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1=head1 NAME
2
5a2b28ce 3perlreapi - Perl regular expression plugin interface
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4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
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7As of Perl 5.9.5 there is a new interface for plugging and using
8regular expression engines other than the default one.
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9
10Each engine is supposed to provide access to a constant structure of the
11following format:
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12
13 typedef struct regexp_engine {
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14 REGEXP* (*comp) (pTHX_
15 const SV * const pattern, const U32 flags);
16 I32 (*exec) (pTHX_
17 REGEXP * const rx,
18 char* stringarg,
19 char* strend, char* strbeg,
ea3daa5d 20 SSize_t minend, SV* sv,
2fdbfb4d 21 void* data, U32 flags);
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22 char* (*intuit) (pTHX_
23 REGEXP * const rx, SV *sv,
52a21eb3 24 const char * const strbeg,
02c01adb 25 char *strpos, char *strend, U32 flags,
2fdbfb4d 26 struct re_scream_pos_data_s *data);
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27 SV* (*checkstr) (pTHX_ REGEXP * const rx);
28 void (*free) (pTHX_ REGEXP * const rx);
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29 void (*numbered_buff_FETCH) (pTHX_
30 REGEXP * const rx,
31 const I32 paren,
32 SV * const sv);
33 void (*numbered_buff_STORE) (pTHX_
34 REGEXP * const rx,
35 const I32 paren,
5a2b28ce 36 SV const * const value);
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37 I32 (*numbered_buff_LENGTH) (pTHX_
38 REGEXP * const rx,
39 const SV * const sv,
40 const I32 paren);
41 SV* (*named_buff) (pTHX_
42 REGEXP * const rx,
43 SV * const key,
44 SV * const value,
45 U32 flags);
46 SV* (*named_buff_iter) (pTHX_
47 REGEXP * const rx,
48 const SV * const lastkey,
192b9cd1 49 const U32 flags);
49d7dfbc 50 SV* (*qr_package)(pTHX_ REGEXP * const rx);
108003db 51 #ifdef USE_ITHREADS
49d7dfbc 52 void* (*dupe) (pTHX_ REGEXP * const rx, CLONE_PARAMS *param);
108003db 53 #endif
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54 REGEXP* (*op_comp) (...);
55
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56
57When a regexp is compiled, its C<engine> field is then set to point at
a0e97681 58the appropriate structure, so that when it needs to be used Perl can find
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59the right routines to do so.
60
61In order to install a new regexp handler, C<$^H{regcomp}> is set
62to an integer which (when casted appropriately) resolves to one of these
2edc787c 63structures. When compiling, the C<comp> method is executed, and the
5a2b28ce 64resulting C<regexp> structure's engine field is expected to point back at
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65the same structure.
66
5a2b28ce 67The pTHX_ symbol in the definition is a macro used by Perl under threading
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68to provide an extra argument to the routine holding a pointer back to
69the interpreter that is executing the regexp. So under threading all
70routines get an extra argument.
71
882227b7 72=head1 Callbacks
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73
74=head2 comp
75
3ab4a224 76 REGEXP* comp(pTHX_ const SV * const pattern, const U32 flags);
108003db 77
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78Compile the pattern stored in C<pattern> using the given C<flags> and
79return a pointer to a prepared C<REGEXP> structure that can perform
2edc787c 80the match. See L</The REGEXP structure> below for an explanation of
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81the individual fields in the REGEXP struct.
82
83The C<pattern> parameter is the scalar that was used as the
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84pattern. Previous versions of Perl would pass two C<char*> indicating
85the start and end of the stringified pattern; the following snippet can
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86be used to get the old parameters:
87
88 STRLEN plen;
89 char* exp = SvPV(pattern, plen);
90 char* xend = exp + plen;
91
5a2b28ce 92Since any scalar can be passed as a pattern, it's possible to implement
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93an engine that does something with an array (C<< "ook" =~ [ qw/ eek
94hlagh / ] >>) or with the non-stringified form of a compiled regular
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95expression (C<< "ook" =~ qr/eek/ >>). Perl's own engine will always
96stringify everything using the snippet above, but that doesn't mean
3ab4a224 97other engines have to.
108003db 98
a0e97681 99The C<flags> parameter is a bitfield which indicates which of the
33be4c61 100C<msixpn> flags the regex was compiled with. It also contains
5a2b28ce 101additional info, such as if C<use locale> is in effect.
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102
103The C<eogc> flags are stripped out before being passed to the comp
2edc787c 104routine. The regex engine does not need to know if any of these
5a2b28ce 105are set, as those flags should only affect what Perl does with the
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106pattern and its match variables, not how it gets compiled and
107executed.
108003db 108
c998b245 109By the time the comp callback is called, some of these flags have
2edc787c 110already had effect (noted below where applicable). However most of
5a2b28ce 111their effect occurs after the comp callback has run, in routines that
c998b245 112read the C<< rx->extflags >> field which it populates.
108003db 113
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114In general the flags should be preserved in C<< rx->extflags >> after
115compilation, although the regex engine might want to add or delete
2edc787c 116some of them to invoke or disable some special behavior in Perl. The
c998b245 117flags along with any special behavior they cause are documented below:
108003db 118
c998b245 119The pattern modifiers:
108003db 120
c998b245 121=over 4
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c998b245 123=item C</m> - RXf_PMf_MULTILINE
108003db 124
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125If this is in C<< rx->extflags >> it will be passed to
126C<Perl_fbm_instr> by C<pp_split> which will treat the subject string
127as a multi-line string.
108003db 128
c998b245 129=item C</s> - RXf_PMf_SINGLELINE
108003db 130
c998b245 131=item C</i> - RXf_PMf_FOLD
108003db 132
c998b245 133=item C</x> - RXf_PMf_EXTENDED
108003db 134
5a2b28ce 135If present on a regex, C<"#"> comments will be handled differently by the
c998b245 136tokenizer in some cases.
108003db 137
c998b245 138TODO: Document those cases.
108003db 139
c998b245 140=item C</p> - RXf_PMf_KEEPCOPY
108003db 141
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142TODO: Document this
143
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144=item Character set
145
850b7ec9 146The character set rules are determined by an enum that is contained
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147in this field. This is still experimental and subject to change, but
148the current interface returns the rules by use of the in-line function
149C<get_regex_charset(const U32 flags)>. The only currently documented
150value returned from it is REGEX_LOCALE_CHARSET, which is set if
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151C<use locale> is in effect. If present in C<< rx->extflags >>,
152C<split> will use the locale dependent definition of whitespace
2edc787c 153when RXf_SKIPWHITE or RXf_WHITE is in effect. ASCII whitespace
96090e4f 154is defined as per L<isSPACE|perlapi/isSPACE>, and by the internal
e72ec78c 155macros C<is_utf8_space> under UTF-8, and C<isSPACE_LC> under C<use
c998b245 156locale>.
108003db 157
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158=back
159
160Additional flags:
161
162=over 4
163
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164=item RXf_SPLIT
165
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166This flag was removed in perl 5.18.0. C<split ' '> is now special-cased
167solely in the parser. RXf_SPLIT is still #defined, so you can test for it.
168This is how it used to work:
169
0ac6acae 170If C<split> is invoked as C<split ' '> or with no arguments (which
5a2b28ce 171really means C<split(' ', $_)>, see L<split|perlfunc/split>), Perl will
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172set this flag. The regex engine can then check for it and set the
173SKIPWHITE and WHITE extflags. To do this, the Perl engine does:
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174
175 if (flags & RXf_SPLIT && r->prelen == 1 && r->precomp[0] == ' ')
176 r->extflags |= (RXf_SKIPWHITE|RXf_WHITE);
177
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178=back
179
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180These flags can be set during compilation to enable optimizations in
181the C<split> operator.
182
183=over 4
184
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185=item RXf_SKIPWHITE
186
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187This flag was removed in perl 5.18.0. It is still #defined, so you can
188set it, but doing so will have no effect. This is how it used to work:
189
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190If the flag is present in C<< rx->extflags >> C<split> will delete
191whitespace from the start of the subject string before it's operated
2edc787c 192on. What is considered whitespace depends on if the subject is a
5a2b28ce 193UTF-8 string and if the C<RXf_PMf_LOCALE> flag is set.
0ac6acae 194
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195If RXf_WHITE is set in addition to this flag, C<split> will behave like
196C<split " "> under the Perl engine.
0ac6acae 197
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198=item RXf_START_ONLY
199
200Tells the split operator to split the target string on newlines
201(C<\n>) without invoking the regex engine.
202
203Perl's engine sets this if the pattern is C</^/> (C<plen == 1 && *exp
2edc787c 204== '^'>), even under C</^/s>; see L<split|perlfunc>. Of course a
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205different regex engine might want to use the same optimizations
206with a different syntax.
207
208=item RXf_WHITE
209
210Tells the split operator to split the target string on whitespace
2edc787c 211without invoking the regex engine. The definition of whitespace varies
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212depending on if the target string is a UTF-8 string and on
213if RXf_PMf_LOCALE is set.
c998b245 214
0ac6acae 215Perl's engine sets this flag if the pattern is C<\s+>.
c998b245 216
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217=item RXf_NULL
218
a0e97681 219Tells the split operator to split the target string on
2edc787c 220characters. The definition of character varies depending on if
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221the target string is a UTF-8 string.
222
223Perl's engine sets this flag on empty patterns, this optimization
2edc787c 224makes C<split //> much faster than it would otherwise be. It's even
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225faster than C<unpack>.
226
dbc200c5 227=item RXf_NO_INPLACE_SUBST
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228
229Added in perl 5.18.0, this flag indicates that a regular expression might
579794ec 230perform an operation that would interfere with inplace substitution. For
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231instance it might contain lookbehind, or assign to non-magical variables
232(such as $REGMARK and $REGERROR) during matching. C<s///> will skip
233certain optimisations when this is set.
94bbc698 234
c998b245 235=back
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236
237=head2 exec
238
49d7dfbc 239 I32 exec(pTHX_ REGEXP * const rx,
108003db 240 char *stringarg, char* strend, char* strbeg,
ea3daa5d 241 SSize_t minend, SV* sv,
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242 void* data, U32 flags);
243
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244Execute a regexp. The arguments are
245
246=over 4
247
248=item rx
249
250The regular expression to execute.
251
a340edde 252=item sv
8fd1a950 253
a340edde 254This is the SV to be matched against. Note that the
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255actual char array to be matched against is supplied by the arguments
256described below; the SV is just used to determine UTF8ness, C<pos()> etc.
257
258=item strbeg
259
260Pointer to the physical start of the string.
261
262=item strend
263
264Pointer to the character following the physical end of the string (i.e.
a340edde 265the C<\0>, if any).
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266
267=item stringarg
268
269Pointer to the position in the string where matching should start; it might
270not be equal to C<strbeg> (for example in a later iteration of C</.../g>).
271
272=item minend
273
274Minimum length of string (measured in bytes from C<stringarg>) that must
275match; if the engine reaches the end of the match but hasn't reached this
276position in the string, it should fail.
277
278=item data
279
280Optimisation data; subject to change.
281
282=item flags
283
284Optimisation flags; subject to change.
285
286=back
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287
288=head2 intuit
289
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290 char* intuit(pTHX_
291 REGEXP * const rx,
292 SV *sv,
293 const char * const strbeg,
294 char *strpos,
295 char *strend,
296 const U32 flags,
297 struct re_scream_pos_data_s *data);
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298
299Find the start position where a regex match should be attempted,
5a2b28ce 300or possibly if the regex engine should not be run because the
2edc787c 301pattern can't match. This is called, as appropriate, by the core,
5a2b28ce 302depending on the values of the C<extflags> member of the C<regexp>
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303structure.
304
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305Arguments:
306
307 rx: the regex to match against
308 sv: the SV being matched: only used for utf8 flag; the string
309 itself is accessed via the pointers below. Note that on
310 something like an overloaded SV, SvPOK(sv) may be false
311 and the string pointers may point to something unrelated to
312 the SV itself.
313 strbeg: real beginning of string
314 strpos: the point in the string at which to begin matching
315 strend: pointer to the byte following the last char of the string
316 flags currently unused; set to 0
317 data: currently unused; set to NULL
318
319
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320=head2 checkstr
321
49d7dfbc 322 SV* checkstr(pTHX_ REGEXP * const rx);
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323
324Return a SV containing a string that must appear in the pattern. Used
325by C<split> for optimising matches.
326
327=head2 free
328
49d7dfbc 329 void free(pTHX_ REGEXP * const rx);
108003db 330
5a2b28ce 331Called by Perl when it is freeing a regexp pattern so that the engine
108003db 332can release any resources pointed to by the C<pprivate> member of the
2edc787c 333C<regexp> structure. This is only responsible for freeing private data;
5a2b28ce 334Perl will handle releasing anything else contained in the C<regexp> structure.
108003db 335
192b9cd1 336=head2 Numbered capture callbacks
108003db 337
192b9cd1 338Called to get/set the value of C<$`>, C<$'>, C<$&> and their named
3b543d84 339equivalents, ${^PREMATCH}, ${^POSTMATCH} and ${^MATCH}, as well as the
c27a5cfe 340numbered capture groups (C<$1>, C<$2>, ...).
49d7dfbc 341
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342The C<paren> parameter will be C<1> for C<$1>, C<2> for C<$2> and so
343forth, and have these symbolic values for the special variables:
344
345 ${^PREMATCH} RX_BUFF_IDX_CARET_PREMATCH
346 ${^POSTMATCH} RX_BUFF_IDX_CARET_POSTMATCH
347 ${^MATCH} RX_BUFF_IDX_CARET_FULLMATCH
348 $` RX_BUFF_IDX_PREMATCH
349 $' RX_BUFF_IDX_POSTMATCH
350 $& RX_BUFF_IDX_FULLMATCH
351
5a2b28ce 352Note that in Perl 5.17.3 and earlier, the last three constants were also
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353used for the caret variants of the variables.
354
49d7dfbc 355
192b9cd1 356The names have been chosen by analogy with L<Tie::Scalar> methods
2edc787c 357names with an additional B<LENGTH> callback for efficiency. However
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358named capture variables are currently not tied internally but
359implemented via magic.
360
361=head3 numbered_buff_FETCH
362
363 void numbered_buff_FETCH(pTHX_ REGEXP * const rx, const I32 paren,
364 SV * const sv);
365
2edc787c 366Fetch a specified numbered capture. C<sv> should be set to the scalar
192b9cd1 367to return, the scalar is passed as an argument rather than being
5a2b28ce 368returned from the function because when it's called Perl already has a
192b9cd1 369scalar to store the value, creating another one would be
2edc787c 370redundant. The scalar can be set with C<sv_setsv>, C<sv_setpvn> and
192b9cd1 371friends, see L<perlapi>.
49d7dfbc 372
5a2b28ce 373This callback is where Perl untaints its own capture variables under
2edc787c 374taint mode (see L<perlsec>). See the C<Perl_reg_numbered_buff_fetch>
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375function in F<regcomp.c> for how to untaint capture variables if
376that's something you'd like your engine to do as well.
108003db 377
192b9cd1 378=head3 numbered_buff_STORE
108003db 379
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380 void (*numbered_buff_STORE) (pTHX_
381 REGEXP * const rx,
382 const I32 paren,
2fdbfb4d 383 SV const * const value);
108003db 384
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385Set the value of a numbered capture variable. C<value> is the scalar
386that is to be used as the new value. It's up to the engine to make
192b9cd1 387sure this is used as the new value (or reject it).
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388
389Example:
390
391 if ("ook" =~ /(o*)/) {
ccf3535a 392 # 'paren' will be '1' and 'value' will be 'ee'
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393 $1 =~ tr/o/e/;
394 }
395
396Perl's own engine will croak on any attempt to modify the capture
a0e97681 397variables, to do this in another engine use the following callback
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398(copied from C<Perl_reg_numbered_buff_store>):
399
400 void
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401 Example_reg_numbered_buff_store(pTHX_
402 REGEXP * const rx,
403 const I32 paren,
404 SV const * const value)
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405 {
406 PERL_UNUSED_ARG(rx);
407 PERL_UNUSED_ARG(paren);
408 PERL_UNUSED_ARG(value);
409
410 if (!PL_localizing)
411 Perl_croak(aTHX_ PL_no_modify);
412 }
413
5a2b28ce 414Actually Perl will not I<always> croak in a statement that looks
2edc787c 415like it would modify a numbered capture variable. This is because the
5a2b28ce 416STORE callback will not be called if Perl can determine that it
2edc787c 417doesn't have to modify the value. This is exactly how tied variables
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418behave in the same situation:
419
420 package CaptureVar;
e3be4e3e 421 use parent 'Tie::Scalar';
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422
423 sub TIESCALAR { bless [] }
424 sub FETCH { undef }
425 sub STORE { die "This doesn't get called" }
426
427 package main;
428
c69ca1d4 429 tie my $sv => "CaptureVar";
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430 $sv =~ y/a/b/;
431
5a2b28ce 432Because C<$sv> is C<undef> when the C<y///> operator is applied to it,
2fdbfb4d 433the transliteration won't actually execute and the program won't
2edc787c 434C<die>. This is different to how 5.8 and earlier versions behaved
5a2b28ce 435since the capture variables were READONLY variables then; now they'll
192b9cd1 436just die when assigned to in the default engine.
2fdbfb4d 437
192b9cd1 438=head3 numbered_buff_LENGTH
2fdbfb4d 439
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440 I32 numbered_buff_LENGTH (pTHX_
441 REGEXP * const rx,
442 const SV * const sv,
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443 const I32 paren);
444
2edc787c 445Get the C<length> of a capture variable. There's a special callback
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446for this so that Perl doesn't have to do a FETCH and run C<length> on
447the result, since the length is (in Perl's case) known from an offset
448stored in C<< rx->offs >>, this is much more efficient:
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449
450 I32 s1 = rx->offs[paren].start;
451 I32 s2 = rx->offs[paren].end;
452 I32 len = t1 - s1;
453
454This is a little bit more complex in the case of UTF-8, see what
455C<Perl_reg_numbered_buff_length> does with
456L<is_utf8_string_loclen|perlapi/is_utf8_string_loclen>.
457
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458=head2 Named capture callbacks
459
5a2b28ce 460Called to get/set the value of C<%+> and C<%->, as well as by some
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461utility functions in L<re>.
462
463There are two callbacks, C<named_buff> is called in all the cases the
464FETCH, STORE, DELETE, CLEAR, EXISTS and SCALAR L<Tie::Hash> callbacks
465would be on changes to C<%+> and C<%-> and C<named_buff_iter> in the
466same cases as FIRSTKEY and NEXTKEY.
467
468The C<flags> parameter can be used to determine which of these
5a2b28ce 469operations the callbacks should respond to. The following flags are
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470currently defined:
471
472Which L<Tie::Hash> operation is being performed from the Perl level on
473C<%+> or C<%+>, if any:
474
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475 RXapif_FETCH
476 RXapif_STORE
477 RXapif_DELETE
478 RXapif_CLEAR
479 RXapif_EXISTS
480 RXapif_SCALAR
481 RXapif_FIRSTKEY
482 RXapif_NEXTKEY
192b9cd1 483
5a2b28ce 484If C<%+> or C<%-> is being operated on, if any.
2fdbfb4d 485
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486 RXapif_ONE /* %+ */
487 RXapif_ALL /* %- */
2fdbfb4d 488
5a2b28ce 489If this is being called as C<re::regname>, C<re::regnames> or
2edc787c 490C<re::regnames_count>, if any. The first two will be combined with
f1b875a0 491C<RXapif_ONE> or C<RXapif_ALL>.
192b9cd1 492
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493 RXapif_REGNAME
494 RXapif_REGNAMES
495 RXapif_REGNAMES_COUNT
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496
497Internally C<%+> and C<%-> are implemented with a real tied interface
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498via L<Tie::Hash::NamedCapture>. The methods in that package will call
499back into these functions. However the usage of
192b9cd1 500L<Tie::Hash::NamedCapture> for this purpose might change in future
2edc787c 501releases. For instance this might be implemented by magic instead
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502(would need an extension to mgvtbl).
503
504=head3 named_buff
505
506 SV* (*named_buff) (pTHX_ REGEXP * const rx, SV * const key,
507 SV * const value, U32 flags);
508
509=head3 named_buff_iter
510
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511 SV* (*named_buff_iter) (pTHX_
512 REGEXP * const rx,
513 const SV * const lastkey,
192b9cd1 514 const U32 flags);
108003db 515
49d7dfbc 516=head2 qr_package
108003db 517
49d7dfbc 518 SV* qr_package(pTHX_ REGEXP * const rx);
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519
520The package the qr// magic object is blessed into (as seen by C<ref
2edc787c 521qr//>). It is recommended that engines change this to their package
5a2b28ce 522name for identification regardless of if they implement methods
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523on the object.
524
192b9cd1 525The package this method returns should also have the internal
2edc787c 526C<Regexp> package in its C<@ISA>. C<< qr//->isa("Regexp") >> should always
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527be true regardless of what engine is being used.
528
529Example implementation might be:
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530
531 SV*
192b9cd1 532 Example_qr_package(pTHX_ REGEXP * const rx)
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533 {
534 PERL_UNUSED_ARG(rx);
535 return newSVpvs("re::engine::Example");
536 }
537
538Any method calls on an object created with C<qr//> will be dispatched to the
539package as a normal object.
540
541 use re::engine::Example;
542 my $re = qr//;
543 $re->meth; # dispatched to re::engine::Example::meth()
544
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545To retrieve the C<REGEXP> object from the scalar in an XS function use
546the C<SvRX> macro, see L<"REGEXP Functions" in perlapi|perlapi/REGEXP
547Functions>.
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548
549 void meth(SV * rv)
550 PPCODE:
f7e71195 551 REGEXP * re = SvRX(sv);
108003db 552
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553=head2 dupe
554
49d7dfbc 555 void* dupe(pTHX_ REGEXP * const rx, CLONE_PARAMS *param);
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556
557On threaded builds a regexp may need to be duplicated so that the pattern
2edc787c 558can be used by multiple threads. This routine is expected to handle the
108003db 559duplication of any private data pointed to by the C<pprivate> member of
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560the C<regexp> structure. It will be called with the preconstructed new
561C<regexp> structure as an argument, the C<pprivate> member will point at
a0e97681 562the B<old> private structure, and it is this routine's responsibility to
5a2b28ce 563construct a copy and return a pointer to it (which Perl will then use to
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564overwrite the field as passed to this routine.)
565
566This allows the engine to dupe its private data but also if necessary
567modify the final structure if it really must.
568
569On unthreaded builds this field doesn't exist.
570
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571=head2 op_comp
572
5a2b28ce 573This is private to the Perl core and subject to change. Should be left
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574null.
575
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576=head1 The REGEXP structure
577
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578The REGEXP struct is defined in F<regexp.h>.
579All regex engines must be able to
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580correctly build such a structure in their L</comp> routine.
581
5a2b28ce 582The REGEXP structure contains all the data that Perl needs to be aware of
2edc787c 583to properly work with the regular expression. It includes data about
5a2b28ce 584optimisations that Perl can use to determine if the regex engine should
108003db 585really be used, and various other control info that is needed to properly
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586execute patterns in various contexts, such as if the pattern anchored in
587some way, or what flags were used during the compile, or if the
588program contains special constructs that Perl needs to be aware of.
108003db 589
882227b7 590In addition it contains two fields that are intended for the private
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591use of the regex engine that compiled the pattern. These are the
592C<intflags> and C<pprivate> members. C<pprivate> is a void pointer to
5a2b28ce 593an arbitrary structure, whose use and management is the responsibility
2edc787c 594of the compiling engine. Perl will never modify either of these
882227b7 595values.
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596
597 typedef struct regexp {
598 /* what engine created this regexp? */
599 const struct regexp_engine* engine;
600
601 /* what re is this a lightweight copy of? */
602 struct regexp* mother_re;
603
5a2b28ce 604 /* Information about the match that the Perl core uses to manage
02c01adb 605 * things */
108003db 606 U32 extflags; /* Flags used both externally and internally */
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607 I32 minlen; /* mininum possible number of chars in */
608 string to match */
609 I32 minlenret; /* mininum possible number of chars in $& */
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610 U32 gofs; /* chars left of pos that we search from */
611
612 /* substring data about strings that must appear
613 in the final match, used for optimisations */
614 struct reg_substr_data *substrs;
615
c27a5cfe 616 U32 nparens; /* number of capture groups */
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617
618 /* private engine specific data */
619 U32 intflags; /* Engine Specific Internal flags */
620 void *pprivate; /* Data private to the regex engine which
621 created this object. */
622
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623 /* Data about the last/current match. These are modified during
624 * matching*/
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625 U32 lastparen; /* highest close paren matched ($+) */
626 U32 lastcloseparen; /* last close paren matched ($^N) */
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627 regexp_paren_pair *offs; /* Array of offsets for (@-) and
628 (@+) */
108003db 629
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630 char *subbeg; /* saved or original string so \digit works
631 forever. */
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632 SV_SAVED_COPY /* If non-NULL, SV which is COW from original */
633 I32 sublen; /* Length of string pointed by subbeg */
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634 I32 suboffset; /* byte offset of subbeg from logical start of
635 str */
6502e081 636 I32 subcoffset; /* suboffset equiv, but in chars (for @-/@+) */
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637
638 /* Information about the match that isn't often used */
639 I32 prelen; /* length of precomp */
640 const char *precomp; /* pre-compilation regular expression */
641
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642 char *wrapped; /* wrapped version of the pattern */
643 I32 wraplen; /* length of wrapped */
644
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645 I32 seen_evals; /* number of eval groups in the pattern - for
646 security checks */
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647 HV *paren_names; /* Optional hash of paren names */
648
649 /* Refcount of this regexp */
650 I32 refcnt; /* Refcount of this regexp */
651 } regexp;
652
653The fields are discussed in more detail below:
654
882227b7 655=head2 C<engine>
108003db 656
5a2b28ce 657This field points at a C<regexp_engine> structure which contains pointers
2edc787c 658to the subroutines that are to be used for performing a match. It
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659is the compiling routine's responsibility to populate this field before
660returning the regexp object.
661
662Internally this is set to C<NULL> unless a custom engine is specified in
5a2b28ce 663C<$^H{regcomp}>, Perl's own set of callbacks can be accessed in the struct
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664pointed to by C<RE_ENGINE_PTR>.
665
882227b7 666=head2 C<mother_re>
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667
668TODO, see L<http://www.mail-archive.com/perl5-changes@perl.org/msg17328.html>
669
882227b7 670=head2 C<extflags>
108003db 671
5a2b28ce 672This will be used by Perl to see what flags the regexp was compiled
192b9cd1 673with, this will normally be set to the value of the flags parameter by
2edc787c 674the L<comp|/comp> callback. See the L<comp|/comp> documentation for
c998b245 675valid flags.
108003db 676
882227b7 677=head2 C<minlen> C<minlenret>
108003db 678
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679The minimum string length (in characters) required for the pattern to match.
680This is used to
108003db 681prune the search space by not bothering to match any closer to the end of a
2edc787c 682string than would allow a match. For instance there is no point in even
108003db 683starting the regex engine if the minlen is 10 but the string is only 5
2edc787c 684characters long. There is no way that the pattern can match.
108003db 685
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686C<minlenret> is the minimum length (in characters) of the string that would
687be found in $& after a match.
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688
689The difference between C<minlen> and C<minlenret> can be seen in the
690following pattern:
691
692 /ns(?=\d)/
693
694where the C<minlen> would be 3 but C<minlenret> would only be 2 as the \d is
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695required to match but is not actually
696included in the matched content. This
108003db 697distinction is particularly important as the substitution logic uses the
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698C<minlenret> to tell if it can do in-place substitutions (these can
699result in considerable speed-up).
108003db 700
882227b7 701=head2 C<gofs>
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702
703Left offset from pos() to start match at.
704
882227b7 705=head2 C<substrs>
108003db 706
2edc787c 707Substring data about strings that must appear in the final match. This
5a2b28ce 708is currently only used internally by Perl's engine, but might be
c998b245 709used in the future for all engines for optimisations.
108003db 710
1cecf2c0 711=head2 C<nparens>, C<lastparen>, and C<lastcloseparen>
108003db 712
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713These fields are used to keep track of: how many paren capture groups
714there are in the pattern; which was the highest paren to be closed (see
715L<perlvar/$+>); and which was the most recent paren to be closed (see
716L<perlvar/$^N>).
108003db 717
882227b7 718=head2 C<intflags>
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719
720The engine's private copy of the flags the pattern was compiled with. Usually
192b9cd1 721this is the same as C<extflags> unless the engine chose to modify one of them.
108003db 722
882227b7 723=head2 C<pprivate>
108003db 724
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725A void* pointing to an engine-defined
726data structure. The Perl engine uses the
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727C<regexp_internal> structure (see L<perlreguts/Base Structures>) but a custom
728engine should use something else.
729
882227b7 730=head2 C<offs>
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731
732A C<regexp_paren_pair> structure which defines offsets into the string being
733matched which correspond to the C<$&> and C<$1>, C<$2> etc. captures, the
734C<regexp_paren_pair> struct is defined as follows:
735
736 typedef struct regexp_paren_pair {
737 I32 start;
738 I32 end;
739 } regexp_paren_pair;
740
741If C<< ->offs[num].start >> or C<< ->offs[num].end >> is C<-1> then that
2edc787c
FC
742capture group did not match.
743C<< ->offs[0].start/end >> represents C<$&> (or
f1dc5bb2 744C<${^MATCH}> under C</p>) and C<< ->offs[paren].end >> matches C<$$paren> where
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745C<$paren >= 1>.
746
882227b7 747=head2 C<precomp> C<prelen>
108003db 748
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749Used for optimisations. C<precomp> holds a copy of the pattern that
750was compiled and C<prelen> its length. When a new pattern is to be
192b9cd1 751compiled (such as inside a loop) the internal C<regcomp> operator
5a2b28ce 752checks if the last compiled C<REGEXP>'s C<precomp> and C<prelen>
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753are equivalent to the new one, and if so uses the old pattern instead
754of compiling a new one.
755
756The relevant snippet from C<Perl_pp_regcomp>:
757
758 if (!re || !re->precomp || re->prelen != (I32)len ||
759 memNE(re->precomp, t, len))
760 /* Compile a new pattern */
108003db 761
882227b7 762=head2 C<paren_names>
108003db 763
c27a5cfe 764This is a hash used internally to track named capture groups and their
2edc787c 765offsets. The keys are the names of the buffers the values are dualvars,
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766with the IV slot holding the number of buffers with the given name and the
767pv being an embedded array of I32. The values may also be contained
768independently in the data array in cases where named backreferences are
769used.
770
c998b245 771=head2 C<substrs>
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772
773Holds information on the longest string that must occur at a fixed
774offset from the start of the pattern, and the longest string that must
2edc787c 775occur at a floating offset from the start of the pattern. Used to do
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776Fast-Boyer-Moore searches on the string to find out if its worth using
777the regex engine at all, and if so where in the string to search.
778
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779=head2 C<subbeg> C<sublen> C<saved_copy> C<suboffset> C<subcoffset>
780
781Used during the execution phase for managing search and replace patterns,
782and for providing the text for C<$&>, C<$1> etc. C<subbeg> points to a
783buffer (either the original string, or a copy in the case of
784C<RX_MATCH_COPIED(rx)>), and C<sublen> is the length of the buffer. The
785C<RX_OFFS> start and end indices index into this buffer.
786
787In the presence of the C<REXEC_COPY_STR> flag, but with the addition of
788the C<REXEC_COPY_SKIP_PRE> or C<REXEC_COPY_SKIP_POST> flags, an engine
789can choose not to copy the full buffer (although it must still do so in
790the presence of C<RXf_PMf_KEEPCOPY> or the relevant bits being set in
2edc787c 791C<PL_sawampersand>). In this case, it may set C<suboffset> to indicate the
6502e081 792number of bytes from the logical start of the buffer to the physical start
2edc787c 793(i.e. C<subbeg>). It should also set C<subcoffset>, the number of
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794characters in the offset. The latter is needed to support C<@-> and C<@+>
795which work in characters, not bytes.
108003db 796
882227b7 797=head2 C<wrapped> C<wraplen>
108003db 798
5a2b28ce 799Stores the string C<qr//> stringifies to. The Perl engine for example
ed215d3c 800stores C<(?^:eek)> in the case of C<qr/eek/>.
108003db 801
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802When using a custom engine that doesn't support the C<(?:)> construct
803for inline modifiers, it's probably best to have C<qr//> stringify to
804the supplied pattern, note that this will create undesired patterns in
805cases such as:
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806
807 my $x = qr/a|b/; # "a|b"
192b9cd1 808 my $y = qr/c/i; # "c"
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809 my $z = qr/$x$y/; # "a|bc"
810
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811There's no solution for this problem other than making the custom
812engine understand a construct like C<(?:)>.
108003db 813
882227b7 814=head2 C<seen_evals>
108003db 815
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816This stores the number of eval groups in
817the pattern. This is used for security
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818purposes when embedding compiled regexes into larger patterns with C<qr//>.
819
882227b7 820=head2 C<refcnt>
108003db 821
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822The number of times the structure is referenced. When
823this falls to 0, the regexp is automatically freed
824by a call to pregfree. This should be set to 1 in
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825each engine's L</comp> routine.
826
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827=head1 HISTORY
828
829Originally part of L<perlreguts>.
830
831=head1 AUTHORS
832
833Originally written by Yves Orton, expanded by E<AElig>var ArnfjE<ouml>rE<eth>
834Bjarmason.
835
836=head1 LICENSE
837
838Copyright 2006 Yves Orton and 2007 E<AElig>var ArnfjE<ouml>rE<eth> Bjarmason.
839
840This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
841the same terms as Perl itself.
842
843=cut