
3131 perl -e ""
3132 perl -e0
3133 perl -e1
3134
a0d0e21e
LW
3135=item No comma allowed after %s
3136
6903afa2
FC
3137(F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is
3138not allowed to have a comma between that and the following arguments.
a0d0e21e
LW
3139Otherwise it'd be just another one of the arguments.
3140
6903afa2
FC
3141One possible cause for this is that you expected to have imported
3142a constant to your name space with B<use> or B<import> while no such
3143importing took place, it may for example be that your operating
3144system does not support that particular constant. Hopefully you did
3145use an explicit import list for the constants you expect to see;
3146please see L<perlfunc/use> and L<perlfunc/import>. While an
3147explicit import list would probably have caught this error earlier
3148it naturally does not remedy the fact that your operating system
3149still does not support that constant. Maybe you have a typo in
3150the constants of the symbol import list of B<use> or B<import> or in the
3151constant name at the line where this error was triggered?
0a753a76 3152
748a9306
LW
3153=item No command into which to pipe on command line
3154
be771a83
GS
3155(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
3156redirection, and found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it
3157doesn't know where you want to pipe the output from this command.
748a9306 3158
a0d0e21e
LW
3159=item No DB::DB routine defined
3160
be771a83 3161(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
f7af5ce1 3162for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
ccafdc96
RGS
3163module) didn't define a routine to be called at the beginning of each
3164statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
3165
3166=item No dbm on this machine
3167
3168(P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine should
5f05dabc 3169supply dbm nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM. See L<SDBM_File>.
a0d0e21e 3170
ccafdc96 3171=item No DB::sub routine defined
a0d0e21e 3172
ccafdc96
RGS
3173(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
3174for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
3175module) didn't define a C<DB::sub> routine to be called at the beginning
3176of each ordinary subroutine call.
a0d0e21e 3177
6651ba0b
FC
3178=item No directory specified for -I
3179
3180(F) The B<-I> command-line switch requires a directory name as part of the
3181I<same> argument. Use B<-Ilib>, for instance. B<-I lib> won't work.
3182
c47ff5f1 3183=item No error file after 2> or 2>> on command line
748a9306 3184
be771a83
GS
3185(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
3186redirection, and found a '2>' or a '2>>' on the command line, but can't
3187find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stderr.
748a9306 3188
49704364
LW
3189=item No group ending character '%c' found in template
3190
3191(F) A pack or unpack template has an opening '(' or '[' without its
6903afa2 3192matching counterpart. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
49704364 3193
c47ff5f1 3194=item No input file after < on command line
748a9306 3195
be771a83
GS
3196(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
3197redirection, and found a '<' on the command line, but can't find the
3198name of the file from which to read data for stdin.
748a9306 3199
2c7d6b9c
RGS
3200=item No next::method '%s' found for %s
3201
3202(F) C<next::method> found no further instances of this method name
3203in the remaining packages of the MRO of this class. If you don't want
3204it throwing an exception, use C<maybe::next::method>
fa816bf3 3205or C<next::can>. See L<mro>.
2c7d6b9c 3206
6df41af2
GS
3207=item "no" not allowed in expression
3208
be771a83
GS
3209(F) The "no" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and
3210returns no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
6df41af2 3211
c47ff5f1 3212=item No output file after > on command line
748a9306 3213
be771a83
GS
3214(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
3215redirection, and found a lone '>' at the end of the command line, so it
3216doesn't know where you wanted to redirect stdout.
748a9306 3217
c47ff5f1 3218=item No output file after > or >> on command line
748a9306 3219
be771a83
GS
3220(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
3221redirection, and found a '>' or a '>>' on the command line, but can't
3222find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stdout.
748a9306 3223
1ec3e8de
GS
3224=item No package name allowed for variable %s in "our"
3225
be771a83
GS
3226(F) Fully qualified variable names are not allowed in "our"
3227declarations, because that doesn't make much sense under existing
3228semantics. Such syntax is reserved for future extensions.
1ec3e8de 3229
a0d0e21e
LW
3230=item No Perl script found in input
3231
3232(F) You called C<perl -x>, but no line was found in the file beginning
3233with #! and containing the word "perl".
3234
3235=item No setregid available
3236
3237(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setregid() call for
3238your system.
3239
3240=item No setreuid available
3241
3242(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setreuid() call for
3243your system.
3244
e75d1f10
RD
3245=item No such class field "%s" in variable %s of type %s
3246
b7e4ecc1
FC
3247(F) You tried to access a key from a hash through the indicated typed
3248variable but that key is not allowed by the package of the same type.
3249The indicated package has restricted the set of allowed keys using the
3250L<fields> pragma.
e75d1f10 3251
2c692339
RGS
3252=item No such class %s
3253
dc7e5945
FC
3254(F) You provided a class qualifier in a "my", "our" or "state"
3255declaration, but this class doesn't exist at this point in your program.
2c692339 3256
3c20a832
SP
3257=item No such hook: %s
3258
dc7e5945
FC
3259(F) You specified a signal hook that was not recognized by Perl.
3260Currently, Perl accepts C<__DIE__> and C<__WARN__> as valid signal hooks.
3c20a832 3261
6df41af2
GS
3262=item No such pipe open
3263
3264(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The internal routine my_pclose() tried to
be771a83
GS
3265close a pipe which hadn't been opened. This should have been caught
3266earlier as an attempt to close an unopened filehandle.
6df41af2 3267
a0d0e21e
LW
3268=item No such signal: SIG%s
3269
be771a83
GS
3270(W signal) You specified a signal name as a subscript to %SIG that was
3271not recognized. Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal
3272names on your system.
a0d0e21e
LW
3273
3274=item Not a CODE reference
3275
3276(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
3277subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
3278use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
3279also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 3280
a0d0e21e
LW
3281=item Not a GLOB reference
3282
be771a83
GS
3283(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a "typeglob" (that is, a
3284symbol table entry that looks like C<*foo>), but found a reference to
3285something else instead. You can use the ref() function to find out what
3286kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3287
3288=item Not a HASH reference
3289
be771a83
GS
3290(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a hash value, but found a
3291reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function to
3292find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 3293
6df41af2
GS
3294=item Not an ARRAY reference