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1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
d1d15184 11 (D) A deprecation (enabled by default).
00eb3f2b 12 (S) A severe warning (enabled by default).
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13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
75b44862 18The majority of messages from the first three classifications above
64977eb6 19(W, D & S) can be controlled using the C<warnings> pragma.
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20
21If a message can be controlled by the C<warnings> pragma, its warning
22category is included with the classification letter in the description
466416ed 23below. E.g. C<(W closed)> means a warning in the C<closed> category.
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24
25Optional warnings are enabled by using the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-w>
fa816bf3 26and B<-W> switches. Warnings may be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}>
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27to a reference to a routine that will be called on each warning instead
28of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
29
b7eceb5b 30Severe warnings are always enabled, unless they are explicitly disabled
e476b1b5 31with the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-X> switch.
4438c4b7 32
748a9306 33Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
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34L<perlfunc/eval>. In almost all cases, warnings may be selectively
35disabled or promoted to fatal errors using the C<warnings> pragma.
36See L<warnings>.
a0d0e21e 37
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38The messages are in alphabetical order, without regard to upper or
39lower-case. Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are
40denoted with a %s or other printf-style escape. These escapes are
41ignored by the alphabetical order, as are all characters other than
42letters. To look up your message, just ignore anything that is not a
43letter.
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44
45=over 4
46
6df41af2 47=item accept() on closed socket %s
33633739 48
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49(W closed) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget
50to check the return value of your socket() call? See
51L<perlfunc/accept>.
33633739 52
de42a5a9 53=item Allocation too large: %x
a0d0e21e 54
6df41af2 55(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e 56
04f74579 57=item '%c' allowed only after types %s in %s
ef54e1a4 58
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59(F) The modifiers '!', '<' and '>' are allowed in pack() or unpack() only
60after certain types. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
ef54e1a4 61
6df41af2 62=item Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
43192e07 63
75b44862 64(W ambiguous) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl
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65keyword, and you have used the name without qualification for calling
66one or the other. Perl decided to call the builtin because the
67subroutine is not imported.
43192e07 68
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69To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand
70before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.
71Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's
72imported with the C<use subs> pragma).
43192e07 73
6df41af2 74To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the C<CORE::> prefix
496a33f5 75on the operator (e.g. C<CORE::log($x)>) or declare the subroutine
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76to be an object method (see L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes"> or
77L<attributes>).
43192e07 78
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79=item Ambiguous range in transliteration operator
80
81(F) You wrote something like C<tr/a-z-0//> which doesn't mean anything at
82all. To include a C<-> character in a transliteration, put it either
83first or last. (In the past, C<tr/a-z-0//> was synonymous with
84C<tr/a-y//>, which was probably not what you would have expected.)
85
6df41af2 86=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
43192e07 87
7c7af292 88(S ambiguous) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
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89you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
90a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
a0d0e21e 91
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92=item Ambiguous use of -%s resolved as -&%s()
93
94(S ambiguous) You wrote something like C<-foo>, which might be the
95string C<"-foo">, or a call to the function C<foo>, negated. If you meant
96the string, just write C<"-foo">. If you meant the function call,
97write C<-foo()>.
98
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99=item Ambiguous use of %c resolved as operator %c
100
7c7af292 101(S ambiguous) C<%>, C<&>, and C<*> are both infix operators (modulus,
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102bitwise and, and multiplication) I<and> initial special characters
103(denoting hashes, subroutines and typeglobs), and you said something
104like C<*foo * foo> that might be interpreted as either of them. We
105assumed you meant the infix operator, but please try to make it more
106clear -- in the example given, you might write C<*foo * foo()> if you
107really meant to multiply a glob by the result of calling a function.
d8225693 108
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109=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s} resolved to %c%s
110
111(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<@{foo}>, which might be
112asking for the variable C<@foo>, or it might be calling a function
113named foo, and dereferencing it as an array reference. If you wanted
1cecf2c0 114the variable, you can just write C<@foo>. If you wanted to call the
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115function, write C<@{foo()}> ... or you could just not have a variable
116and a function with the same name, and save yourself a lot of trouble.
117
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118=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s[...]} resolved to %c%s[...]
119
120=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s{...}} resolved to %c%s{...}
4da60377 121
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122(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<${foo[2]}> (where foo represents
123the name of a Perl keyword), which might be looking for element number
1242 of the array named C<@foo>, in which case please write C<$foo[2]>, or you
125might have meant to pass an anonymous arrayref to the function named
126foo, and then do a scalar deref on the value it returns. If you meant
127that, write C<${foo([2])}>.
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128
129In regular expressions, the C<${foo[2]}> syntax is sometimes necessary
130to disambiguate between array subscripts and character classes.
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131C</$length[2345]/>, for instance, will be interpreted as C<$length> followed
132by the character class C<[2345]>. If an array subscript is what you
133want, you can avoid the warning by changing C</${length[2345]}/> to the
134unsightly C</${\$length[2345]}/>, by renaming your array to something
135that does not coincide with a built-in keyword, or by simply turning
136off warnings with C<no warnings 'ambiguous';>.
4da60377 137
6df41af2 138=item '|' and '<' may not both be specified on command line
a0d0e21e 139
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140(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
141redirection, and found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to
142redirect STDIN using '<'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
c9f97d15 143
6df41af2 144=item '|' and '>' may not both be specified on command line
1028017a 145
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146(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
147redirection, and thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and
148into a pipe to another command. You need to choose one or the other,
149though nothing's stopping you from piping into a program or Perl script
150which 'splits' output into two streams, such as
1028017a 151
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152 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
153 while (<STDIN>) {
154 print;
155 print OUT;
156 }
157 close OUT;
c9f97d15 158
6df41af2 159=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
eb6e2d6f 160
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161(W misc) The pattern match (C<//>), substitution (C<s///>), and
162transliteration (C<tr///>) operators work on scalar values. If you apply
be771a83 163one of them to an array or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to
ac036724 164a scalar value (the length of an array, or the population info of a
165hash) and then work on that scalar value. This is probably not what
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166you meant to do. See L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for
167alternatives.
eb6e2d6f 168
6df41af2 169=item Arg too short for msgsnd
76cd736e 170
6df41af2 171(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
76cd736e 172
f86702cc 173=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
a0d0e21e 174
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175(W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator
176that expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
177will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
a0d0e21e 178
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179=item Argument list not closed for PerlIO layer "%s"
180
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181(W layer) When pushing a layer with arguments onto the Perl I/O
182system you forgot the ) that closes the argument list. (Layers
183take care of transforming data between external and internal
184representations.) Perl stopped parsing the layer list at this
185point and did not attempt to push this layer. If your program
186didn't explicitly request the failing operation, it may be the
187result of the value of the environment variable PERLIO.
b4581f09 188
2d8eb851 189=item charnames alias definitions may not contain a sequence of multiple spaces
bd299e29 190
2d8eb851 191(F) You defined a character name which had multiple space
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192characters in a row. Change them to single spaces. Usually these
193names are defined in the C<:alias> import argument to C<use charnames>, but
194they could be defined by a translator installed into C<$^H{charnames}>.
195See L<charnames/CUSTOM ALIASES>.
bd299e29 196
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197=item charnames alias definitions may not contain trailing white-space
198
199(F) You defined a character name which ended in a space
200character. Remove the trailing space(s). Usually these names are
201defined in the C<:alias> import argument to C<use charnames>, but they
202could be defined by a translator installed into C<$^H{charnames}>.
203See L<charnames/CUSTOM ALIASES>.
204
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205=item assertion botched: %s
206
21b5e840 207(X) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
a0d0e21e 208
0eacef8e 209=item Assertion %s failed: file "%s", line %d
a0d0e21e 210
21b5e840 211(X) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
a0d0e21e 212
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213=item Assigning non-zero to $[ is no longer possible
214
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215(F) When the "array_base" feature is disabled (e.g., under C<use v5.16;>)
216the special variable C<$[>, which is deprecated, is now a fixed zero value.
82122228 217
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218=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
219
220(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
221must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
222know which context to supply to the right side.
223
2393f1b9 224=item Attempt to access disallowed key '%s' in a restricted hash
1b1f1335 225
49293501 226(F) The failing code has attempted to get or set a key which is not in
2393f1b9 227the current set of allowed keys of a restricted hash.
49293501 228
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229=item Attempt to bless into a freed package
230
231(F) You wrote C<bless $foo> with one argument after somehow causing
232the current package to be freed. Perl cannot figure out what to
233do, so it throws up in hands in despair.
234
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235=item Attempt to bless into a reference
236
237(F) The CLASSNAME argument to the bless() operator is expected to be
57dedab9 238the name of the package to bless the resulting object into. You've
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239supplied instead a reference to something: perhaps you wrote
240
241 bless $self, $proto;
242
243when you intended
244
245 bless $self, ref($proto) || $proto;
246
247If you actually want to bless into the stringified version
248of the reference supplied, you need to stringify it yourself, for
249example by:
250
251 bless $self, "$proto";
252
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253=item Attempt to clear deleted array
254
255(S debugging) An array was assigned to when it was being freed.
256Freed values are not supposed to be visible to Perl code. This
257can also happen if XS code calls C<av_clear> from a custom magic
258callback on the array.
259
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260=item Attempt to delete disallowed key '%s' from a restricted hash
261
262(F) The failing code attempted to delete from a restricted hash a key
263which is not in its key set.
264
265=item Attempt to delete readonly key '%s' from a restricted hash
266
267(F) The failing code attempted to delete a key whose value has been
268declared readonly from a restricted hash.
269
de42a5a9 270=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%x
a0d0e21e 271
f84fe999 272(S internal) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas
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273that will be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be
274outside any of those arenas.
a0d0e21e 275
12578ffb 276=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string '%s'%s
bbce6d69 277
f84fe999 278(S internal) Perl maintains a reference-counted internal table of
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279strings to optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other
280strings. This indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count
281of a string that can no longer be found in the table.
bbce6d69 282
7d5b40b4 283=item Attempt to free temp prematurely: SV 0x%x
a0d0e21e 284
f84fe999 285(S debugging) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the
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286free_tmps() routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the
287SV before the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the
288free_tmps() routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does
289try to free it.
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290
291=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
292
f84fe999 293(S internal) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
a0d0e21e 294
7d5b40b4 295=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar: SV 0x%x
a0d0e21e 296
8f7e4d2c 297(S internal) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to
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298see if it would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0
299earlier, and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed.
300This could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or
301that SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was
302mortalized when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been
303corrupted.
a0d0e21e 304
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305=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
306
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307(W pack) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
308function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
309means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
310invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
311literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
312avoid this warning.
84902520 313
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314=item Attempt to reload %s aborted.
315
316(F) You tried to load a file with C<use> or C<require> that failed to
317compile once already. Perl will not try to compile this file again
318unless you delete its entry from %INC. See L<perlfunc/require> and
319L<perlvar/%INC>.
320
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321=item Attempt to set length of freed array
322
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323(W misc) You tried to set the length of an array which has
324been freed. You can do this by storing a reference to the
325scalar representing the last index of an array and later
326assigning through that reference. For example
1b20cd17
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327
328 $r = do {my @a; \$#a};
329 $$r = 503
330
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331=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
332
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333(W substr) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr()
334used as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
335dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
b7a902f4 336
c32124fe
NC
337=item Attribute "locked" is deprecated
338
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339(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragma to modify the
340"locked" attribute on a code reference. The :locked attribute is
341obsolete, has had no effect since 5005 threads were removed, and
342will be removed in a future release of Perl 5.
c32124fe 343
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344=item Attribute prototype(%s) discards earlier prototype attribute in same sub
345
346(W misc) A sub was declared as sub foo : prototype(A) : prototype(B) {}, for
347example. Since each sub can only have one prototype, the earlier
348declaration(s) are discarded while the last one is applied.
349
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350=item Attribute "unique" is deprecated
351
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352(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragma to modify
353the "unique" attribute on an array, hash or scalar reference.
354The :unique attribute has had no effect since Perl 5.8.8, and
355will be removed in a future release of Perl 5.
f1a3ce43 356
ccce04a4
FC
357=item av_reify called on tied array
358
359(S debugging) This indicates that something went wrong and Perl got I<very>
360confused about C<@_> or C<@DB::args> being tied.
361
de42a5a9 362=item Bad arg length for %s, is %u, should be %d
a0d0e21e 363
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364(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl()
365or shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 366S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
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367S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
368
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369=item Bad evalled substitution pattern
370
496a33f5 371(F) You've used the C</e> switch to evaluate the replacement for a
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372substitution, but perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate,
373most likely an unexpected right brace '}'.
374
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375=item Bad filehandle: %s
376
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377(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the
378symbol has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an
379open(), or did it in another package.
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380
381=item Bad free() ignored
382
be771a83 383(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had never
fa816bf3 384been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
9ea8bc6d 385setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 0.
33c8a3fe 386
9ea8bc6d 387This message can be seen quite often with DB_File on systems with "hard"
6903afa2 388dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of C<Berkeley DB>
be771a83 389which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving> system malloc().
a0d0e21e 390
aa689395
PP
391=item Bad hash
392
393(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
394
6df41af2
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395=item Badly placed ()'s
396
397(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
398of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
399Perl yourself.
400
a7cb8dae 401=item Bad name after %s
a0d0e21e 402
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403(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then
404didn't finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside
405of quotes, so
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406
407 $var = 'myvar';
408 $sym = mypack::$var;
409
410is not the same as
411
412 $var = 'myvar';
413 $sym = "mypack::$var";
414
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415=item Bad plugin affecting keyword '%s'
416
417(F) An extension using the keyword plugin mechanism violated the
418plugin API.
419
4ad56ec9
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420=item Bad realloc() ignored
421
6903afa2
FC
422(S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that
423had never been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can
424be disabled by setting the environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
4ad56ec9 425
a0d0e21e
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426=item Bad symbol for array
427
428(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
429wasn't a symbol table entry.
430
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431=item Bad symbol for dirhandle
432
433(P) An internal request asked to add a dirhandle entry to something
434that wasn't a symbol table entry.
435
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436=item Bad symbol for filehandle
437
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438(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something
439that wasn't a symbol table entry.
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440
441=item Bad symbol for hash
442
443(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
444wasn't a symbol table entry.
445
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446=item Bareword found in conditional
447
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448(W bareword) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a
449conditional, which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part
450of the last argument of the previous construct, for example:
34d09196
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451
452 open FOO || die;
453
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454It may also indicate a misspelled constant that has been interpreted as
455a bareword:
34d09196
GS
456
457 use constant TYPO => 1;
458 if (TYOP) { print "foo" }
459
460The C<strict> pragma is useful in avoiding such errors.
461
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462=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
463
464(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
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465subroutine identifier, in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>"
466symbol. Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
6df41af2
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467
468=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
469
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470(W bareword) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but the
471compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point. Perhaps
472you need to predeclare a package?
6df41af2 473
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474=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
475
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476(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN
477subroutine. Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is
478exited.
a0d0e21e 479
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PP
480=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
481
482(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
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483implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had already
484occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}> could not
485be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code likely
486depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
68dc0745 487
c782d7ee 488=item \%d better written as $%d
6df41af2 489
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490(W syntax) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables.
491The use of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
492substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
493because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better if
494there are more than 9 backreferences.
6df41af2 495
252aa082
JH
496=item Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable
497
e476b1b5 498(W portable) The binary number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
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JH
499(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
500L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 501
69282e91 502=item bind() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 503
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504(W closed) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to
505check the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
a0d0e21e 506
c289d2f7
JH
507=item binmode() on closed filehandle %s
508
509(W unopened) You tried binmode() on a filehandle that was never opened.
4dcecea4 510Check your control flow and number of arguments.
c289d2f7 511
c5a0f51a
JH
512=item Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
513
e476b1b5 514(W portable) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is non-portable.
c5a0f51a 515
043c750c 516=item Bizarre copy of %s
4633a7c4 517
be771a83 518(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not
ab830aa0 519copiable.
4633a7c4 520
5a25739d
FC
521=item Bizarre SvTYPE [%d]
522
434f489b 523(P) When starting a new thread or returning values from a thread, Perl
5a25739d
FC
524encountered an invalid data type.
525
f675dbe5
CB
526=item Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
527
be771a83
GS
528(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. While Perl was preparing to
529iterate over %ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition
530which was too long, so it was truncated to the string shown.
f675dbe5 531
a0d0e21e
LW
532=item Callback called exit
533
4929bf7b 534(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via call_sv()
a0d0e21e
LW
535exited by calling exit.
536
6df41af2 537=item %s() called too early to check prototype
f675dbe5 538
be771a83
GS
539(W prototype) You've called a function that has a prototype before the
540parser saw a definition or declaration for it, and Perl could not check
541that the call conforms to the prototype. You need to either add an
542early prototype declaration for the subroutine in question, or move the
543subroutine definition ahead of the call to get proper prototype
544checking. Alternatively, if you are certain that you're calling the
545function correctly, you may put an ampersand before the name to avoid
546the warning. See L<perlsub>.
f675dbe5 547
56feebad
FC
548=item Calling POSIX::%s() is deprecated
549
550(D deprecated) You called a function whose use is deprecated. See
551the function's name in L<POSIX> for details.
552
49704364 553=item Cannot compress integer in pack
0258719b
NC
554
555(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was too large to compress. The BER
556compressed integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you
557attempted to compress Infinity or a very large number (> 1e308).
558See L<perlfunc/pack>.
559
49704364 560=item Cannot compress negative numbers in pack
0258719b
NC
561
562(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was negative. The BER compressed integer
563format can only be used with positive integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
564
5c1f4d79
NC
565=item Cannot convert a reference to %s to typeglob
566
6903afa2
FC
567(F) You manipulated Perl's symbol table directly, stored a reference
568in it, then tried to access that symbol via conventional Perl syntax.
569The access triggers Perl to autovivify that typeglob, but it there is
570no legal conversion from that type of reference to a typeglob.
5c1f4d79 571
4040665a 572=item Cannot copy to %s
ba2fdce6
NC
573
574(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy a value to an internal type that cannot
4dcecea4 575be directly assigned to.
ba2fdce6 576
b5d97229
RGS
577=item Cannot find encoding "%s"
578
579(S io) You tried to apply an encoding that did not exist to a filehandle,
580either with open() or binmode().
581
7355df7e
FC
582=item Cannot set tied @DB::args
583
584(F) C<caller> tried to set C<@DB::args>, but found it tied. Tying C<@DB::args>
585is not supported. (Before this error was added, it used to crash.)
586
ce65bc73
FC
587=item Cannot tie unreifiable array
588
589(P) You somehow managed to call C<tie> on an array that does not
590keep a reference count on its arguments and cannot be made to
591do so. Such arrays are not even supposed to be accessible to
592Perl code, but are only used internally.
593
96ebfdd7
RK
594=item Can only compress unsigned integers in pack
595
596(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was not an integer. The BER compressed
597integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you attempted
598to compress something else. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
599
a0d0e21e
LW
600=item Can't bless non-reference value
601
602(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
603encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
604
dc57907a
RGS
605=item Can't "break" in a loop topicalizer
606
0d863452 607(F) You called C<break>, but you're in a C<foreach> block rather than
6903afa2 608a C<given> block. You probably meant to use C<next> or C<last>.
0d863452
RH
609
610=item Can't "break" outside a given block
dc57907a 611
0d863452
RH
612(F) You called C<break>, but you're not inside a C<given> block.
613
6df41af2
GS
614=item Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
615
616(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
617object reference or package name contains an undefined value. Something
618like this will reproduce the error:
6df41af2
GS
619
620 $BADREF = undef;
621 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
622 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
623
a0d0e21e
LW
624=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
625
54310121 626(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
be771a83
GS
627ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but you
628didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't an
629object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
630
631=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
632
633(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
634object reference or package name contains an expression that returns a
635defined value which is neither an object reference nor a package name.
72b5445b
GS
636Something like this will reproduce the error:
637
638 $BADREF = 42;
639 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
640 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
641
dfe378f1
FC
642=item Can't call mro_isa_changed_in() on anonymous symbol table
643
644(P) Perl got confused as to whether a hash was a plain hash or a
645symbol table hash when trying to update @ISA caches.
646
2bf7e7b2
FC
647=item Can't call mro_method_changed_in() on anonymous symbol table
648
649(F) An XS module tried to call C<mro_method_changed_in> on a hash that was
650not attached to the symbol table.
651
a0d0e21e
LW
652=item Can't chdir to %s
653
f703fc96 654(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but F</foo/bar> is not a directory
a0d0e21e
LW
655that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
656
0545a864 657=item Can't check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid
104d25b7 658
be771a83
GS
659(P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for
660nosuid.
104d25b7 661
22e74366 662=item Can't coerce %s to %s in %s
a0d0e21e
LW
663
664(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 665(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
a0d0e21e
LW
666say things like:
667
668 *foo += 1;
669
670You CAN say
671
672 $foo = *foo;
673 $foo += 1;
674
675but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
676
0d863452 677=item Can't "continue" outside a when block
dc57907a 678
0d863452
RH
679(F) You called C<continue>, but you're not inside a C<when>
680or C<default> block.
681
a0d0e21e
LW
682=item Can't create pipe mailbox
683
be771a83
GS
684(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted
685quotas or other plumbing problems.
a0d0e21e 686
eb64745e
GS
687=item Can't declare %s in "%s"
688
30c282f6
NC
689(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as "my", "our" or
690"state" variables. They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
a0d0e21e 691
fc7debfb
FC
692=item Can't "default" outside a topicalizer
693
694(F) You have used a C<default> block that is neither inside a
695C<foreach> loop nor a C<given> block. (Note that this error is
696issued on exit from the C<default> block, so you won't get the
697error if you use an explicit C<continue>.)
698
6df41af2
GS
699=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
700
be771a83 701(S inplace) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as
df7075a8 702a file in /dev, a FIFO or an uneditable directory. The file was ignored.
6df41af2 703
a0d0e21e
LW
704=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
705
be771a83
GS
706(S inplace) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated
707reason.
a0d0e21e 708
54310121 709=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
a0d0e21e 710
be771a83
GS
711(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try
712reading from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say
713C<-i.bak>, or some such.
a0d0e21e 714
10f9c03d 715=item Can't do inplace edit: %s would not be unique
a0d0e21e 716
e476b1b5 717(S inplace) Your filesystem does not support filenames longer than 14
10f9c03d
CK
718characters and Perl was unable to create a unique filename during
719inplace editing with the B<-i> switch. The file was ignored.
a0d0e21e 720
a0d0e21e
LW
721=item Can't do waitpid with flags
722
be771a83
GS
723(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only
724waitpid() without flags is emulated.
a0d0e21e 725
a0d0e21e
LW
726=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
727
be771a83
GS
728(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this
729point. For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #!
730line.
a0d0e21e 731
1109a392
MHM
732=item Can't %s %s-endian %ss on this platform
733
734(F) Your platform's byte-order is neither big-endian nor little-endian,
735or it has a very strange pointer size. Packing and unpacking big- or
736little-endian floating point values and pointers may not be possible.
737See L<perlfunc/pack>.
738
a0d0e21e
LW
739=item Can't exec "%s": %s
740
d1be9408 741(W exec) A system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the
be771a83
GS
742named program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the
743permissions were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in
744C<$ENV{PATH}>, the executable in question was compiled for another
745architecture, or the #! line in a script points to an interpreter that
746can't be run for similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support
747#! at all.)
a0d0e21e
LW
748
749=item Can't exec %s
750
be771a83
GS
751(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because
752that's what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may
753need to mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
a0d0e21e
LW
754
755=item Can't execute %s
756
be771a83
GS
757(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute
758found in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
2a92aaa0 759
6df41af2 760=item Can't find an opnumber for "%s"
2a92aaa0 761
be771a83
GS
762(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but there
763is no builtin with the name C<word>.
6df41af2 764
56ca2fc0
JH
765=item Can't find %s character property "%s"
766
767(F) You used C<\p{}> or C<\P{}> but the character property by that name
6903afa2 768could not be found. Maybe you misspelled the name of the property?
e1b711da 769See L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
9b73678d 770for a complete list of available official properties.
56ca2fc0 771
6df41af2
GS
772=item Can't find label %s
773
be771a83
GS
774(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's
775possible for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2a92aaa0
GS
776
777=item Can't find %s on PATH
778
be771a83
GS
779(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
780found in the PATH.
a0d0e21e 781
6df41af2 782=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
a0d0e21e 783
be771a83
GS
784(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
785found in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The
786script exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
a0d0e21e
LW
787
788=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
789
be771a83
GS
790(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means
791that the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count
792nesting levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
a0d0e21e 793
fb73857a
PP
794 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
795
97b3d10f 796If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have
b6b8cb97
FC
797included unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag or there
798may not be a linebreak after it. A good programmer's editor will have
799a way to help you find these characters (or lack of characters). See
800L<perlop> for the full details on here-documents.
a0d0e21e 801
660a4616
ST
802=item Can't find Unicode property definition "%s"
803
5f8ad6b6
FC
804(F) You may have tried to use C<\p> which means a Unicode
805property (for example C<\p{Lu}> matches all uppercase
fa816bf3 806letters). If you did mean to use a Unicode property, see
e1b711da 807L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
6903afa2 808for a complete list of available properties. If you didn't
fa816bf3
FC
809mean to use a Unicode property, escape the C<\p>, either by
810C<\\p> (just the C<\p>) or by C<\Q\p> (the rest of the string, or
5f8ad6b6 811until C<\E>).
660a4616 812
b3647a36 813=item Can't fork: %s
a0d0e21e 814
be771a83
GS
815(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a
816pipeline.
a0d0e21e 817
b3647a36
SR
818=item Can't fork, trying again in 5 seconds
819
c973c02e 820(W pipe) A fork in a piped open failed with EAGAIN and will be retried
b3647a36
SR
821after five seconds.
822
748a9306
LW
823=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
824
be771a83
GS
825(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference
826between access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes.
827Under VMS, access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in
828the stat buffer, so that ACLs and other protections can be taken into
829account. Unfortunately, Perl assumes that the stat buffer contains all
830the necessary information, and passes it, instead of the filespec, to
2fe2bdfd 831the access-checking routine. It will try to retrieve the filespec using
be771a83
GS
832the device name and FID present in the stat buffer, but this works only
833if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat() routine,
834because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
2fe2bdfd
FC
835appears, the name lookup failed, and the access-checking routine gave up
836and returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access-checking
be771a83
GS
837routine knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you
838shouldn't ever see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises
839only if some internal code takes stat buffers lightly.)
748a9306 840
a0d0e21e
LW
841=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
842
be771a83
GS
843(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a
844pipe, Perl can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
845
846=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
847
748a9306
LW
848(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
849mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e 850
6df41af2 851=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
a0d0e21e 852
be771a83
GS
853(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a foreach
854loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2
GS
855
856=item Can't "goto" out of a pseudo block
857
be771a83
GS
858(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look like
859a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually occurs if
860you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which is a no-no.
861See L<perlfunc/goto>.
a0d0e21e 862
5a25739d
FC
863=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-%s
864
865(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval
866"string" or block.
867
9850bf21 868=item Can't goto subroutine from a sort sub (or similar callback)
cd299c6e 869
9850bf21
RH
870(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of the
871comparison sub for a sort(), or from a similar callback (such
872as the reduce() function in List::Util).
873
6df41af2
GS
874=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
875
be771a83
GS
876(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one
877subroutine call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole
878cloth. In general you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD
879routine anyway. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2 880
0b5b802d
GS
881=item Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default
882
be771a83
GS
883(W signal) Perl has detected that it is being run with the SIGCHLD
884signal (sometimes known as SIGCLD) disabled. Since disabling this
885signal will interfere with proper determination of exit status of child
886processes, Perl has reset the signal to its default value. This
887situation typically indicates that the parent program under which Perl
888may be running (e.g. cron) is being very careless.
0b5b802d 889
e2c0f81f
DG
890=item Can't kill a non-numeric process ID
891
892(F) Process identifiers must be (signed) integers. It is a fatal error to
893attempt to kill() an undefined, empty-string or otherwise non-numeric
894process identifier.
895
6df41af2 896=item Can't "last" outside a loop block
4633a7c4 897
6df41af2 898(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
be771a83
GS
899except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a current
900block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a "loopish"
901block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or grep(). You can
902usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the
903inner curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See
904L<perlfunc/last>.
4633a7c4 905
2c7d6b9c
RGS
906=item Can't linearize anonymous symbol table
907
908(F) Perl tried to calculate the method resolution order (MRO) of a
909package, but failed because the package stash has no name.
910
b8170e59
JB
911=item Can't load '%s' for module %s
912
6903afa2
FC
913(F) The module you tried to load failed to load a dynamic extension.
914This may either mean that you upgraded your version of perl to one
915that is incompatible with your old dynamic extensions (which is known
916to happen between major versions of perl), or (more likely) that your
917dynamic extension was built against an older version of the library
918that is installed on your system. You may need to rebuild your old
919dynamic extensions.
b8170e59 920
748a9306
LW
921=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
922
2ba9eb46 923(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
b7e4ecc1
FC
924lexical variable using "my" or "state". This is not allowed. If you
925want to localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with
926the package name.
748a9306 927
6df41af2 928=item Can't localize through a reference
4727527e 929
6df41af2
GS
930(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
931handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
be771a83 932pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be sure
64977eb6 933that $ref will still be a reference.
4727527e 934
ea071790 935=item Can't locate %s
ec889f3a 936
fa816bf3
FC
937(F) You said to C<do> (or C<require>, or C<use>) a file that couldn't be found.
938Perl looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in @INC, unless
939the file name included the full path to the file. Perhaps you need
940to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where the
941extra library is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name
be771a83
GS
942to @INC. Or maybe you just misspelled the name of the file. See
943L<perlfunc/require> and L<lib>.
a0d0e21e 944
6df41af2
GS
945=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
946
be771a83
GS
947(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows
948autoload, but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes
949are a misprint in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit>
950the file, say, by doing C<make install>.
6df41af2 951
b8170e59
JB
952=item Can't locate loadable object for module %s in @INC
953
954(F) The module you loaded is trying to load an external library, like
d70d8e57 955for example, F<foo.so> or F<bar.dll>, but the L<DynaLoader> module was
b8170e59
JB
956unable to locate this library. See L<DynaLoader>.
957
a0d0e21e
LW
958=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
959
960(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
961functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 962method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
963
964=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
965
be771a83
GS
966(W syntax) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that
967doesn't seem to exist.
a0d0e21e 968
2f7da168
RK
969=item Can't locate PerlIO%s
970
971(F) You tried to use in open() a PerlIO layer that does not exist,
972e.g. open(FH, ">:nosuchlayer", "somefile").
973
f4ad53f4 974=item Can't make list assignment to %ENV on this system
3e3baf6d 975
be771a83
GS
976(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably
977VMS.
3e3baf6d 978
cd40cd58
NC
979=item Can't make loaded symbols global on this platform while loading %s
980
ff9c1ae8 981(S) A module passed the flag 0x01 to DynaLoader::dl_load_file() to request
cd40cd58
NC
982that symbols from the stated file are made available globally within the
983process, but that functionality is not available on this platform. Whilst
984the module likely will still work, this may prevent the perl interpreter
985from loading other XS-based extensions which need to link directly to
986functions defined in the C or XS code in the stated file.
987
a0d0e21e
LW
988=item Can't modify %s in %s
989
be771a83
GS
990(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try
991to change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 992
54310121 993=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
994
995(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
996a NULL.
997
6df41af2
GS
998=item Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call
999
1000(F) Subroutines meant to be used in lvalue context should be declared as
2fe2bdfd 1001such. See L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
6df41af2 1002
5f05dabc 1003=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 1004
5f05dabc 1005(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
1006buffer.
1007
6df41af2
GS
1008=item Can't "next" outside a loop block
1009
1010(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
1011there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
be771a83
GS
1012count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or
1013grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1014though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that loops
1015once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
6df41af2 1016
a0d0e21e
LW
1017=item Can't open %s: %s
1018
c47ff5f1 1019(S inplace) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<< <> >>
08e9d68e 1020filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
46fa9b26
FC
1021switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually
1022this is because you don't have read permission for a file which
1023you named on the command line.
1024
1025(F) You tried to call perl with the B<-e> switch, but F</dev/null> (or
1026your operating system's equivalent) could not be opened.
a0d0e21e 1027
9a869a14
RGS
1028=item Can't open a reference
1029
1030(W io) You tried to open a scalar reference for reading or writing,
2fe2bdfd 1031using the 3-arg open() syntax:
9a869a14
RGS
1032
1033 open FH, '>', $ref;
1034
1035but your version of perl is compiled without perlio, and this form of
1036open is not supported.
1037
a0d0e21e
LW
1038=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
1039
be771a83
GS
1040(W pipe) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported.
1041You can try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such
1042as IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using
1043">", and then read it in under a different file handle.
a0d0e21e 1044
748a9306
LW
1045=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
1046
be771a83
GS
1047(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1048redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '2>' or '2>>' on
1049the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1050
1051=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
1052
be771a83
GS
1053(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1054redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '<' on the
1055command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
1056
1057=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
1058
be771a83
GS
1059(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1060redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '>' or '>>' on
1061the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1062
1063=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
1064
be771a83
GS
1065(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1066redirection, and couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined
1067for stdout.
748a9306 1068
3b1cf97d 1069=item Can't open perl script "%s": %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1070
1071(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
1072
fa3aa65a
JC
1073If you're debugging a script that uses #!, and normally relies on the
1074shell's $PATH search, the -S option causes perl to do that search, so
1075you don't have to type the path or C<`which $scriptname`>.
1076
6df41af2
GS
1077=item Can't read CRTL environ
1078
1079(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read an element of %ENV
1080from the CRTL's internal environment array and discovered the array was
1081missing. You need to figure out where your CRTL misplaced its environ
be771a83
GS
1082or define F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that environ is not
1083searched.
6df41af2 1084
6df41af2
GS
1085=item Can't "redo" outside a loop block
1086
1087(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
1088there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
1089count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map()
1090or grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1091though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that
1092loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
1093
64977eb6 1094=item Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file
10f9c03d 1095
be771a83
GS
1096(S inplace) You requested an inplace edit without creating a backup
1097file. Perl was unable to remove the original file to replace it with
1098the modified file. The file was left unmodified.
10f9c03d 1099
a0d0e21e
LW
1100=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
1101
e476b1b5 1102(S inplace) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason,
10f9c03d 1103probably because you don't have write permission to the directory.
a0d0e21e 1104
748a9306
LW
1105=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
1106
be771a83
GS
1107(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried
1108to reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
748a9306 1109
4f12ec0e
FC
1110=item Can't reset %ENV on this system
1111
1112(F) You called C<reset('E')> or similar, which tried to reset
1113all variables in the current package beginning with "E". In
1114the main package, that includes %ENV. Resetting %ENV is not
1115supported on some systems, notably VMS.
1116
fe13d51d 1117=item Can't resolve method "%s" overloading "%s" in package "%s"
6df41af2 1118
1fa582fa
FC
1119(F)(P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as
1120opposed to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the
1121package. If the method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
6df41af2 1122
cd06dffe
GS
1123=item Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine
1124
be771a83
GS
1125(F) Perl detected an attempt to return illegal lvalues (such as
1126temporary or readonly values) from a subroutine used as an lvalue. This
1127is not allowed.
cd06dffe 1128
96ebfdd7
RK
1129=item Can't return outside a subroutine
1130
1131(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
1132there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
1133
78f9721b
SM
1134=item Can't return %s to lvalue scalar context
1135
6903afa2
FC
1136(F) You tried to return a complete array or hash from an lvalue
1137subroutine, but you called the subroutine in a way that made Perl
1138think you meant to return only one value. You probably meant to
1139write parentheses around the call to the subroutine, which tell
1140Perl that the call should be in list context.
78f9721b 1141
a0d0e21e
LW
1142=item Can't stat script "%s"
1143
be771a83
GS
1144(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have it
1145open already. Bizarre.
a0d0e21e 1146
a0d0e21e
LW
1147=item Can't take log of %g
1148
fb73857a 1149(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
6903afa2 1150negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
be771a83
GS
1151standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for the
1152negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
1153
1154=item Can't take sqrt of %g
1155
1156(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a
PP
1157negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
1158with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
1159
1160=item Can't undef active subroutine
1161
1162(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
1163however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
1164redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
1165
c81225bc 1166=item Can't upgrade %s (%d) to %d
a0d0e21e 1167
be771a83
GS
1168(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making it
1169into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are so
1170specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This message
1171indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
a0d0e21e 1172
6651ba0b
FC
1173=item Can't use '%c' after -mname
1174
1175(F) You tried to call perl with the B<-m> switch, but you put something
1176other than "=" after the module name.
1177
1f1ec7b5
KW
1178=item Can't use a hash as a reference
1179
1180(F) You tried to use a hash as a reference, as in
1181C<< %foo->{"bar"} >> or C<< %$ref->{"hello"} >>. Versions of perl <= 5.6.1
1182used to allow this syntax, but shouldn't have.
1183
1184=item Can't use an array as a reference
1185
1186(F) You tried to use an array as a reference, as in
1187C<< @foo->[23] >> or C<< @$ref->[99] >>. Versions of perl <= 5.6.1 used to
1188allow this syntax, but shouldn't have.
1189
1db89ea5
BS
1190=item Can't use anonymous symbol table for method lookup
1191
e27ad1f2 1192(F) The internal routine that does method lookup was handed a symbol
1db89ea5
BS
1193table that doesn't have a name. Symbol tables can become anonymous
1194for example by undefining stashes: C<undef %Some::Package::>.
1195
96ebfdd7
RK
1196=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
1197
1198(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
1199be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
1200
6df41af2
GS
1201=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
1202
be771a83
GS
1203(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1204references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 1205
90b75b61 1206=item Can't use %! because Errno.pm is not available
1d2dff63 1207
20561843 1208(F) The first time the C<%!> hash is used, perl automatically loads the
6903afa2 1209Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
1d2dff63
GS
1210provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
1211
1109a392
MHM
1212=item Can't use both '<' and '>' after type '%c' in %s
1213
1214(F) A type cannot be forced to have both big-endian and little-endian
1215byte-order at the same time, so this combination of modifiers is not
1216allowed. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1217
e35475de
KW
1218=item Can't use 'defined(@array)' (Maybe you should just omit the defined()?)
1219
1220(F) defined() is not useful on arrays because it
1221checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the
1222array is empty, just use C<if (@array) { # not empty }> for example.
1223
1224=item Can't use 'defined(%hash)' (Maybe you should just omit the defined()?)
1225
1226(F) C<defined()> is not usually right on hashes.
1227
1228Although C<defined %hash> is false on a plain not-yet-used hash, it
1229becomes true in several non-obvious circumstances, including iterators,
1230weak references, stash names, even remaining true after C<undef %hash>.
1231These things make C<defined %hash> fairly useless in practice, so it now
1232generates a fatal error.
1233
1234If a check for non-empty is what you wanted then just put it in boolean
1235context (see L<perldata/Scalar values>):
1236
1237 if (%hash) {
1238 # not empty
1239 }
1240
1241If you had C<defined %Foo::Bar::QUUX> to check whether such a package
1242variable exists then that's never really been reliable, and isn't
1243a good way to enquire about the features of a package, or whether
1244it's loaded, etc.
1245
6df41af2
GS
1246=item Can't use %s for loop variable
1247
be771a83
GS
1248(F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a
1249foreach.
6df41af2 1250
aab6a793 1251=item Can't use global %s in "%s"
6df41af2 1252
be771a83
GS
1253(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This
1254is not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location
1255(namely the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to
1256have variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
6df41af2
GS
1257weren't.
1258
6d3b25aa
RGS
1259=item Can't use '%c' in a group with different byte-order in %s
1260
1261(F) You attempted to force a different byte-order on a type
1262that is already inside a group with a byte-order modifier.
1263For example you cannot force little-endianness on a type that
1264is inside a big-endian group.
1265
c07a80fd
PP
1266=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
1267
1268(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
c47ff5f1 1269You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the <=> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd
PP
1270and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
1271Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
1272lexical variable.
1273
a0d0e21e
LW
1274=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
1275
1276(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
1277reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
1278test the type of the reference, if need be.
1279
748a9306 1280=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e 1281
5e634d20
FC
1282=item Can't use string ("%s"...) as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
1283
b41bf23f
FC
1284(F) You've told Perl to dereference a string, something which
1285C<use strict> blocks to prevent it happening accidentally. See
1286L<perlref/"Symbolic references">. This can be triggered by an C<@> or C<$>
1287in a double-quoted string immediately before interpolating a variable,
1288for example in C<"user @$twitter_id">, which says to treat the contents
1289of C<$twitter_id> as an array reference; use a C<\> to have a literal C<@>
1290symbol followed by the contents of C<$twitter_id>: C<"user \@$twitter_id">.
a0d0e21e 1291
748a9306
LW
1292=item Can't use subscript on %s
1293
1294(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
1295subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
209e7cf1 1296didn't look like a hash or array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
748a9306 1297
6df41af2
GS
1298=item Can't use \%c to mean $%c in expression
1299
75b44862
GS
1300(W syntax) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that
1301creates a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a
1302backreference to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular
be771a83
GS
1303expression pattern. Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a
1304value that prints out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form
1305instead.
6df41af2 1306
810b8aa5
GS
1307=item Can't weaken a nonreference
1308
1309(F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference. Only
1310references can be weakened.
1311
fc7debfb
FC
1312=item Can't "when" outside a topicalizer
1313
1314(F) You have used a when() block that is neither inside a C<foreach>
1315loop nor a C<given> block. (Note that this error is issued on exit
1316from the C<when> block, so you won't get the error if the match fails,
1317or if you use an explicit C<continue>.)
1318
5f05dabc 1319=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e 1320
be771a83
GS
1321(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value)
1322with an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
a0d0e21e
LW
1323Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
1324
a04e6aad 1325=item Character following "\c" must be printable ASCII
f9d13529 1326
7357bd17 1327(F) In C<\cI<X>>, I<X> must be a printable (non-control) ASCII character.
17a3df4c 1328
727b6379 1329Note that ASCII characters that don't map to control characters are
7357bd17 1330discouraged, and will generate the warning (when enabled)
727b6379 1331L</""\c%c" is more clearly written simply as "%s"">.
f9d13529 1332
f337b084 1333=item Character in 'C' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1334
1335(W pack) You said
1336
1337 pack("C", $x)
1338
1339where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255; the C<"C"> format is
1340only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1341and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1342
1343 pack("C", $x & 255)
1344
1345If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1346instead.
1347
f337b084 1348=item Character in 'c' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1349
1350(W pack) You said
1351
1352 pack("c", $x)
1353
1354where $x is either less than -128 or more than 127; the C<"c"> format
1355is only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1356and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1357
1358 pack("c", $x & 255);
1359
1360If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1361instead.
1362
f337b084
TH
1363=item Character in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1364
1365(W unpack) You tried something like
1366
1367 unpack("H", "\x{2a1}")
1368
1a147d38 1369where the format expects to process a byte (a character with a value
6903afa2
FC
1370below 256), but a higher value was provided instead. Perl uses the
1371value modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
f337b084
TH
1372
1373 unpack("H", "\x{a1}")
1374
5a25739d
FC
1375=item Character in 'W' format wrapped in pack
1376
1377(W pack) You said
1378
1379 pack("U0W", $x)
1380
1381where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255. However, C<U0>-mode
1382expects all values to fall in the interval [0, 255], so Perl behaved
1383as if you meant:
1384
1385 pack("U0W", $x & 255)
1386
f337b084
TH
1387=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in pack
1388
1389(W pack) You tried something like
1390
1391 pack("u", "\x{1f3}b")
1392
1a147d38 1393where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
6903afa2 1394value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1395uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1396
1397 pack("u", "\x{f3}b")
1398
1399=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1400
1401(W unpack) You tried something like
1402
1403 unpack("s", "\x{1f3}b")
1404
1a147d38 1405where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
6903afa2 1406value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1407uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1408
1409 unpack("s", "\x{f3}b")
1410
f866a7cd
FC
1411=item "\c%c" is more clearly written simply as "%s"
1412
1413(W syntax) The C<\cI<X>> construct is intended to be a way to specify
1414non-printable characters. You used it for a printable one, which is better
1415written as simply itself, perhaps preceded by a backslash for non-word
1416characters.
1417
6651ba0b
FC
1418=item Cloning substitution context is unimplemented
1419
1420(F) Creating a new thread inside the C<s///> operator is not supported.
1421
abc7ecad
SP
1422=item closedir() attempted on invalid dirhandle %s
1423
1424(W io) The dirhandle you tried to close is either closed or not really
1425a dirhandle. Check your control flow.
1426
5a25739d
FC
1427=item close() on unopened filehandle %s
1428
1429(W unopened) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
1430
541ed3a9
FC
1431=item Closure prototype called
1432
1433(F) If a closure has attributes, the subroutine passed to an attribute
1434handler is the prototype that is cloned when a new closure is created.
1435This subroutine cannot be called.
1436
49704364
LW
1437=item Code missing after '/'
1438
6903afa2
FC
1439(F) You had a (sub-)template that ends with a '/'. There must be
1440another template code following the slash. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
49704364 1441
5a25739d
FC
1442=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, may not be portable
1443
2d88a86a 1444(S non_unicode) You had a code point above the Unicode maximum
1b64326b
FC
1445of U+10FFFF.
1446
1447Perl allows strings to contain a superset of Unicode code points, up
1448to the limit of what is storable in an unsigned integer on your system,
1449but these may not be accepted by other languages/systems. At one time,
1450it was legal in some standards to have code points up to 0x7FFF_FFFF,
1451but not higher. Code points above 0xFFFF_FFFF require larger than a
145232 bit word.
0876b9a0 1453
6df41af2
GS
1454=item %s: Command not found
1455
a892b81a 1456(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> or another shell
f738a371 1457instead of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script
a892b81a 1458into Perl yourself. The #! line at the top of your file could look like
8f721816
MM
1459
1460 #!/usr/bin/perl -w
6df41af2 1461
7a2e2cd6
PP
1462=item Compilation failed in require
1463
1464(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
be771a83
GS
1465Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it
1466encountered were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
7a2e2cd6 1467
c3464db5
DD
1468=item Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
1469
be771a83
GS
1470(W regexp) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex
1471situations where back-tracking is required. Recursion depth is limited
1472to 32766, or perhaps less in architectures where the stack cannot grow
1473arbitrarily. ("Simple" and "medium" situations are handled without
1474recursion and are not subject to a limit.) Try shortening the string
1475under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with C<while>) rather than
1476in the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular expression so
c2e66d9e 1477that it is simpler or backtracks less. (See L<perlfaq2> for information
be771a83 1478on I<Mastering Regular Expressions>.)
c3464db5 1479
69282e91 1480=item connect() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1481
be771a83
GS
1482(W closed) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget
1483to check the return value of your socket() call? See
1484L<perlfunc/connect>.
a0d0e21e 1485
e21e7c6a
FC
1486=item Constant(%s): Call to &{$^H{%s}} did not return a defined value
1487
1488(F) The subroutine registered to handle constant overloading
1489(see L<overload>) or a custom charnames handler (see
1490L<charnames/CUSTOM TRANSLATORS>) returned an undefined value.
1491
1492=item Constant(%s): $^H{%s} is not defined
1493
1494(F) The parser found inconsistencies while attempting to define an
1495overloaded constant. Perhaps you forgot to load the corresponding
f738a371 1496L<overload> pragma?
e21e7c6a 1497
779c5bc9
GS
1498=item Constant is not %s reference
1499
1500(F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the C<use constant> pragma)
be771a83 1501is being dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference.
6903afa2 1502The message indicates the type of reference that was expected. This
be771a83 1503usually indicates a syntax error in dereferencing the constant value.
779c5bc9
GS
1504See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> and L<constant>.
1505
4cee8e80
CS
1506=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
1507
aeb94125
FC
1508(W redefine)(S) You redefined a subroutine which had previously
1509been eligible for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions">
1510for commentary and workarounds.
4cee8e80 1511
9607fc9c
PP
1512=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
1513
be771a83
GS
1514(W misc) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible
1515for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1516workarounds.
9607fc9c 1517
5a25739d
FC
1518=item Constant(%s) unknown
1519
1520(F) The parser found inconsistencies either while attempting
1521to define an overloaded constant, or when trying to find the
1522character name specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you
1523forgot to load the corresponding L<overload> pragma?.
1524
e7ea3e70
IZ
1525=item Copy method did not return a reference
1526
6903afa2 1527(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See
13a2d996 1528L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
e7ea3e70 1529
4aaa4757
FC
1530=item &CORE::%s cannot be called directly
1531
1532(F) You tried to call a subroutine in the C<CORE::> namespace
8d605c0d 1533with C<&foo> syntax or through a reference. Some subroutines
4aaa4757
FC
1534in this package cannot yet be called that way, but must be
1535called as barewords. Something like this will work:
1536
1537 BEGIN { *shove = \&CORE::push; }
1538 shove @array, 1,2,3; # pushes on to @array
1539
6798c92b
GS
1540=item CORE::%s is not a keyword
1541
1542(F) The CORE:: namespace is reserved for Perl keywords.
1543
675fa9ff
FC
1544=item Corrupted regexp opcode %d > %d
1545
1546(P) This is either an error in Perl, or, if you're using
1547one, your L<custom regular expression engine|perlreapi>. If not the
1548latter, report the problem through the L<perlbug> utility.
1549
a0d0e21e
LW
1550=item corrupted regexp pointers
1551
1552(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1553expression compiler gave it.
1554
1555=item corrupted regexp program
1556
be771a83
GS
1557(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without a
1558valid magic number.
a0d0e21e 1559
de42a5a9 1560=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%x at 0x%x
6df41af2
GS
1561
1562(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
1563
49704364
LW
1564=item Count after length/code in unpack
1565
1566(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string, but
1567you have also specified an explicit size for the string. See
1568L<perlfunc/pack>.
1569
f2cccb4c
KW
1570=for comment
1571The following are used in lib/diagnostics.t for testing two =items that
1572share the same description. Changes here need to be propagated to there
1573
6651ba0b
FC
1574=item Deep recursion on anonymous subroutine
1575
a0d0e21e
LW
1576=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
1577
be771a83
GS
1578(W recursion) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly)
1579100 times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an
1580infinite recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in
1581which case it indicates something else.
a0d0e21e 1582
aad1d01f
NC
1583This threshold can be changed from 100, by recompiling the F<perl> binary,
1584setting the C pre-processor macro C<PERL_SUB_DEPTH_WARN> to the desired value.
1585
e0e4a6e3
FC
1586=item (?(DEFINE)....) does not allow branches in regex; marked by
1587S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
bcb95744 1588
6903afa2 1589(F) You used something like C<(?(DEFINE)...|..)> which is illegal. The
bcb95744
FC
1590most likely cause of this error is that you left out a parenthesis inside
1591of the C<....> part.
1592
9e3ec65c 1593The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
bcb95744
FC
1594discovered.
1595
62658f4d
PM
1596=item %s defines neither package nor VERSION--version check failed
1597
1598(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but in the Module file
1599there are neither package declarations nor a C<$VERSION>.
1600
36447869
FC
1601=item delete argument is index/value array slice, use array slice
1602
1603(F) You used index/value array slice syntax (C<%array[...]>) as
1604the argument to C<delete>. You probably meant C<@array[...]> with
1605an @ symbol instead.
1606
1607=item delete argument is key/value hash slice, use hash slice
1608
1609(F) You used key/value hash slice syntax (C<%hash{...}>) as the argument to
1610C<delete>. You probably meant C<@hash{...}> with an @ symbol instead.
1611
0ffcbc25
FC
1612=item delete argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice
1613
4a0af295 1614(F) The argument to C<delete> must be either a hash or array element,
0ffcbc25
FC
1615such as:
1616
1617 $foo{$bar}
1618 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
1619
1620or a hash or array slice, such as:
1621
1622 @foo[$bar, $baz, $xyzzy]
1623 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
1624
fc36a67e
PP
1625=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1626
be771a83
GS
1627(F) In a here document construct like C<<<FOO>, the label C<FOO> is too
1628long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously twisted to write code
1629that triggers this error.
fc36a67e 1630
6d3b25aa
RGS
1631=item Deprecated use of my() in false conditional
1632
fa816bf3
FC
1633(D deprecated) You used a declaration similar to C<my $x if 0>. There
1634has been a long-standing bug in Perl that causes a lexical variable
6d3b25aa 1635not to be cleared at scope exit when its declaration includes a false
6903afa2 1636conditional. Some people have exploited this bug to achieve a kind of
fa816bf3 1637static variable. Since we intend to fix this bug, we don't want people
6903afa2 1638relying on this behavior. You can achieve a similar static effect by
6d3b25aa 1639declaring the variable in a separate block outside the function, eg
36fb85f3 1640
6d3b25aa
RGS
1641 sub f { my $x if 0; return $x++ }
1642
1643becomes
1644
1645 { my $x; sub f { return $x++ } }
1646
ea9d9ebc 1647Beginning with perl 5.10.0, you can also use C<state> variables to have
fa816bf3 1648lexicals that are initialized only once (see L<feature>):
36fb85f3
RGS
1649
1650 sub f { state $x; return $x++ }
1651
500ab966
RGS
1652=item DESTROY created new reference to dead object '%s'
1653
1654(F) A DESTROY() method created a new reference to the object which is
6903afa2
FC
1655just being DESTROYed. Perl is confused, and prefers to abort rather
1656than to create a dangling reference.
500ab966 1657
3cdd684c
TP
1658=item Did not produce a valid header
1659
1660See Server error.
1661
6df41af2
GS
1662=item %s did not return a true value
1663
1664(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
1665it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
1666traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
1667do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
1668
cc507455 1669=item (Did you mean &%s instead?)
4633a7c4 1670
413ff9f6
FC
1671(W misc) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or
1672some such.
4633a7c4 1673
cc507455 1674=item (Did you mean "local" instead of "our"?)
33633739 1675
be771a83
GS
1676(W misc) Remember that "our" does not localize the declared global
1677variable. You have declared it again in the same lexical scope, which
1678seems superfluous.
33633739 1679
cc507455 1680=item (Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?)
a0d0e21e 1681
be771a83
GS
1682(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or
1683@hash{@keys}. On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got
1684carried away.
748a9306 1685
7e1af8bc 1686=item Died
5f05dabc
PP
1687
1688(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
075b00aa 1689you called it with no args and C<$@> was empty.
5f05dabc 1690
3cdd684c
TP
1691=item Document contains no data
1692
1693See Server error.
1694
62658f4d
PM
1695=item %s does not define %s::VERSION--version check failed
1696
1697(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but the Module did not
943fc58e 1698define a C<$VERSION>.
62658f4d 1699
49704364
LW
1700=item '/' does not take a repeat count
1701
1702(F) You cannot put a repeat count of any kind right after the '/' code.
1703See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1704
95cb0d72
FC
1705=item Don't know how to get file name
1706
1707(P) C<PerlIO_getname>, a perl internal I/O function specific to VMS, was
1708somehow called on another platform. This should not happen.
1709
4021c788 1710=item Don't know how to handle magic of type \%o
a0d0e21e
LW
1711
1712(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
1713
1714=item do_study: out of memory
1715
1716(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
1717
6df41af2
GS
1718=item (Do you need to predeclare %s?)
1719
56da5a46
RGS
1720(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
1721"%s found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
6df41af2
GS
1722name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
1723because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
be771a83
GS
1724"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're referencing
1725something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have to define the
1726subroutine or package before the current location. You can use an empty
1727"sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward" declaration.
6df41af2 1728
ac206dc8
RGS
1729=item dump() better written as CORE::dump()
1730
1731(W misc) You used the obsolescent C<dump()> built-in function, without fully
1732qualifying it as C<CORE::dump()>. Maybe it's a typo. See L<perlfunc/dump>.
1733
84d78eb7
YO
1734=item dump is not supported
1735
1736(F) Your machine doesn't support dump/undump.
1737
a0d0e21e
LW
1738=item Duplicate free() ignored
1739
be771a83
GS
1740(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had
1741already been freed.
a0d0e21e 1742
1109a392
MHM
1743=item Duplicate modifier '%c' after '%c' in %s
1744
35f0cd76
FC
1745(W unpack) You have applied the same modifier more than once after a
1746type in a pack template. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1109a392 1747
0953b66b
FC
1748=item each on reference is experimental
1749
0773cb3e
FC
1750(S experimental::autoderef) C<each> with a scalar argument is experimental
1751and may change or be removed in a future Perl version. If you want to
1752take the risk of using this feature, simply disable this warning:
0953b66b 1753
d401967c 1754 no warnings "experimental::autoderef";
0953b66b 1755
4633a7c4
LW
1756=item elseif should be elsif
1757
fa816bf3
FC
1758(S syntax) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks
1759it's ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method
1760named "elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
4633a7c4
LW
1761unlikely to be what you want.
1762
e0e4a6e3 1763=item Empty \%c{} in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
ab13f0c7 1764
af6f566e 1765(F) C<\p> and C<\P> are used to introduce a named Unicode property, as
6903afa2 1766described in L<perlunicode> and L<perlre>. You used C<\p> or C<\P> in
af6f566e 1767a regular expression without specifying the property name.
ab13f0c7 1768
85ab1d1d 1769=item entering effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1770
85ab1d1d 1771(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1772effective uids or gids failed.
1773
c038024b
RGS
1774=item %ENV is aliased to %s
1775
1776(F) You're running under taint mode, and the C<%ENV> variable has been
1777aliased to another hash, so it doesn't reflect anymore the state of the
6903afa2 1778program's environment. This is potentially insecure.
c038024b 1779
748a9306
LW
1780=item Error converting file specification %s
1781
5f05dabc 1782(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306 1783specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
be771a83
GS
1784single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've passed
1785an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a case the
1786conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
748a9306 1787
ad19ef22 1788=item Eval-group in insecure regular expression
e4d48cc9 1789
be771a83
GS
1790(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
1791expression that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which
1792is unsafe. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
e4d48cc9 1793
ad19ef22 1794=item Eval-group not allowed at runtime, use re 'eval' in regex m/%s/
e4d48cc9 1795
be771a83
GS
1796(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the
1797C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the
f11307f5
FC
1798pattern contains interpolated values. Since that is a security risk,
1799it is not allowed. If you insist, you may still do this by using the
1800C<re 'eval'> pragma or by explicitly building the pattern from an
1801interpolated string at run time and using that in an eval(). See
1802L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
e4d48cc9 1803
ad19ef22 1804=item Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval' in regex m/%s/
6df41af2 1805
be771a83
GS
1806(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width
1807assertion, but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'>
1808pragma is in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
6df41af2 1809
e0e4a6e3
FC
1810=item EVAL without pos change exceeded limit in regex; marked by
1811S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
1a147d38
YO
1812
1813(F) You used a pattern that nested too many EVAL calls without consuming
6903afa2 1814any text. Restructure the pattern so that text is consumed.
1a147d38 1815
9e3ec65c 1816The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
1a147d38
YO
1817discovered.
1818
fc36a67e
PP
1819=item Excessively long <> operator
1820
1821(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
1822Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
1823filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
1824variable and glob that.
1825
ed9aa3b7
SG
1826=item exec? I'm not *that* kind of operating system
1827
af8bb25a 1828(F) The C<exec> function is not implemented on some systems, e.g., Symbian
6903afa2 1829OS. See L<perlport>.
ed9aa3b7 1830
fe13d51d 1831=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors.
a0d0e21e
LW
1832
1833(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
1834
0ffcbc25
FC
1835=item exists argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or a subroutine
1836
4a0af295 1837(F) The argument to C<exists> must be a hash or array element or a
0ffcbc25
FC
1838subroutine with an ampersand, such as:
1839
1840 $foo{$bar}
1841 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
1842 &do_something
1843
1844=item exists argument is not a subroutine name
1845
ccfc2567
FC
1846(F) The argument to C<exists> for C<exists &sub> must be a subroutine name,
1847and not a subroutine call. C<exists &sub()> will generate this error.
0ffcbc25 1848
a0d0e21e
LW
1849=item Exiting eval via %s
1850
be771a83
GS
1851(W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as a
1852goto, or a loop control statement.
e476b1b5
GS
1853
1854=item Exiting format via %s
1855
9a2ff54b 1856(W exiting) You are exiting a format by unconventional means, such as a
be771a83 1857goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1858
0a753a76
PP
1859=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
1860
be771a83
GS
1861(W exiting) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a
1862sort block or subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a
1863loop control statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
0a753a76 1864
a0d0e21e
LW
1865=item Exiting subroutine via %s
1866
be771a83
GS
1867(W exiting) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such
1868as a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
1869
1870=item Exiting substitution via %s
1871
be771a83
GS
1872(W exiting) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such
1873as a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1874
e0e4a6e3 1875=item Expecting close bracket in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
c608e803 1876
675fa9ff 1877(F) You wrote something like
c608e803
KW
1878
1879 (?13
1880
1881to denote a capturing group of the form
1882L<C<(?I<PARNO>)>|perlre/(?PARNO) (?-PARNO) (?+PARNO) (?R) (?0)>,
1883but omitted the C<")">.
1884
e0e4a6e3 1885=item Expecting '(?flags:(?[...' in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
27350048 1886
8b6fbf55
FC
1887(F) The C<(?[...])> extended character class regular expression construct
1888only allows character classes (including character class escapes like
1889C<\d>), operators, and parentheses. The one exception is C<(?flags:...)>
1890containing at least one flag and exactly one C<(?[...])> construct.
27350048
FC
1891This allows a regular expression containing just C<(?[...])> to be
1892interpolated. If you see this error message, then you probably
1893have some other C<(?...)> construct inside your character class. See
1894L<perlrecharclass/Extended Bracketed Character Classes>.
1895
30d9c59b
Z
1896=item Experimental subroutine signatures not enabled
1897
1898(F) To use subroutine signatures, you must first enable them:
1899
caa35032 1900 no warnings "experimental::signatures";
30d9c59b
Z
1901 use feature "signatures";
1902 sub foo ($left, $right) { ... }
1903
6da34ecb
FC
1904=item Experimental "%s" subs not enabled
1905
1906(F) To use lexical subs, you must first enable them:
1907
1908 no warnings 'experimental::lexical_subs';
1909 use feature 'lexical_subs';
1910 my sub foo { ... }
1911
7b8d334a
GS
1912=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
1913
be771a83
GS
1914(W misc) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
1915the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
1916usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target package,
1917e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');
7b8d334a 1918
6df41af2
GS
1919=item %s: Expression syntax
1920
be771a83
GS
1921(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1922Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2
GS
1923
1924=item %s failed--call queue aborted
1925
3c10abe3
AG
1926(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a UNITCHECK,
1927CHECK, INIT, or END subroutine. Processing of the remainder of the
1928queue of such routines has been prematurely ended.
6df41af2 1929
e0e4a6e3 1930=item False [] range "%s" in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
73b437c8 1931
98d31c73 1932(W regexp)(F) A character class range must start and end at a literal
7253e4e3 1933character, not another character class like C<\d> or C<[:alpha:]>. The "-"
3c6ca74a
FC
1934in your false range is interpreted as a literal "-". In a C<(?[...])>
1935construct, this is an error, rather than a warning. Consider quoting
e0e4a6e3 1936the "-", "\-". The S<<-- HERE> shows whereabouts in the regular expression
3c6ca74a 1937the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
73b437c8 1938
1b1ee2ef 1939=item Fatal VMS error (status=%d) at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 1940
be771a83
GS
1941(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS
1942system service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more
1943details. The filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell
1944you which section of the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
1945
1946=item fcntl is not implemented
1947
1948(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
1949PDP-11 or something?
1950
22846ab4
AB
1951=item FETCHSIZE returned a negative value
1952
1953(F) A tied array claimed to have a negative number of elements, which
1954is not possible.
1955
f337b084
TH
1956=item Field too wide in 'u' format in pack
1957
d8b5cc61 1958(W pack) Each line in an uuencoded string starts with a length indicator
6903afa2
FC
1959which can't encode values above 63. So there is no point in asking for
1960a line length bigger than that. Perl will behave as if you specified
5c96f6f7 1961C<u63> as the format.
f337b084 1962
af8c498a 1963=item Filehandle %s opened only for input
a0d0e21e 1964
6c8d78fb
HS
1965(W io) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you intended
1966it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with "+<" or
1967"+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you intended only to
1968write the file, use ">" or ">>". See L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 1969
af8c498a 1970=item Filehandle %s opened only for output
a0d0e21e 1971
6c8d78fb
HS
1972(W io) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing, If
1973you intended it to be a read/write filehandle, you needed to open it
89a1bda8
FC
1974with "+<" or "+>" or "+>>" instead of with ">". If you intended only to
1975read from the file, use "<". See L<perlfunc/open>. Another possibility
1976is that you attempted to open filedescriptor 0 (also known as STDIN) for
1977output (maybe you closed STDIN earlier?).
97828cef
RGS
1978
1979=item Filehandle %s reopened as %s only for input
1980
1981(W io) You opened for reading a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
6903afa2 1982as STDOUT or STDERR. This occurred because you closed STDOUT or STDERR
97828cef
RGS
1983previously.
1984
1985=item Filehandle STDIN reopened as %s only for output
1986
1987(W io) You opened for writing a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
fa816bf3 1988as STDIN. This occurred because you closed STDIN previously.
a0d0e21e
LW
1989
1990=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
1991
1992(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
be771a83
GS
1993a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name that
1994happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or the
1995name.
a0d0e21e 1996
56e90b21
GS
1997=item flock() on closed filehandle %s
1998
be771a83 1999(W closed) The filehandle you're attempting to flock() got itself closed
c289d2f7 2000some time before now. Check your control flow. flock() operates on
be771a83
GS
2001filehandles. Are you attempting to call flock() on a dirhandle by the
2002same name?
56e90b21 2003
6df41af2
GS
2004=item Format not terminated
2005
2006(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
2007to the end of your file without finding such a line.
2008
a0d0e21e
LW
2009=item Format %s redefined
2010
e476b1b5 2011(W redefine) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
a0d0e21e
LW
2012
2013 {
271595cc 2014 no warnings 'redefine';
a0d0e21e
LW
2015 eval "format NAME =...";
2016 }
2017
a0d0e21e
LW
2018=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
2019
e476b1b5 2020(W syntax) You said
a0d0e21e
LW
2021
2022 if ($foo = 123)
2023
2024when you meant
2025
2026 if ($foo == 123)
2027
2028(or something like that).
2029
6df41af2
GS
2030=item %s found where operator expected
2031
56da5a46
RGS
2032(S syntax) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator.
2033If it sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an
be771a83
GS
2034operator, it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an
2035operator or delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
6df41af2 2036
a0d0e21e
LW
2037=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
2038
2039(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
2040
2041=item gethostent not implemented
2042
2043(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
2044because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
2045on the Internet.
2046
69282e91 2047=item get%sname() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2048
be771a83
GS
2049(W closed) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed
2050socket. Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
a0d0e21e 2051
748a9306
LW
2052=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
2053
2054(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
2055C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
2056
6df41af2
GS
2057=item getsockopt() on closed socket %s
2058
be771a83
GS
2059(W closed) You tried to get a socket option on a closed socket. Did you
2060forget to check the return value of your socket() call? See
6df41af2
GS
2061L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
2062
0f539b13
BF
2063=item given is experimental
2064
675fa9ff
FC
2065(S experimental::smartmatch) C<given> depends on smartmatch, which
2066is experimental, so its behavior may change or even be removed
2067in any future release of perl. See the explanation under
2068L<perlsyn/Experimental Details on given and when>.
0f539b13 2069
6df41af2
GS
2070=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
2071
a4edf47d 2072(F) You've said "use strict" or "use strict vars", which indicates
30c282f6 2073that all variables must either be lexically scoped (using "my" or "state"),
a4edf47d
GS
2074declared beforehand using "our", or explicitly qualified to say
2075which package the global variable is in (using "::").
6df41af2 2076
e476b1b5
GS
2077=item glob failed (%s)
2078
5ead438e 2079(S glob) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used
73c4e9dc
FC
2080for C<glob> and C<< <*.c> >>. Usually, this means that you supplied a C<glob>
2081pattern that caused the external program to fail and exit with a
be771a83 2082nonzero status. If the message indicates that the abnormal exit
73c4e9dc
FC
2083resulted in a coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C shell)
2084is broken. If so, you should change all of the csh-related variables
2085in config.sh: If you have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as
2086if it were csh (e.g. C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them
2087all empty (except that C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will
be771a83 2088think csh is missing. In either case, after editing config.sh, run
75b44862 2089C<./Configure -S> and rebuild Perl.
e476b1b5 2090
a0d0e21e
LW
2091=item Glob not terminated
2092
2093(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
be771a83
GS
2094a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and
2095not finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out
2096earlier in the line, and you really meant a "less than".
a0d0e21e 2097
b35b96b6
JH
2098=item gmtime(%f) failed
2099
2100(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with a number that it could not handle:
2101too large, too small, or NaN. The returned value is C<undef>.
2102
bcd05b94 2103=item gmtime(%f) too large
8b56d6ff 2104
e9200be3 2105(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with a number that was larger than
fc003d4b 2106it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong
6903afa2 2107date. This warning is also triggered with NaN (the special
fc003d4b
MS
2108not-a-number value).
2109
bcd05b94 2110=item gmtime(%f) too small
fc003d4b 2111
e9200be3 2112(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with a number that was smaller than
e7a1a147 2113it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong date.
8b56d6ff 2114
6df41af2 2115=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
a0d0e21e 2116
6df41af2
GS
2117(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
2118version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
a0d0e21e
LW
2119
2120=item goto must have label
2121
2122(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
2123unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2124
6651ba0b
FC
2125=item Goto undefined subroutine%s
2126
2127(F) You tried to call a subroutine with C<goto &sub> syntax, but
2128the indicated subroutine hasn't been defined, or if it was, it
2129has since been undefined.
2130
6fbc9859 2131=item Group name must start with a non-digit word character in regex; marked by
e0e4a6e3 2132S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
1f4f6bf1
YO
2133
2134(F) Group names must follow the rules for perl identifiers, meaning
f26c79ba
FC
2135they must start with a non-digit word character. A common cause of
2136this error is using (?&0) instead of (?0). See L<perlre>.
1f4f6bf1 2137
5a25739d
FC
2138=item ()-group starts with a count
2139
2140(F) A ()-group started with a count. A count is supposed to follow
2141something: a template character or a ()-group. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2142
fe13d51d 2143=item %s had compilation errors.
6df41af2
GS
2144
2145(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
2146
a0d0e21e
LW
2147=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
2148
be771a83
GS
2149(S internal) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought
2150to have existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be
2151created on an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
a0d0e21e 2152
6df41af2
GS
2153=item %s has too many errors
2154
2155(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
2156Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
2157
252aa082
JH
2158=item Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
2159
e476b1b5 2160(W portable) The hexadecimal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
2161(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
2162L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 2163
8903cb82
PP
2164=item Identifier too long
2165
2166(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e 2167about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
be771a83
GS
2168names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future versions
2169of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 2170
e0e4a6e3
FC
2171=item Ignoring zero length \N{} in character class in regex; marked by
2172S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
fc8cd66c 2173
b5e3739b
FC
2174(W regexp) Named Unicode character escapes C<(\N{...})> may return a
2175zero-length sequence. When such an escape is used in a character class
2176its behaviour is not well defined. Check that the correct escape has
fc8cd66c
YO
2177been used, and the correct charname handler is in scope.
2178
6df41af2 2179=item Illegal binary digit %s
f675dbe5 2180
6df41af2 2181(F) You used a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
f675dbe5 2182
6df41af2 2183=item Illegal binary digit %s ignored
a0d0e21e 2184
be771a83
GS
2185(W digit) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a
2186binary number. Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the
2187offending digit.
a0d0e21e 2188
6597eb22
FC
2189=item Illegal character after '_' in prototype for %s : %s
2190
e4d150f1
FC
2191(W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype
2192declaration. The '_' in a prototype must be followed by a ';',
2193indicating the rest of the parameters are optional, or one of '@'
2194or '%', since those two will accept 0 or more final parameters.
6597eb22 2195
78d0fecf 2196=item Illegal character \%o (carriage return)
4fdae800 2197
d5898338 2198(F) Perl normally treats carriage returns in the program text as it
be771a83
GS
2199would any other whitespace, which means you should never see this error
2200when Perl was built using standard options. For some reason, your
2201version of Perl appears to have been built without this support. Talk
2202to your Perl administrator.
4fdae800 2203
d37a9538
ST
2204=item Illegal character in prototype for %s : %s
2205
197afce1 2206(W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype declaration.
2e9cc7ef 2207Legal characters in prototypes are $, @, %, *, ;, [, ], &, \, and +.
30d9c59b
Z
2208Perhaps you were trying to write a subroutine signature but didn't enable
2209that feature first (C<use feature 'signatures'>), so your signature was
2210instead interpreted as a bad prototype.
d37a9538 2211
904d85c5
RGS
2212=item Illegal declaration of anonymous subroutine
2213
2214(F) When using the C<sub> keyword to construct an anonymous subroutine,
6903afa2 2215you must always specify a block of code. See L<perlsub>.
904d85c5 2216
8e742a20
MHM
2217=item Illegal declaration of subroutine %s
2218
6903afa2 2219(F) A subroutine was not declared correctly. See L<perlsub>.
8e742a20 2220
a0d0e21e
LW
2221=item Illegal division by zero
2222
be771a83
GS
2223(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in
2224your logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against
2225meaningless input.
a0d0e21e 2226
6df41af2
GS
2227=item Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
2228
be771a83
GS
2229(W digit) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or
2230A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal
2231number stopped before the illegal character.
6df41af2 2232
a0d0e21e
LW
2233=item Illegal modulus zero
2234
be771a83
GS
2235(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most
2236numbers don't take to this kindly.
a0d0e21e 2237
6df41af2 2238=item Illegal number of bits in vec
399388f4 2239
6df41af2
GS
2240(F) The number of bits in vec() (the third argument) must be a power of
2241two from 1 to 32 (or 64, if your platform supports that).
399388f4
GS
2242
2243=item Illegal octal digit %s
a0d0e21e 2244
d1be9408 2245(F) You used an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
a0d0e21e 2246
399388f4 2247=item Illegal octal digit %s ignored
748a9306 2248
d1be9408 2249(W digit) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
75b44862 2250Interpretation of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
748a9306 2251
e0e4a6e3 2252=item Illegal pattern in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
c608e803 2253
675fa9ff 2254(F) You wrote something like
c608e803
KW
2255
2256 (?+foo)
2257
2258The C<"+"> is valid only when followed by digits, indicating a
2259capturing group. See
2260L<C<(?I<PARNO>)>|perlre/(?PARNO) (?-PARNO) (?+PARNO) (?R) (?0)>.
2261
375ed12a
JH
2262=item Illegal suidscript
2263
2264(F) The script run under suidperl was somehow illegal.
2265
fe13d51d 2266=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: -%c
6ff81951 2267
6df41af2 2268(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
646ca9b2 2269following switches: B<-[CDIMUdmtw]>.
6ff81951 2270
6df41af2 2271=item Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
81e118e0 2272
75b44862 2273(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the CRTL's
be771a83
GS
2274internal environ array, and encountered an element without the C<=>
2275delimiter used to separate keys from values. The element is ignored.
09bef843 2276
6df41af2 2277=item Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
54310121 2278
be771a83
GS
2279(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read a logical
2280name or CLI symbol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and
2281didn't see the expected delimiter between key and value, so the line was
2282ignored.
54310121 2283
6df41af2 2284=item (in cleanup) %s
9607fc9c 2285
be771a83
GS
2286(W misc) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised
2287the indicated exception. Since destructors are usually called by the
2288system at arbitrary points during execution, and often a vast number of
2289times, the warning is issued only once for any number of failures that
2290would otherwise result in the same message being repeated.
6df41af2 2291
be771a83
GS
2292Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the C<G_KEEPERR> flag could
2293also result in this warning. See L<perlcall/G_KEEPERR>.
9607fc9c 2294
e0e4a6e3
FC
2295=item Incomplete expression within '(?[ ])' in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE>
2296in m/%s/
0d0b4b3b 2297
675fa9ff 2298(F) There was a syntax error within the C<(?[ ])>. This can happen if the
0d0b4b3b
KW
2299expression inside the construct was completely empty, or if there are
2300too many or few operands for the number of operators. Perl is not smart
2301enough to give you a more precise indication as to what is wrong.
2302
6fbc9859
MH
2303=item Inconsistent hierarchy during C3 merge of class '%s': merging failed on
2304parent '%s'
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2305
2306(F) The method resolution order (MRO) of the given class is not
2307C3-consistent, and you have enabled the C3 MRO for this class. See the C3
2308documentation in L<mro> for more information.
2309
979699d9
JH
2310=item In EBCDIC the v-string components cannot exceed 2147483647
2311
2312(F) An error peculiar to EBCDIC. Internally, v-strings are stored as
2313Unicode code points, and encoded in EBCDIC as UTF-EBCDIC. The UTF-EBCDIC
2314encoding is limited to code points no larger than 2147483647 (0x7FFFFFFF).
2315
6a2ed79a 2316=item Infinite recursion in regex
1a147d38
YO
2317
2318(F) You used a pattern that references itself without consuming any input
6903afa2 2319text. You should check the pattern to ensure that recursive patterns
1a147d38
YO
2320either consume text or fail.
2321
6dbe9451
NC
2322=item Initialization of state variables in list context currently forbidden
2323
6903afa2
FC
2324(F) Currently the implementation of "state" only permits the
2325initialization of scalar variables in scalar context. Re-write
2326C<state ($a) = 42> as C<state $a = 42> to change from list to scalar
2327context. Constructions such as C<state (@a) = foo()> will be
2328supported in a future perl release.
6dbe9451 2329
2186f873
FC
2330=item %%s[%s] in scalar context better written as $%s[%s]
2331
2332(W syntax) In scalar context, you've used an array index/value slice
2333(indicated by %) to select a single element of an array. Generally
2334it's better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by $). The difference
2335is that C<$foo[&bar]> always behaves like a scalar, both in the value it
2336returns and when evaluating its argument, while C<%foo[&bar]> provides
2337a list context to its subscript, which can do weird things if you're
2338expecting only one subscript. When called in list context, it also
2339returns the index (what C<&bar> returns) in addition to the value.
2340
2341=item %%s{%s} in scalar context better written as $%s{%s}
2342
2343(W syntax) In scalar context, you've used a hash key/value slice
2344(indicated by %) to select a single element of a hash. Generally it's
2345better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by $). The difference
2346is that C<$foo{&bar}> always behaves like a scalar, both in the value
2347it returns and when evaluating its argument, while C<@foo{&bar}> and
2348provides a list context to its subscript, which can do weird things
2349if you're expecting only one subscript. When called in list context,
2350it also returns the key in addition to the value.
2351
a0d0e21e
LW
2352=item Insecure dependency in %s
2353
8b1a09fc 2354(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
be771a83
GS
2355The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or
2356setgid, or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The
2357tainting mechanism labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly
2358from the user, who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any
2359such data is used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See
2360L<perlsec> for more information.
a0d0e21e
LW
2361
2362=item Insecure directory in %s
2363
be771a83
GS
2364(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
2365setgid script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by
df98f984
RGS
2366the world. Also, the PATH must not contain any relative directory.
2367See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2368
62f468fc 2369=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2370
2371(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc 2372setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
332d5f78
SR
2373C<$ENV{ENV}>, C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> or C<$ENV{TERM}> are derived from data
2374supplied (or potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set
2375the path to a known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2376
0e9be77f
DM
2377=item Insecure user-defined property %s
2378
2379(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
2380expression that contains a call to a user-defined character property
2381function, i.e. C<\p{IsFoo}> or C<\p{InFoo}>.
2382See L<perlunicode/User-Defined Character Properties> and L<perlsec>.
2383
cd209d9d 2384=item In '(?...)', the '(' and '?' must be adjacent in regex;
e0e4a6e3 2385marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
675fa9ff 2386
cd209d9d 2387(F) The two-character sequence C<"(?"> in
675fa9ff
FC
2388this context in a regular expression pattern should be an
2389indivisible token, with nothing intervening between the C<"(">
cd209d9d 2390and the C<"?">, but you separated them.
675fa9ff 2391
b9ef414d
FC
2392=item Integer overflow in format string for %s
2393
2394(F) The indexes and widths specified in the format string of C<printf()>
2395or C<sprintf()> are too large. The numbers must not overflow the size of
2396integers for your architecture.
2397
a7ae9550
GS
2398=item Integer overflow in %s number
2399
35928bc5 2400(S overflow) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have specified
be771a83
GS
2401either as a literal or as an argument to hex() or oct() is too big for
2402your architecture, and has been converted to a floating point number.
2403On a 32-bit architecture the largest hexadecimal, octal or binary number
9e24b6e2
JH
2404representable without overflow is 0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or
24050b11111111111111111111111111111111 respectively. Note that Perl
2406transparently promotes all numbers to a floating point representation
2407internally--subject to loss of precision errors in subsequent
2408operations.
bbce6d69 2409
fc89ca81
FC
2410=item Integer overflow in srand
2411
2412(S overflow) The number you have passed to srand is too big to fit
2413in your architecture's integer representation. The number has been
2414replaced with the largest integer supported (0xFFFFFFFF on 32-bit
2415architectures). This means you may be getting less randomness than
2416you expect, because different random seeds above the maximum will
2417return the same sequence of random numbers.
2418
46314c13
JP
2419=item Integer overflow in version
2420
18da5252
FC
2421=item Integer overflow in version %d
2422
784d71ed
FC
2423(W overflow) Some portion of a version initialization is too large for
2424the size of integers for your architecture. This is not a warning
f084e84f 2425because there is no rational reason for a version to try and use an
784d71ed
FC
2426element larger than typically 2**32. This is usually caused by trying
2427to use some odd mathematical operation as a version, like 100/9.
46314c13 2428
e0e4a6e3 2429=item Internal disaster in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2430
2431(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
e0e4a6e3 2432The S<<-- HERE> shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
b45f050a
JF
2433discovered.
2434
748a9306
LW
2435=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
2436
be771a83
GS
2437(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number of times
2438you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine whether the current call
2439to C<exec> should affect the current script or a subprocess (see
2440L<perlvms/"exec LIST">). Somehow, this count has become scrambled, so
2441Perl is making a guess and treating this C<exec> as a request to
2442terminate the Perl script and execute the specified command.
748a9306 2443
870978ae
FC
2444=item internal %<num>p might conflict with future printf extensions
2445
2446(S internal) Perl's internal routine that handles C<printf> and C<sprintf>
2447formatting follows a slightly different set of rules when called from
2448C or XS code. Specifically, formats consisting of digits followed
2449by "p" (e.g., "%7p") are reserved for future use. If you see this
2450message, then an XS module tried to call that routine with one such
2451reserved format.
2452
e0e4a6e3 2453=item Internal urp in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
b45f050a 2454
fa816bf3 2455(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser. The
e0e4a6e3 2456S<<-- HERE> shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
7253e4e3 2457discovered.
a0d0e21e 2458
6df41af2
GS
2459=item %s (...) interpreted as function
2460
75b44862 2461(W syntax) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator
be771a83 2462followed by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list
64977eb6 2463operators arguments found inside the parentheses. See
13a2d996 2464L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
6df41af2 2465
09bef843
SB
2466=item Invalid %s attribute: %s
2467
a4a4c9e2 2468(F) The indicated attribute for a subroutine or variable was not recognized
09bef843
SB
2469by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
2470
2471=item Invalid %s attributes: %s
2472
a4a4c9e2 2473(F) The indicated attributes for a subroutine or variable were not
be771a83 2474recognized by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2475
e0e4a6e3
FC
2476=item Invalid character in charnames alias definition; marked by
2477S<<-- HERE> in '%s
225fb84f
KW
2478
2479(F) You tried to create a custom alias for a character name, with
2480the C<:alias> option to C<use charnames> and the specified character in
2481the indicated name isn't valid. See L<charnames/CUSTOM ALIASES>.
2482
c8028aa6
TC
2483=item Invalid \0 character in %s for %s: %s\0%s
2484
fa3234e3
FC
2485(W syscalls) Embedded \0 characters in pathnames or other system call
2486arguments produce a warning as of 5.20. The parts after the \0 were
2487formerly ignored by system calls.
c8028aa6 2488
e0e4a6e3 2489=item Invalid character in \N{...}; marked by S<<-- HERE> in \N{%s}
a690c7c4
FC
2490
2491(F) Only certain characters are valid for character names. The
2492indicated one isn't. See L<charnames/CUSTOM ALIASES>.
2493
c635e13b
PP
2494=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
2495
be771a83
GS
2496(W printf) Perl does not understand the given format conversion. See
2497L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
c635e13b 2498
e0e4a6e3
FC
2499=item Invalid escape in the specified encoding in regex; marked by
2500S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
9e08bc66 2501
98d31c73 2502(W regexp)(F) The numeric escape (for example C<\xHH>) of value < 256
9e08bc66
ST
2503didn't correspond to a single character through the conversion
2504from the encoding specified by the encoding pragma.
98d31c73
FC
2505The escape was replaced with REPLACEMENT CHARACTER (U+FFFD)
2506instead, except within S<C<(?[ ])>>, where it is a fatal error.
e0e4a6e3 2507The S<<-- HERE> shows whereabouts in the regular expression the
9e08bc66
ST
2508escape was discovered.
2509
8149aa9f
FC
2510=item Invalid hexadecimal number in \N{U+...}
2511
e0e4a6e3
FC
2512=item Invalid hexadecimal number in \N{U+...} in regex; marked by
2513S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
aec0ef10 2514
8149aa9f 2515(F) The character constant represented by C<...> is not a valid hexadecimal
74f8e9e3
FC
2516number. Either it is empty, or you tried to use a character other than
25170 - 9 or A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number.
8149aa9f 2518
6651ba0b
FC
2519=item Invalid module name %s with -%c option: contains single ':'
2520
2521(F) The module argument to perl's B<-m> and B<-M> command-line options
2522cannot contain single colons in the module name, but only in the
2523arguments after "=". In other words, B<-MFoo::Bar=:baz> is ok, but
2524B<-MFoo:Bar=baz> is not.
2525
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2526=item Invalid mro name: '%s'
2527
162a3e34
FC
2528(F) You tried to C<mro::set_mro("classname", "foo")> or C<use mro 'foo'>,
2529where C<foo> is not a valid method resolution order (MRO). Currently,
2530the only valid ones supported are C<dfs> and C<c3>, unless you have loaded
2531a module that is a MRO plugin. See L<mro> and L<perlmroapi>.
2c7d6b9c 2532
40e4140b
FC
2533=item Invalid negative number (%s) in chr
2534
2535(W utf8) You passed a negative number to C<chr>. Negative numbers are
2536not valid characters numbers, so it return the Unicode replacement
2537character (U+FFFD).
2538
6651ba0b
FC
2539=item invalid option -D%c, use -D'' to see choices
2540
8ff21bfe
FC
2541(S debugging) Perl was called with invalid debugger flags. Call perl
2542with the B<-D> option with no flags to see the list of acceptable values.
982c4ecb 2543See also L<perlrun/-Dletters>.
6651ba0b 2544
e0e4a6e3 2545=item Invalid [] range "%s" in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2546
2547(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
7253e4e3
RK
2548greater than the maximum character. One possibility is that you forgot the
2549C<{}> from your ending C<\x{}> - C<\x> without the curly braces can go only
e0e4a6e3 2550up to C<ff>. The S<<-- HERE> shows whereabouts in the regular expression the
7253e4e3 2551problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 2552
d1573ac7 2553=item Invalid range "%s" in transliteration operator
c2e66d9e
GS
2554
2555(F) The range specified in the tr/// or y/// operator had a minimum
2556character greater than the maximum character. See L<perlop>.
2557
09bef843
SB
2558=item Invalid separator character %s in attribute list
2559
0120eecf 2560(F) Something other than a colon or whitespace was seen between the
be771a83
GS
2561elements of an attribute list. If the previous attribute had a
2562parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that list was terminated too soon.
2563See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2564
b4581f09
JH
2565=item Invalid separator character %s in PerlIO layer specification %s
2566
2bfc5f71
FC
2567(W layer) When pushing layers onto the Perl I/O system, something other
2568than a colon or whitespace was seen between the elements of a layer list.
b4581f09
JH
2569If the previous attribute had a parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that
2570list was terminated too soon.
2571
2c86d456
DG
2572=item Invalid strict version format (%s)
2573
fa816bf3 2574(F) A version number did not meet the "strict" criteria for versions.
2c86d456
DG
2575A "strict" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2576decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
2577v-string with a leading 'v' character and at least three components.
a6485a24 2578The parenthesized text indicates which criteria were not met.
2c86d456
DG
2579See the L<version> module for more details on allowed version formats.
2580
49704364 2581=item Invalid type '%s' in %s
96e4d5b1 2582
49704364
LW
2583(F) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type.
2584See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6728c851 2585
49704364 2586(W) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type but used to be
75b44862 2587silently ignored.
96e4d5b1 2588
2c86d456
DG
2589=item Invalid version format (%s)
2590
fa816bf3 2591(F) A version number did not meet the "lax" criteria for versions.
2c86d456
DG
2592A "lax" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2593decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
fa816bf3
FC
2594v-string. If the v-string has fewer than three components, it
2595must have a leading 'v' character. Otherwise, the leading 'v' is
2596optional. Both decimal and dotted-decimal versions may have a
2597trailing "alpha" component separated by an underscore character
2598after a fractional or dotted-decimal component. The parenthesized
2599text indicates which criteria were not met. See the L<version> module
2600for more details on allowed version formats.
46314c13 2601
798ae1b7
DG
2602=item Invalid version object
2603
fa816bf3
FC
2604(F) The internal structure of the version object was invalid.
2605Perhaps the internals were modified directly in some way or
2606an arbitrary reference was blessed into the "version" class.
798ae1b7 2607
cd209d9d 2608=item In '(*VERB...)', the '(' and '*' must be adjacent in regex;
e0e4a6e3 2609marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
675fa9ff 2610
cd209d9d 2611(F) The two-character sequence C<"(*"> in
675fa9ff
FC
2612this context in a regular expression pattern should be an
2613indivisible token, with nothing intervening between the C<"(">
cd209d9d 2614and the C<"*">, but you separated them.
675fa9ff 2615
a0d0e21e
LW
2616=item ioctl is not implemented
2617
2618(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
2619strange for a machine that supports C.
2620
c289d2f7
JH
2621=item ioctl() on unopened %s
2622
2623(W unopened) You tried ioctl() on a filehandle that was never opened.
34b6fd5e 2624Check your control flow and number of arguments.
c289d2f7 2625
fe13d51d 2626=item IO layers (like '%s') unavailable
363c40c4
SB
2627
2628(F) Your Perl has not been configured to have PerlIO, and therefore
34b6fd5e 2629you cannot use IO layers. To have PerlIO, Perl must be configured
363c40c4
SB
2630with 'useperlio'.
2631
80cbd5ad
JH
2632=item IO::Socket::atmark not implemented on this architecture
2633
2634(F) Your machine doesn't implement the sockatmark() functionality,
34b6fd5e 2635neither as a system call nor an ioctl call (SIOCATMARK).
80cbd5ad 2636
4f650b80 2637=item $* is no longer supported
b4581f09 2638
4f650b80 2639(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$*>, deprecated in older
ea9d9ebc 2640perls, has been removed as of 5.10.0 and is no longer supported. In
4f650b80
NC
2641previous versions of perl the use of C<$*> enabled or disabled multi-line
2642matching within a string.
4fd19576
B
2643
2644Instead of using C<$*> you should use the C</m> (and maybe C</s>) regexp
6903afa2
FC
2645modifiers. You can enable C</m> for a lexical scope (even a whole file)
2646with C<use re '/m'>. (In older versions: when C<$*> was set to a true value
570dedd4 2647then all regular expressions behaved as if they were written using C</m>.)
b4581f09 2648
8ae1fe26
RGS
2649=item $# is no longer supported
2650
a58ac25e 2651(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$#>, deprecated in older
ea9d9ebc 2652perls, has been removed as of 5.10.0 and is no longer supported. You
a58ac25e 2653should use the printf/sprintf functions instead.
8ae1fe26 2654
ccf3535a 2655=item '%s' is not a code reference
6ad11d81 2656
6903afa2
FC
2657(W overload) The second (fourth, sixth, ...) argument of
2658overload::constant needs to be a code reference. Either
2659an anonymous subroutine, or a reference to a subroutine.
6ad11d81 2660
ccf3535a 2661=item '%s' is not an overloadable type
6ad11d81 2662
04a80ee0
RGS
2663(W overload) You tried to overload a constant type the overload package is
2664unaware of.
6ad11d81 2665
5a25739d
FC
2666=item -i used with no filenames on the command line, reading from STDIN
2667
2668(S inplace) The C<-i> option was passed on the command line, indicating
2669that the script is intended to edit files in place, but no files were
2670given. This is usually a mistake, since editing STDIN in place doesn't
2671make sense, and can be confusing because it can make perl look like
2672it is hanging when it is really just trying to read from STDIN. You
2673should either pass a filename to edit, or remove C<-i> from the command
2674line. See L<perlrun> for more details.
2675
aec0ef10 2676=item Junk on end of regexp in regex m/%s/
a0d0e21e
LW
2677
2678(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
2679
0953b66b
FC
2680=item keys on reference is experimental
2681
0773cb3e
FC
2682(S experimental::autoderef) C<keys> with a scalar argument is experimental
2683and may change or be removed in a future Perl version. If you want to
2684take the risk of using this feature, simply disable this warning:
0953b66b 2685
d401967c 2686 no warnings "experimental::autoderef";
0953b66b 2687
a0d0e21e
LW
2688=item Label not found for "last %s"
2689
be771a83
GS
2690(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a loop
2691of that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2692L<perlfunc/last>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2693
2694=item Label not found for "next %s"
2695
2696(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
2697that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2698L<perlfunc/last>.
2699
2700=item Label not found for "redo %s"
2701
2702(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
2703that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2704L<perlfunc/last>.
2705
85ab1d1d 2706=item leaving effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 2707
85ab1d1d 2708(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
2709effective uids or gids failed.
2710
49704364
LW
2711=item length/code after end of string in unpack
2712
d7f8936a 2713(F) While unpacking, the string buffer was already used up when an unpack
6903afa2
FC
2714length/code combination tried to obtain more data. This results in
2715an undefined value for the length. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
49704364 2716
25e26107 2717=item length() used on %s (did you mean "scalar(%s)"?)
e508c8a4 2718
0d46a4e7
FC
2719(W syntax) You used length() on either an array or a hash when you
2720probably wanted a count of the items.
e508c8a4
MH
2721
2722Array size can be obtained by doing:
2723
2724 scalar(@array);
2725
2726The number of items in a hash can be obtained by doing:
2727
2728 scalar(keys %hash);
2729
f0e67a1d
Z
2730=item Lexing code attempted to stuff non-Latin-1 character into Latin-1 input
2731
d4fe7078
RS
2732(F) An extension is attempting to insert text into the current parse
2733(using L<lex_stuff_pvn|perlapi/lex_stuff_pvn> or similar), but tried to insert a character that
2734couldn't be part of the current input. This is an inherent pitfall
2735of the stuffing mechanism, and one of the reasons to avoid it. Where
6903afa2 2736it is necessary to stuff, stuffing only plain ASCII is recommended.
f0e67a1d
Z
2737
2738=item Lexing code internal error (%s)
2739
2740(F) Lexing code supplied by an extension violated the lexer's API in a
2741detectable way.
2742
69282e91 2743=item listen() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2744
be771a83
GS
2745(W closed) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget
2746to check the return value of your socket() call? See
2747L<perlfunc/listen>.
a0d0e21e 2748
6651ba0b
FC
2749=item List form of piped open not implemented
2750
2751(F) On some platforms, notably Windows, the three-or-more-arguments
2752form of C<open> does not support pipes, such as C<open($pipe, '|-', @args)>.
2753Use the two-argument C<open($pipe, '|prog arg1 arg2...')> form instead.
2754
b35b96b6
JH
2755=item localtime(%f) failed
2756
2757(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with a number that it could not handle:
2758too large, too small, or NaN. The returned value is C<undef>.
2759
bcd05b94 2760=item localtime(%f) too large
8b56d6ff 2761
e9200be3 2762(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with a number that was larger
fc003d4b 2763than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
6903afa2 2764wrong date. This warning is also triggered with NaN (the special
fc003d4b
MS
2765not-a-number value).
2766
bcd05b94 2767=item localtime(%f) too small
fc003d4b 2768
e9200be3 2769(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with a number that was smaller
fc003d4b 2770than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
e7a1a147 2771wrong date.
8b56d6ff 2772
58e23c8d 2773=item Lookbehind longer than %d not implemented in regex m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
2774
2775(F) There is currently a limit on the length of string which lookbehind can
6903afa2 2776handle. This restriction may be eased in a future release.
2e50fd82 2777
b88df990
NC
2778=item Lost precision when %s %f by 1
2779
e63e8a91
FC
2780(W imprecision) The value you attempted to increment or decrement by one
2781is too large for the underlying floating point representation to store
2782accurately, hence the target of C<++> or C<--> is unchanged. Perl issues this
2783warning because it has already switched from integers to floating point
2784when values are too large for integers, and now even floating point is
2785insufficient. You may wish to switch to using L<Math::BigInt> explicitly.
b88df990 2786
93fad930 2787=item lstat() on filehandle%s
2f7da168
RK
2788
2789(W io) You tried to do an lstat on a filehandle. What did you mean
2790by that? lstat() makes sense only on filenames. (Perl did a fstat()
2791instead on the filehandle.)
2792
345d70e3 2793=item lvalue attribute %s already-defined subroutine
bb3abb05 2794
345d70e3
FC
2795(W misc) Although L<attributes.pm|attributes> allows this, turning the lvalue
2796attribute on or off on a Perl subroutine that is already defined
2797does not always work properly. It may or may not do what you
2798want, depending on what code is inside the subroutine, with exact
2799details subject to change between Perl versions. Only do this
2800if you really know what you are doing.
bb3abb05 2801
885ef6f5
GG
2802=item lvalue attribute ignored after the subroutine has been defined
2803
345d70e3
FC
2804(W misc) Using the C<:lvalue> declarative syntax to make a Perl
2805subroutine an lvalue subroutine after it has been defined is
2806not permitted. To make the subroutine an lvalue subroutine,
2807add the lvalue attribute to the definition, or put the C<sub
2808foo :lvalue;> declaration before the definition.
2809
2810See also L<attributes.pm|attributes>.
885ef6f5 2811
6f1b3ab0
FC
2812=item Magical list constants are not supported
2813
2814(F) You assigned a magical array to a stash element, and then tried
2815to use the subroutine from the same slot. You are asking Perl to do
2816something it cannot do, details subject to change between Perl versions.
2817
2db62bbc 2818=item Malformed integer in [] in pack
49704364 2819
2db62bbc 2820(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
49704364
LW
2821are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2822
2823=item Malformed integer in [] in unpack
2824
2db62bbc 2825(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
49704364
LW
2826are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2827
6df41af2
GS
2828=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
2829
2830(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
2831
2832 prefix1;prefix2
2833
2834or
6df41af2
GS
2835 prefix1 prefix2
2836
be771a83
GS
2837with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix of
2838a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error may
2839appear if components are not found, or are too long. See
fecfaeb8 2840"PERLLIB_PREFIX" in L<perlos2>.
6df41af2 2841
2f758a16
ST
2842=item Malformed prototype for %s: %s
2843
d37a9538
ST
2844(F) You tried to use a function with a malformed prototype. The
2845syntax of function prototypes is given a brief compile-time check for
2846obvious errors like invalid characters. A more rigorous check is run
2847when the function is called.
30d9c59b
Z
2848Perhaps the function's author was trying to write a subroutine signature
2849but didn't enable that feature first (C<use feature 'signatures'>),
2850so the signature was instead interpreted as a bad prototype.
2f758a16 2851
ba210ebe
JH
2852=item Malformed UTF-8 character (%s)
2853
4d6f11e5 2854(S utf8)(F) Perl detected a string that didn't comply with UTF-8
2575c402 2855encoding rules, even though it had the UTF8 flag on.
ba210ebe 2856
2575c402
JW
2857One possible cause is that you set the UTF8 flag yourself for data that
2858you thought to be in UTF-8 but it wasn't (it was for example legacy
6903afa2 28598-bit data). To guard against this, you can use Encode::decode_utf8.
2575c402
JW
2860
2861If you use the C<:encoding(UTF-8)> PerlIO layer for input, invalid byte
2862sequences are handled gracefully, but if you use C<:utf8>, the flag is
2863set without validating the data, possibly resulting in this error
2864message.
2865
2866See also L<Encode/"Handling Malformed Data">.
901b21bf 2867
107160e2
KW
2868=item Malformed UTF-8 character immediately after '%s'
2869
2870(F) You said C<use utf8>, but the program file doesn't comply with UTF-8
2871encoding rules. The message prints out the properly encoded characters
2872just before the first bad one. If C<utf8> warnings are enabled, a
2873warning is generated that gives more details about the type of
2874malformation.
2875
bde9e88d 2876=item Malformed UTF-8 returned by \N{%s} immediately after '%s'
ff3f963a
KW
2877
2878(F) The charnames handler returned malformed UTF-8.
2879
4a5d3a93
FC
2880=item Malformed UTF-8 string in '%c' format in unpack
2881
2882(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2883rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2884
f337b084
TH
2885=item Malformed UTF-8 string in pack
2886
2887(F) You tried to pack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2888rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2889
2890=item Malformed UTF-8 string in unpack
2891
2892(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2893rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2894
4a5d3a93 2895=item Malformed UTF-16 surrogate
f337b084 2896
4a5d3a93
FC
2897(F) Perl thought it was reading UTF-16 encoded character data but while
2898doing it Perl met a malformed Unicode surrogate.
2899
30d9c59b
Z
2900=item Mandatory parameter follows optional parameter
2901
2902(F) In a subroutine signature, you wrote something like "$a = undef,
2903$b", making an earlier parameter optional and a later one mandatory.
2904Parameters are filled from left to right, so it's impossible for the
2905caller to omit an earlier one and pass a later one. If you want to act
2906as if the parameters are filled from right to left, declare the rightmost
2907optional and then shuffle the parameters around in the subroutine's body.
2908
2d88a86a
KW
2909=item Matched non-Unicode code point 0x%X against Unicode property; may
2910not be portable
2911
2912(S non_unicode) Perl allows strings to contain a superset of
2913Unicode code points; each code point may be as large as what is storable
2914in an unsigned integer on your system, but these may not be accepted by
2915other languages/systems. This message occurs when you matched a string
2916containing such a code point against a regular expression pattern, and
2917the code point was matched against a Unicode property, C<\p{...}> or
2918C<\P{...}>. Unicode properties are only defined on Unicode code points,
2919so the result of this match is undefined by Unicode, but Perl (starting
2920in v5.20) treats non-Unicode code points as if they were typical
2921unassigned Unicode ones, and matched this one accordingly. Whether a
2922given property matches these code points or not is specified in
2923L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>.
2924
2925This message is suppressed (unless it has been made fatal) if it is
2926immaterial to the results of the match if the code point is Unicode or
2927not. For example, the property C<\p{ASCII_Hex_Digit}> only can match
2928the 22 characters C<[0-9A-Fa-f]>, so obviously all other code points,
2929Unicode or not, won't match it. (And C<\P{ASCII_Hex_Digit}> will match
2930every code point except these 22.)
2931
2932Getting this message indicates that the outcome of the match arguably
2933should have been the opposite of what actually happened. If you think
2934that is the case, you may wish to make the C<non_unicode> warnings
2935category fatal; if you agree with Perl's decision, you may wish to turn
2936off this category.
2937
2938See L<perlunicode/Beyond Unicode code points> for more information.
2939
e0e4a6e3
FC
2940=item %s matches null string many times in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in
2941m/%s/
4a5d3a93
FC
2942
2943(W regexp) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
e0e4a6e3 2944regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. The S<<-- HERE>
9e3ec65c 2945shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was discovered.
4a5d3a93 2946See L<perlre>.
f337b084 2947
de42a5a9 2948=item Maximal count of pending signals (%u) exceeded
2563cec5 2949
6903afa2 2950(F) Perl aborted due to too high a number of signals pending. This
2563cec5
IZ
2951usually indicates that your operating system tried to deliver signals
2952too fast (with a very high priority), starving the perl process from
2953resources it would need to reach a point where it can process signals
6903afa2 2954safely. (See L<perlipc/"Deferred Signals (Safe Signals)">.)
2563cec5 2955
25f58aea
PN
2956=item "%s" may clash with future reserved word
2957
2958(W) This warning may be due to running a perl5 script through a perl4
2959interpreter, especially if the word that is being warned about is
2960"use" or "my".
2961
0d2487cd 2962=item '%' may not be used in pack
6df41af2
GS
2963
2964(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
be771a83
GS
2965checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other way.
2966See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
6df41af2 2967
a0d0e21e
LW
2968=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
2969
2970(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
e7ea3e70 2971doesn't resolve to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 2972
3cdd684c
TP
2973=item Method %s not permitted
2974
2975See Server error.
2976
a0d0e21e
LW
2977=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
2978
2979(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
2980by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
2981ended earlier on the current line.
2982
2983=item Misplaced _ in number
2984
d4ced10d
JH
2985(W syntax) An underscore (underbar) in a numeric constant did not
2986separate two digits.
a0d0e21e 2987
7baa4690
HS
2988=item Missing argument in %s
2989
2990(W uninitialized) A printf-type format required more arguments than were
2991supplied.
2992
9e81e6a1
RGS
2993=item Missing argument to -%c
2994
2995(F) The argument to the indicated command line switch must follow
2996immediately after the switch, without intervening spaces.
2997
ff3f963a 2998=item Missing braces on \N{}
423cee85 2999
e0e4a6e3 3000=item Missing braces on \N{} in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
aec0ef10 3001
4a2d328f 3002(F) Wrong syntax of character name literal C<\N{charname}> within
532cb70d
FC
3003double-quotish context. This can also happen when there is a space
3004(or comment) between the C<\N> and the C<{> in a regex with the C</x> modifier.
3005This modifier does not change the requirement that the brace immediately
3006follow the C<\N>.
423cee85 3007
f0a2b745
KW
3008=item Missing braces on \o{}
3009
3010(F) A C<\o> must be followed immediately by a C<{> in double-quotish context.
3011
a0d0e21e
LW
3012=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
3013
3014(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
3015"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
3016
06eaf0bc
GS
3017=item Missing command in piped open
3018
be771a83
GS
3019(W pipe) You used the C<open(FH, "| command")> or
3020C<open(FH, "command |")> construction, but the command was missing or
3021blank.
06eaf0bc 3022
961ce445
RGS
3023=item Missing control char name in \c
3024
3025(F) A double-quoted string ended with "\c", without the required control
3026character name.
3027
591f5ca2
FC
3028=item Missing ']' in prototype for %s : %s
3029
bfe11873 3030(W illegalproto) A grouping was started with C<[> but never closed with C<]>.
591f5ca2 3031
8767b1ab 3032=item Missing name in "%s sub"
6df41af2 3033
87444db5 3034(F) The syntax for lexically scoped subroutines requires that
be771a83 3035they have a name with which they can be found.
6df41af2
GS
3036
3037=item Missing $ on loop variable
3038
be771a83
GS
3039(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables
3040are always mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it
3041can vary from one line to the next.
6df41af2 3042
cc507455 3043=item (Missing operator before %s?)
748a9306 3044
56da5a46
RGS
3045(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
3046"%s found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
748a9306 3047
e0e4a6e3 3048=item Missing right brace on \%c{} in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
ab13f0c7 3049
ff3f963a
KW
3050(F) Missing right brace in C<\x{...}>, C<\p{...}>, C<\P{...}>, or C<\N{...}>.
3051
4a68bf9d 3052=item Missing right brace on \N{} or unescaped left brace after \N
ff3f963a 3053
d32207c9
FC
3054(F) C<\N> has two meanings.
3055
3056The traditional one has it followed by a name enclosed in braces,
3057meaning the character (or sequence of characters) given by that
fa816bf3 3058name. Thus C<\N{ASTERISK}> is another way of writing C<*>, valid in both
d32207c9
FC
3059double-quoted strings and regular expression patterns. In patterns,
3060it doesn't have the meaning an unescaped C<*> does.
3061
3062Starting in Perl 5.12.0, C<\N> also can have an additional meaning (only)
3063in patterns, namely to match a non-newline character. (This is short
3064for C<[^\n]>, and like C<.> but is not affected by the C</s> regex modifier.)
3065
3066This can lead to some ambiguities. When C<\N> is not followed immediately
3067by a left brace, Perl assumes the C<[^\n]> meaning. Also, if the braces
3068form a valid quantifier such as C<\N{3}> or C<\N{5,}>, Perl assumes that this
3069means to match the given quantity of non-newlines (in these examples,
30703; and 5 or more, respectively). In all other case, where there is a
3071C<\N{> and a matching C<}>, Perl assumes that a character name is desired.
3072
3073However, if there is no matching C<}>, Perl doesn't know if it was
3074mistakenly omitted, or if C<[^\n]{> was desired, and raises this error.
3075If you meant the former, add the right brace; if you meant the latter,
3076escape the brace with a backslash, like so: C<\N\{>
ab13f0c7 3077
d98d5fff 3078=item Missing right curly or square bracket
a0d0e21e 3079
be771a83
GS
3080(F) The lexer counted more opening curly or square brackets than closing
3081ones. As a general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place you
3082were last editing.
a0d0e21e 3083
6df41af2
GS
3084=item (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
3085
56da5a46
RGS
3086(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
3087"%s found where operator expected". Don't automatically put a semicolon on
6df41af2
GS
3088the previous line just because you saw this message.
3089
a0d0e21e
LW
3090=item Modification of a read-only value attempted
3091
3092(F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
5f05dabc 3093constant. You didn't, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
a0d0e21e
LW
3094catches that. But an easy way to do the same thing is:
3095
3096 sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
3097 mod(2);
3098
3099Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.
3100
c5674021
PDF
3101Yet another way is to assign to a C<foreach> loop I<VAR> when I<VAR>
3102is aliased to a constant in the look I<LIST>:
3103
b7e4ecc1
FC
3104 $x = 1;
3105 foreach my $n ($x, 2) {
3106 $n *= 2; # modifies the $x, but fails on attempt to
3107 } # modify the 2
c5674021 3108
7a4340ed 3109=item Modification of non-creatable array value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e
LW
3110
3111(F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
3112subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the array
3113backwards.
3114
7a4340ed 3115=item Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e 3116
be771a83
GS
3117(P) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it
3118couldn't be created for some peculiar reason.
a0d0e21e
LW
3119
3120=item Module name must be constant
3121
3122(F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".
3123
be98fb35 3124=item Module name required with -%c option
6df41af2 3125
be98fb35
GS
3126(F) The C<-M> or C<-m> options say that Perl should load some module, but
3127you omitted the name of the module. Consult L<perlrun> for full details
3128about C<-M> and C<-m>.
6df41af2 3129
fe13d51d 3130=item More than one argument to '%s' open
ed9aa3b7 3131
6903afa2 3132(F) The C<open> function has been asked to open multiple files. This
ed9aa3b7
SG
3133can happen if you are trying to open a pipe to a command that takes a
3134list of arguments, but have forgotten to specify a piped open mode.
3135See L<perlfunc/open> for details.
3136
85396b18
FC
3137=item mprotect for COW string %p %u failed with %d
3138
3139(S) You compiled perl with B<-D>PERL_DEBUG_READONLY_COW (see
3140L<perlguts/"Copy on Write">), but a shared string buffer
3141could not be made read-only.
3142
92951bce
FC
3143=item mprotect for %p %u failed with %d
3144
85396b18
FC
3145(S) You compiled perl with B<-D>PERL_DEBUG_READONLY_OPS (see L<perlhacktips>),
3146but an op tree could not be made read-only.
3147
3148=item mprotect RW for COW string %p %u failed with %d
3149
3150(S) You compiled perl with B<-D>PERL_DEBUG_READONLY_COW (see
3151L<perlguts/"Copy on Write">), but a read-only shared string
3152buffer could not be made mutable.
3153
92951bce
FC
3154=item mprotect RW for %p %u failed with %d
3155
3156(S) You compiled perl with B<-D>PERL_DEBUG_READONLY_OPS (see
85396b18
FC
3157L<perlhacktips>), but a read-only op tree could not be made
3158mutable before freeing the ops.
92951bce 3159
a0d0e21e
LW
3160=item msg%s not implemented
3161
3162(F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.
3163
3164=item Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
3165
75b44862
GS
3166(W syntax) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like C<$foo[1,2,3]>.
3167They're written like C<$foo[1][2][3]>, as in C.
8b1a09fc 3168
49704364 3169=item '/' must follow a numeric type in unpack
6df41af2 3170
49704364
LW
3171(F) You had an unpack template that contained a '/', but this did not
3172follow some unpack specification producing a numeric value.
3173See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6df41af2
GS
3174
3175=item "my sub" not yet implemented
3176
be771a83
GS
3177(F) Lexically scoped subroutines are not yet implemented. Don't try
3178that yet.
6df41af2 3179
5a25739d
FC
3180=item "my %s" used in sort comparison
3181
3182(W syntax) The package variables $a and $b are used for sort comparisons.
3183You used $a or $b in as an operand to the C<< <=> >> or C<cmp> operator inside a
3184sort comparison block, and the variable had earlier been declared as a
3185lexical variable. Either qualify the sort variable with the package
3186name, or rename the lexical variable.
3187
fd1b7234 3188=item "my" variable %s can't be in a package
6df41af2 3189
be771a83
GS
3190(F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make
3191sense to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the front. Use
3192local() if you want to localize a package variable.
09bef843 3193
8149aa9f
FC
3194=item Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
3195
c59aba6c
FC
3196(W once) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable
3197names. If you had a good reason for having a unique name, then
3198just mention it again somehow to suppress the message. The C<our>
08a33b6b 3199declaration is also provided for this purpose.
c59aba6c 3200
08a33b6b
AP
3201NOTE: This warning detects package symbols that have been used only
3202once. This means lexical variables will never trigger this warning.
3203It also means that all of the package variables $c, @c, %c, as well
3204as *c, &c, sub c{}, c(), and c (the filehandle or
c59aba6c
FC
3205format) are considered the same; if a program uses $c only once
3206but also uses any of the others it will not trigger this warning.
3207Symbols beginning with an underscore and symbols using special
3208identifiers (q.v. L<perldata>) are exempt from this warning.
8149aa9f 3209
e0e4a6e3 3210=item Need exactly 3 octal digits in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
0d0b4b3b
KW
3211
3212(F) Within S<C<(?[ ])>>, all constants interpreted as octal need to be
3213exactly 3 digits long. This helps catch some ambiguities. If your
3214constant is too short, add leading zeros, like
3215
3216 (?[ [ \078 ] ]) # Syntax error!
3217 (?[ [ \0078 ] ]) # Works
3218 (?[ [ \007 8 ] ]) # Clearer
3219
3220The maximum number this construct can express is C<\777>. If you
675fa9ff
FC
3221need a larger one, you need to use L<\o{}|perlrebackslash/Octal escapes> instead. If you meant
3222two separate things, you need to separate them:
0d0b4b3b
KW
3223
3224 (?[ [ \7776 ] ]) # Syntax error!
3225 (?[ [ \o{7776} ] ]) # One meaning
3226 (?[ [ \777 6 ] ]) # Another meaning
3227 (?[ [ \777 \006 ] ]) # Still another
3228
49704364
LW
3229=item Negative '/' count in unpack
3230
3231(F) The length count obtained from a length/code unpack operation was
3232negative. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3233
a0d0e21e
LW
3234=item Negative length
3235
be771a83
GS
3236(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer
3237length that is less than 0. This is difficult to imagine.
a0d0e21e 3238
ed9aa3b7
SG
3239=item Negative offset to vec in lvalue context
3240
3241(F) When C<vec> is called in an lvalue context, the second argument must be
3242greater than or equal to zero.
3243
b3211734
KW
3244=item Negative repeat count does nothing
3245
3246(W numeric) You tried to execute the
3247L<C<x>|perlop/Multiplicative Operators> repetition operator fewer than 0
3248times, which doesn't make sense.
3249
e0e4a6e3 3250=item Nested quantifiers in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 3251
6903afa2 3252(F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses.
e0e4a6e3 3253So things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal. The S<<-- HERE> shows
9e3ec65c 3254whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was discovered.
a0d0e21e 3255
7253e4e3 3256Note that the minimal matching quantifiers, C<*?>, C<+?>, and
be771a83 3257C<??> appear to be nested quantifiers, but aren't. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 3258
6df41af2 3259=item %s never introduced
a0d0e21e 3260
be771a83
GS
3261(S internal) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of
3262scope before it could possibly have been used.
a0d0e21e 3263
2c7d6b9c
RGS
3264=item next::method/next::can/maybe::next::method cannot find enclosing method
3265
3266(F) C<next::method> needs to be called within the context of a
3267real method in a real package, and it could not find such a context.
3268See L<mro>.
3269
5a25739d 3270=item \N in a character class must be a named character: \N{...} in regex;
e0e4a6e3 3271marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
5a25739d 3272
32a77fbe
FC
3273(F) The new (as of Perl 5.12) meaning of C<\N> as C<[^\n]> is not valid in a
3274bracketed character class, for the same reason that C<.> in a character
3275class loses its specialness: it matches almost everything, which is
3276probably not what you want.
5a25739d 3277
0b4ce96d 3278=item \N{} in character class restricted to one character in regex; marked
e0e4a6e3 3279by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
0b4ce96d
FC
3280
3281(F) Named Unicode character escapes C<(\N{...})> may return a
3282multi-character sequence. Such an escape may not be used in
3283a character class, because character classes always match one
3284character of input. Check that the correct escape has been used,
e0e4a6e3 3285and the correct charname handler is in scope. The S<<-- HERE> shows
0b4ce96d
FC
3286whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was discovered.
3287
e0e4a6e3
FC
3288=item \N{NAME} must be resolved by the lexer in regex; marked by
3289S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
5a25739d
FC
3290
3291(F) When compiling a regex pattern, an unresolved named character or
3292sequence was encountered. This can happen in any of several ways that
3293bypass the lexer, such as using single-quotish context, or an extra
3294backslash in double-quotish:
3295
3296 $re = '\N{SPACE}'; # Wrong!
3297 $re = "\\N{SPACE}"; # Wrong!
3298 /$re/;
3299
3300Instead, use double-quotes with a single backslash:
3301
3302 $re = "\N{SPACE}"; # ok
3303 /$re/;
3304
3305The lexer can be bypassed as well by creating the pattern from smaller
3306components:
3307
3308 $re = '\N';
3309 /${re}{SPACE}/; # Wrong!
3310
3311It's not a good idea to split a construct in the middle like this, and