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1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
11 (D) A deprecation (optional).
e476b1b5 12 (S) A severe warning (default).
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13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
75b44862 18The majority of messages from the first three classifications above
64977eb6 19(W, D & S) can be controlled using the C<warnings> pragma.
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20
21If a message can be controlled by the C<warnings> pragma, its warning
22category is included with the classification letter in the description
23below.
24
25Optional warnings are enabled by using the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-w>
26and B<-W> switches. Warnings may be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}>
27to a reference to a routine that will be called on each warning instead
28of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
29
30Default warnings are always enabled unless they are explicitly disabled
31with the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-X> switch.
4438c4b7 32
748a9306 33Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
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34L<perlfunc/eval>. In almost all cases, warnings may be selectively
35disabled or promoted to fatal errors using the C<warnings> pragma.
36See L<warnings>.
a0d0e21e 37
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38The messages are in alphabetical order, without regard to upper or
39lower-case. Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are
40denoted with a %s or other printf-style escape. These escapes are
41ignored by the alphabetical order, as are all characters other than
42letters. To look up your message, just ignore anything that is not a
43letter.
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44
45=over 4
46
6df41af2 47=item accept() on closed socket %s
33633739 48
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49(W closed) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget
50to check the return value of your socket() call? See
51L<perlfunc/accept>.
33633739 52
6df41af2 53=item Allocation too large: %lx
a0d0e21e 54
6df41af2 55(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e 56
f61d411c 57=item '!' allowed only after types %s
ef54e1a4 58
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59(F) The '!' is allowed in pack() and unpack() only after certain types.
60See L<perlfunc/pack>.
ef54e1a4 61
6df41af2 62=item Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
43192e07 63
75b44862 64(W ambiguous) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl
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65keyword, and you have used the name without qualification for calling
66one or the other. Perl decided to call the builtin because the
67subroutine is not imported.
43192e07 68
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69To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand
70before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.
71Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's
72imported with the C<use subs> pragma).
43192e07 73
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74To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the C<CORE::> prefix
75on the operator (e.g. C<CORE::log($x)>) or by declaring the subroutine
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76to be an object method (see L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes"> or
77L<attributes>).
43192e07 78
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79=item Ambiguous range in transliteration operator
80
81(F) You wrote something like C<tr/a-z-0//> which doesn't mean anything at
82all. To include a C<-> character in a transliteration, put it either
83first or last. (In the past, C<tr/a-z-0//> was synonymous with
84C<tr/a-y//>, which was probably not what you would have expected.)
85
6df41af2 86=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
43192e07 87
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88(W ambiguous)(S) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
89you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
90a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
a0d0e21e 91
6df41af2 92=item '|' and '<' may not both be specified on command line
a0d0e21e 93
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94(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
95redirection, and found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to
96redirect STDIN using '<'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
c9f97d15 97
6df41af2 98=item '|' and '>' may not both be specified on command line
1028017a 99
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100(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
101redirection, and thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and
102into a pipe to another command. You need to choose one or the other,
103though nothing's stopping you from piping into a program or Perl script
104which 'splits' output into two streams, such as
1028017a 105
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106 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
107 while (<STDIN>) {
108 print;
109 print OUT;
110 }
111 close OUT;
c9f97d15 112
6df41af2 113=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
eb6e2d6f 114
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115(W misc) The pattern match (//), substitution (s///), and
116transliteration (tr///) operators work on scalar values. If you apply
117one of them to an array or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to
118a scalar value -- the length of an array, or the population info of a
119hash -- and then work on that scalar value. This is probably not what
120you meant to do. See L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for
121alternatives.
eb6e2d6f 122
6df41af2 123=item Args must match #! line
a0d0e21e 124
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125(F) The setuid emulator requires that the arguments Perl was invoked
126with match the arguments specified on the #! line. Since some systems
127impose a one-argument limit on the #! line, try combining switches;
128for example, turn C<-w -U> into C<-wU>.
a0d0e21e 129
6df41af2 130=item Arg too short for msgsnd
76cd736e 131
6df41af2 132(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
76cd736e 133
8ea97a1e 134=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element
a0d0e21e 135
8ea97a1e 136(F) The argument to exists() must be a hash or array element, such as:
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137
138 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 139 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
a0d0e21e 140
8ea97a1e 141=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice
5f05dabc 142
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143(F) The argument to delete() must be either a hash or array element,
144such as:
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145
146 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 147 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
5f05dabc 148
8ea97a1e 149or a hash or array slice, such as:
5f05dabc 150
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151 @foo[$bar, $baz, $xyzzy]
152 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
5315574d 153
6df41af2 154=item %s argument is not a subroutine name
a0d0e21e 155
6df41af2 156(F) The argument to exists() for C<exists &sub> must be a subroutine
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157name, and not a subroutine call. C<exists &sub()> will generate this
158error.
a0d0e21e 159
f86702cc 160=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
a0d0e21e 161
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162(W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator
163that expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
164will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
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165
166=item Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
167
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168(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some
169spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
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170
171=item assertion botched: %s
172
173(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
174
175=item Assertion failed: file "%s"
176
177(P) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
178
179=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
180
181(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
182must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
183know which context to supply to the right side.
184
5243b939 185=item Negative offset to vec in lvalue context
fe58ced6 186
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187(F) When vec is called in an lvalue context, the second argument must be
188greater than or equal to zero.
fe58ced6 189
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190=item Attempt to bless into a reference
191
192(F) The CLASSNAME argument to the bless() operator is expected to be
193the name of the package to bless the resulting object into. You've
194supplied instead a reference to something: perhaps you wrote
195
196 bless $self, $proto;
197
198when you intended
199
200 bless $self, ref($proto) || $proto;
201
202If you actually want to bless into the stringified version
203of the reference supplied, you need to stringify it yourself, for
204example by:
205
206 bless $self, "$proto";
207
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208=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%lx
209
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210(P internal) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas
211that will be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be
212outside any of those arenas.
a0d0e21e 213
54310121 214=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string
bbce6d69 215
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216(P internal) Perl maintains a reference counted internal table of
217strings to optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other
218strings. This indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count
219of a string that can no longer be found in the table.
bbce6d69 220
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221=item Attempt to free temp prematurely
222
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223(W debugging) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the
224free_tmps() routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the
225SV before the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the
226free_tmps() routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does
227try to free it.
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228
229=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
230
e476b1b5 231(P internal) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
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232
233=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar
234
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235(W internal) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to
236see if it would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0
237earlier, and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed.
238This could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or
239that SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was
240mortalized when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been
241corrupted.
a0d0e21e 242
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243=item Attempt to join self
244
245(F) You tried to join a thread from within itself, which is an
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246impossible task. You may be joining the wrong thread, or you may need
247to move the join() to some other thread.
dcdda58d 248
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249=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
250
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251(W pack) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
252function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
253means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
254invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
255literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
256avoid this warning.
84902520 257
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258=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
259
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260(W substr) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr()
261used as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
262dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
b7a902f4 263
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264=item Bad arg length for %s, is %d, should be %d
265
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266(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl()
267or shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 268S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
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269S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
270
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271=item Bad evalled substitution pattern
272
273(F) You've used the /e switch to evaluate the replacement for a
274substitution, but perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate,
275most likely an unexpected right brace '}'.
276
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277=item Bad filehandle: %s
278
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279(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the
280symbol has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an
281open(), or did it in another package.
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282
283=item Bad free() ignored
284
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285(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had never
286been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
9ea8bc6d 287setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 0.
33c8a3fe 288
9ea8bc6d 289This message can be seen quite often with DB_File on systems with "hard"
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290dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of C<Berkeley DB>
291which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving> system malloc().
a0d0e21e 292
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293=item Bad hash
294
295(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
296
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297=item Bad index while coercing array into hash
298
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299(F) The index looked up in the hash found as the 0'th element of a
300pseudo-hash is not legal. Index values must be at 1 or greater.
301See L<perlref>.
57079c46 302
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303=item Badly placed ()'s
304
305(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
306of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
307Perl yourself.
308
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309=item Bad name after %s::
310
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311(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then
312didn't finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside
313of quotes, so
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314
315 $var = 'myvar';
316 $sym = mypack::$var;
317
318is not the same as
319
320 $var = 'myvar';
321 $sym = "mypack::$var";
322
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323=item Bad realloc() ignored
324
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325(S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that had
326never been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled
327by setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
4ad56ec9 328
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329=item Bad symbol for array
330
331(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
332wasn't a symbol table entry.
333
334=item Bad symbol for filehandle
335
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336(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something
337that wasn't a symbol table entry.
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338
339=item Bad symbol for hash
340
341(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
342wasn't a symbol table entry.
343
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344=item Bareword found in conditional
345
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346(W bareword) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a
347conditional, which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part
348of the last argument of the previous construct, for example:
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349
350 open FOO || die;
351
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352It may also indicate a misspelled constant that has been interpreted as
353a bareword:
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354
355 use constant TYPO => 1;
356 if (TYOP) { print "foo" }
357
358The C<strict> pragma is useful in avoiding such errors.
359
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360=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
361
362(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
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363subroutine identifier, in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>"
364symbol. Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
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365
366=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
367
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368(W bareword) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but the
369compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point. Perhaps
370you need to predeclare a package?
6df41af2 371
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372=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
373
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374(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN
375subroutine. Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is
376exited.
a0d0e21e 377
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378=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
379
380(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
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381implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had already
382occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}> could not
383be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code likely
384depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
68dc0745 385
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386=item \1 better written as $1
387
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388(W syntax) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables.
389The use of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
390substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
391because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better if
392there are more than 9 backreferences.
6df41af2 393
252aa082
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394=item Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable
395
e476b1b5 396(W portable) The binary number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
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397(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
398L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 399
69282e91 400=item bind() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 401
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402(W closed) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to
403check the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
a0d0e21e 404
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405=item binmode() on closed filehandle %s
406
407(W unopened) You tried binmode() on a filehandle that was never opened.
408Check you control flow and number of arguments.
409
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410=item Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
411
e476b1b5 412(W portable) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is non-portable.
c5a0f51a 413
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414=item Bizarre copy of %s in %s
415
be771a83 416(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not
b45f050a 417copyable.
4633a7c4 418
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419=item B<-P> not allowed for setuid/setgid script
420
421(F) The script would have to be opened by the C preprocessor by name,
422which provides a race condition that breaks security.
423
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424=item Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
425
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426(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. While Perl was preparing to
427iterate over %ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition
428which was too long, so it was truncated to the string shown.
f675dbe5 429
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430=item Callback called exit
431
4929bf7b 432(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via call_sv()
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433exited by calling exit.
434
6df41af2 435=item %s() called too early to check prototype
f675dbe5 436
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437(W prototype) You've called a function that has a prototype before the
438parser saw a definition or declaration for it, and Perl could not check
439that the call conforms to the prototype. You need to either add an
440early prototype declaration for the subroutine in question, or move the
441subroutine definition ahead of the call to get proper prototype
442checking. Alternatively, if you are certain that you're calling the
443function correctly, you may put an ampersand before the name to avoid
444the warning. See L<perlsub>.
f675dbe5 445
6df41af2 446=item / cannot take a count
a0d0e21e 447
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448(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string, but
449you have also specified an explicit size for the string. See
450L<perlfunc/pack>.
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451
452=item Can't bless non-reference value
453
454(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
455encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
456
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457=item Can't call method "%s" in empty package "%s"
458
459(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
460functioning as a class, but that package doesn't have ANYTHING defined
461in it, let alone methods. See L<perlobj>.
462
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463=item Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
464
465(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
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466object reference or package name contains an undefined value. Something
467like this will reproduce the error:
6df41af2
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468
469 $BADREF = undef;
470 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
471 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
472
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473=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
474
54310121 475(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
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476ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but you
477didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't an
478object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
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479
480=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
481
482(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
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483object reference or package name contains an expression that returns a
484defined value which is neither an object reference nor a package name.
72b5445b
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485Something like this will reproduce the error:
486
487 $BADREF = 42;
488 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
489 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
490
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491=item Can't chdir to %s
492
493(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but C</foo/bar> is not a directory
494that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
495
0545a864 496=item Can't check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid
104d25b7 497
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498(P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for
499nosuid.
104d25b7 500
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501=item Can't coerce array into hash
502
503(F) You used an array where a hash was expected, but the array has no
504information on how to map from keys to array indices. You can do that
505only with arrays that have a hash reference at index 0.
506
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507=item Can't coerce %s to integer in %s
508
509(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 510(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
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511say things like:
512
513 *foo += 1;
514
515You CAN say
516
517 $foo = *foo;
518 $foo += 1;
519
520but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
521
522=item Can't coerce %s to number in %s
523
524(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 525(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
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526
527=item Can't coerce %s to string in %s
528
529(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 530(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
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531
532=item Can't create pipe mailbox
533
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534(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted
535quotas or other plumbing problems.
a0d0e21e 536
eb64745e 537=item Can't declare class for non-scalar %s in "%s"
a0d0e21e 538
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539(S) Currently, only scalar variables can declared with a specific class
540qualifier in a "my" or "our" declaration. The semantics may be extended
541for other types of variables in future.
542
543=item Can't declare %s in "%s"
544
545(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as "my" or
546"our" variables. They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
a0d0e21e 547
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548=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
549
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GS
550(S inplace) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as
551a file in /dev, or a FIFO. The file was ignored.
6df41af2 552
a0d0e21e
LW
553=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
554
be771a83
GS
555(S inplace) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated
556reason.
a0d0e21e 557
54310121 558=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
a0d0e21e 559
be771a83
GS
560(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try
561reading from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say
562C<-i.bak>, or some such.
a0d0e21e 563
10f9c03d 564=item Can't do inplace edit: %s would not be unique
a0d0e21e 565
e476b1b5 566(S inplace) Your filesystem does not support filenames longer than 14
10f9c03d
CK
567characters and Perl was unable to create a unique filename during
568inplace editing with the B<-i> switch. The file was ignored.
a0d0e21e 569
7253e4e3 570=item Can't do {n,m} with n > m in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 571
b45f050a 572(F) Minima must be less than or equal to maxima. If you really want your
7253e4e3 573regexp to match something 0 times, just put {0}. The <-- HERE shows in the
b45f050a 574regular expression about where the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e
LW
575
576=item Can't do setegid!
577
be771a83
GS
578(P) The setegid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator of
579suidperl.
a0d0e21e
LW
580
581=item Can't do seteuid!
582
583(P) The setuid emulator of suidperl failed for some reason.
584
585=item Can't do setuid
586
be771a83
GS
587(F) This typically means that ordinary perl tried to exec suidperl to do
588setuid emulation, but couldn't exec it. It looks for a name of the form
589sperl5.000 in the same directory that the perl executable resides under
590the name perl5.000, typically /usr/local/bin on Unix machines. If the
591file is there, check the execute permissions. If it isn't, ask your
592sysadmin why he and/or she removed it.
a0d0e21e
LW
593
594=item Can't do waitpid with flags
595
be771a83
GS
596(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only
597waitpid() without flags is emulated.
a0d0e21e 598
a0d0e21e
LW
599=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
600
be771a83
GS
601(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this
602point. For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #!
603line.
a0d0e21e
LW
604
605=item Can't exec "%s": %s
606
be771a83
GS
607(W exec) An system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the
608named program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the
609permissions were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in
610C<$ENV{PATH}>, the executable in question was compiled for another
611architecture, or the #! line in a script points to an interpreter that
612can't be run for similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support
613#! at all.)
a0d0e21e
LW
614
615=item Can't exec %s
616
be771a83
GS
617(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because
618that's what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may
619need to mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
a0d0e21e
LW
620
621=item Can't execute %s
622
be771a83
GS
623(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute
624found in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
2a92aaa0 625
6df41af2 626=item Can't find an opnumber for "%s"
2a92aaa0 627
be771a83
GS
628(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but there
629is no builtin with the name C<word>.
6df41af2 630
56ca2fc0
JH
631=item Can't find %s character property "%s"
632
633(F) You used C<\p{}> or C<\P{}> but the character property by that name
634could not be find. Maybe you mispelled the name of the property
635(remember that the names of character properties consist only of
636alphanumeric characters), or maybe you forgot the C<Is> or C<In> prefix?
637
6df41af2
GS
638=item Can't find label %s
639
be771a83
GS
640(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's
641possible for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2a92aaa0
GS
642
643=item Can't find %s on PATH
644
be771a83
GS
645(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
646found in the PATH.
a0d0e21e 647
6df41af2 648=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
a0d0e21e 649
be771a83
GS
650(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
651found in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The
652script exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
a0d0e21e
LW
653
654=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
655
be771a83
GS
656(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means
657that the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count
658nesting levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
a0d0e21e 659
fb73857a
PP
660 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
661
be771a83
GS
662If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have included
663unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag. A good programmer's
664editor will have a way to help you find these characters.
a0d0e21e 665
64977eb6 666=item Can't find %s property definition %s
0103b764 667
f91328b7
JH
668(F) You may have tried to use C<\p> which means a Unicode property for
669example \p{Lu} is all uppercase letters. Escape the C<\p>, either
670C<\\p> (just the C<\p>) or by C<\Q\p> (the rest of the string, until
671possible C<\E>).
0103b764 672
a0d0e21e
LW
673=item Can't fork
674
be771a83
GS
675(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a
676pipeline.
a0d0e21e 677
748a9306
LW
678=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
679
be771a83
GS
680(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference
681between access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes.
682Under VMS, access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in
683the stat buffer, so that ACLs and other protections can be taken into
684account. Unfortunately, Perl assumes that the stat buffer contains all
685the necessary information, and passes it, instead of the filespec, to
686the access checking routine. It will try to retrieve the filespec using
687the device name and FID present in the stat buffer, but this works only
688if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat() routine,
689because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
690appears, the name lookup failed, and the access checking routine gave up
691and returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access checking
692routine knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you
693shouldn't ever see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises
694only if some internal code takes stat buffers lightly.)
748a9306 695
a0d0e21e
LW
696=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
697
be771a83
GS
698(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a
699pipe, Perl can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
700
701=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
702
748a9306
LW
703(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
704mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e 705
6df41af2 706=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
a0d0e21e 707
be771a83
GS
708(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a foreach
709loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2
GS
710
711=item Can't "goto" out of a pseudo block
712
be771a83
GS
713(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look like
714a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually occurs if
715you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which is a no-no.
716See L<perlfunc/goto>.
a0d0e21e 717
b150fb22
RH
718=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-string
719
be771a83
GS
720(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval
721"string". (You can use it to jump out of an eval {BLOCK}, but you
722probably don't want to.)
b150fb22 723
6df41af2
GS
724=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
725
be771a83
GS
726(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one
727subroutine call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole
728cloth. In general you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD
729routine anyway. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2 730
0b5b802d
GS
731=item Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default
732
be771a83
GS
733(W signal) Perl has detected that it is being run with the SIGCHLD
734signal (sometimes known as SIGCLD) disabled. Since disabling this
735signal will interfere with proper determination of exit status of child
736processes, Perl has reset the signal to its default value. This
737situation typically indicates that the parent program under which Perl
738may be running (e.g. cron) is being very careless.
0b5b802d 739
6df41af2 740=item Can't "last" outside a loop block
4633a7c4 741
6df41af2 742(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
be771a83
GS
743except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a current
744block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a "loopish"
745block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or grep(). You can
746usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the
747inner curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See
748L<perlfunc/last>.
4633a7c4 749
748a9306
LW
750=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
751
2ba9eb46 752(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
748a9306
LW
753lexical variable using "my". This is not allowed. If you want to
754localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with the
755package name.
756
0ebe0038
SM
757=item Can't localize pseudo-hash element
758
be771a83
GS
759(F) You said something like C<< local $ar->{'key'} >>, where $ar is a
760reference to a pseudo-hash. That hasn't been implemented yet, but you
761can get a similar effect by localizing the corresponding array element
762directly -- C<< local $ar->[$ar->[0]{'key'}] >>.
0ebe0038 763
6df41af2 764=item Can't localize through a reference
4727527e 765
6df41af2
GS
766(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
767handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
be771a83 768pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be sure
64977eb6 769that $ref will still be a reference.
4727527e 770
ec889f3a
GS
771=item Can't locate %s
772
773(F) You said to C<do> (or C<require>, or C<use>) a file that couldn't be
774found. Perl looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in @INC,
be771a83
GS
775unless the file name included the full path to the file. Perhaps you
776need to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where
777the extra library is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name
778to @INC. Or maybe you just misspelled the name of the file. See
779L<perlfunc/require> and L<lib>.
a0d0e21e 780
6df41af2
GS
781=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
782
be771a83
GS
783(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows
784autoload, but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes
785are a misprint in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit>
786the file, say, by doing C<make install>.
6df41af2 787
a0d0e21e
LW
788=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
789
790(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
791functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 792method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e 793
c1899e02
GS
794=item (perhaps you forgot to load "%s"?)
795
796(F) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
797"Can't locate object method \"%s\" via package \"%s\"". It often means
798that a method requires a package that has not been loaded.
799
a0d0e21e
LW
800=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
801
be771a83
GS
802(W syntax) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that
803doesn't seem to exist.
a0d0e21e 804
3e3baf6d
TB
805=item Can't make list assignment to \%ENV on this system
806
be771a83
GS
807(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably
808VMS.
3e3baf6d 809
a0d0e21e
LW
810=item Can't modify %s in %s
811
be771a83
GS
812(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try
813to change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 814
54310121 815=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
816
817(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
818a NULL.
819
6df41af2
GS
820=item Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call
821
822(F) Subroutines meant to be used in lvalue context should be declared as
823such, see L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
824
5f05dabc 825=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 826
5f05dabc 827(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
828buffer.
829
6df41af2
GS
830=item Can't "next" outside a loop block
831
832(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
833there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
be771a83
GS
834count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or
835grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
836though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that loops
837once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
6df41af2 838
a0d0e21e
LW
839=item Can't open %s: %s
840
c47ff5f1 841(S inplace) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<< <> >>
08e9d68e
DD
842filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
843switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually this
be771a83
GS
844is because you don't have read permission for a file which you named on
845the command line.
a0d0e21e
LW
846
847=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
848
be771a83
GS
849(W pipe) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported.
850You can try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such
851as IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using
852">", and then read it in under a different file handle.
a0d0e21e 853
748a9306
LW
854=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
855
be771a83
GS
856(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
857redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '2>' or '2>>' on
858the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
859
860=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
861
be771a83
GS
862(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
863redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '<' on the
864command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
865
866=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
867
be771a83
GS
868(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
869redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '>' or '>>' on
870the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
871
872=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
873
be771a83
GS
874(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
875redirection, and couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined
876for stdout.
748a9306 877
584d69ec 878=item Can't open perl script%s: %s
a0d0e21e
LW
879
880(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
881
6df41af2
GS
882=item Can't read CRTL environ
883
884(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read an element of %ENV
885from the CRTL's internal environment array and discovered the array was
886missing. You need to figure out where your CRTL misplaced its environ
be771a83
GS
887or define F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that environ is not
888searched.
6df41af2 889
7bac28a0
PP
890=item Can't redefine active sort subroutine %s
891
892(F) Perl optimizes the internal handling of sort subroutines and keeps
be771a83
GS
893pointers into them. You tried to redefine one such sort subroutine when
894it was currently active, which is not allowed. If you really want to do
7bac28a0
PP
895this, you should write C<sort { &func } @x> instead of C<sort func @x>.
896
6df41af2
GS
897=item Can't "redo" outside a loop block
898
899(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
900there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
901count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map()
902or grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
903though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that
904loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
905
64977eb6 906=item Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file
10f9c03d 907
be771a83
GS
908(S inplace) You requested an inplace edit without creating a backup
909file. Perl was unable to remove the original file to replace it with
910the modified file. The file was left unmodified.
10f9c03d 911
a0d0e21e
LW
912=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
913
e476b1b5 914(S inplace) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason,
10f9c03d 915probably because you don't have write permission to the directory.
a0d0e21e 916
748a9306
LW
917=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
918
be771a83
GS
919(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried
920to reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
748a9306 921
6df41af2
GS
922=item Can't resolve method `%s' overloading `%s' in package `%s'
923
be771a83
GS
924(F|P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as opposed
925to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the package. If
926method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
6df41af2 927
a0d0e21e
LW
928=item Can't reswap uid and euid
929
be771a83
GS
930(P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator of
931suidperl.
a0d0e21e 932
cd06dffe
GS
933=item Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine
934
be771a83
GS
935(F) Perl detected an attempt to return illegal lvalues (such as
936temporary or readonly values) from a subroutine used as an lvalue. This
937is not allowed.
cd06dffe 938
78f9721b
SM
939=item Can't return %s to lvalue scalar context
940
941(F) You tried to return a complete array or hash from an lvalue subroutine,
942but you called the subroutine in a way that made Perl think you meant
943to return only one value. You probably meant to write parentheses around
944the call to the subroutine, which tell Perl that the call should be in
945list context.
946
6df41af2
GS
947=item Can't return outside a subroutine
948
949(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
950there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
951
a0d0e21e
LW
952=item Can't stat script "%s"
953
be771a83
GS
954(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have it
955open already. Bizarre.
a0d0e21e
LW
956
957=item Can't swap uid and euid
958
be771a83
GS
959(P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator of
960suidperl.
a0d0e21e
LW
961
962=item Can't take log of %g
963
fb73857a
PP
964(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
965negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
be771a83
GS
966standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for the
967negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
968
969=item Can't take sqrt of %g
970
971(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a
PP
972negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
973with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
974
975=item Can't undef active subroutine
976
977(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
978however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
979redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
980
981=item Can't unshift
982
983(F) You tried to unshift an "unreal" array that can't be unshifted, such
984as the main Perl stack.
985
986=item Can't upgrade that kind of scalar
987
be771a83
GS
988(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making it
989into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are so
990specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This message
991indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
a0d0e21e
LW
992
993=item Can't upgrade to undef
994
be771a83
GS
995(P) The undefined SV is the bottom of the totem pole, in the scheme of
996upgradability. Upgrading to undef indicates an error in the code
997calling sv_upgrade.
a0d0e21e 998
6df41af2
GS
999=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
1000
1001(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
1002be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
1003
1db89ea5
BS
1004=item Can't use anonymous symbol table for method lookup
1005
1006(P) The internal routine that does method lookup was handed a symbol
1007table that doesn't have a name. Symbol tables can become anonymous
1008for example by undefining stashes: C<undef %Some::Package::>.
1009
6df41af2
GS
1010=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
1011
be771a83
GS
1012(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1013references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 1014
90b75b61 1015=item Can't use %! because Errno.pm is not available
1d2dff63
GS
1016
1017(F) The first time the %! hash is used, perl automatically loads the
1018Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
1019provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
1020
6df41af2
GS
1021=item Can't use %s for loop variable
1022
be771a83
GS
1023(F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a
1024foreach.
6df41af2
GS
1025
1026=item Can't use global %s in "my"
1027
be771a83
GS
1028(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This
1029is not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location
1030(namely the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to
1031have variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
6df41af2
GS
1032weren't.
1033
c07a80fd
PP
1034=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
1035
1036(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
c47ff5f1 1037You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the <=> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd
PP
1038and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
1039Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
1040lexical variable.
1041
a0d0e21e
LW
1042=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
1043
1044(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
1045reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
1046test the type of the reference, if need be.
1047
748a9306 1048=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e 1049
be771a83
GS
1050(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1051references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 1052
748a9306
LW
1053=item Can't use subscript on %s
1054
1055(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
1056subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
1057didn't look like an array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
1058
6df41af2
GS
1059=item Can't use \%c to mean $%c in expression
1060
75b44862
GS
1061(W syntax) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that
1062creates a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a
1063backreference to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular
be771a83
GS
1064expression pattern. Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a
1065value that prints out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form
1066instead.
6df41af2 1067
810b8aa5
GS
1068=item Can't weaken a nonreference
1069
1070(F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference. Only
1071references can be weakened.
1072
5f05dabc 1073=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e 1074
be771a83
GS
1075(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value)
1076with an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
a0d0e21e
LW
1077Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
1078
ac7cd81a
SC
1079=item Character in "C" format wrapped
1080
1081(W pack) You said
1082
1083 pack("C", $x)
1084
1085where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255; the C<"C"> format is
1086only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1087and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1088
1089 pack("C", $x & 255)
1090
1091If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1092instead.
1093
1094=item Character in "c" format wrapped
1095
1096(W pack) You said
1097
1098 pack("c", $x)
1099
1100where $x is either less than -128 or more than 127; the C<"c"> format
1101is only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1102and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1103
1104 pack("c", $x & 255);
1105
1106If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1107instead.
1108
5a211162 1109=item chmod() mode argument is missing initial 0
a0d0e21e 1110
e476b1b5 1111(W chmod) A novice will sometimes say
a0d0e21e
LW
1112
1113 chmod 777, $filename
1114
be771a83
GS
1115not realizing that 777 will be interpreted as a decimal number,
1116equivalent to 01411. Octal constants are introduced with a leading 0 in
1117Perl, as in C.
a0d0e21e 1118
9ddeeac9 1119=item close() on unopened filehandle %s
a0d0e21e 1120
e476b1b5 1121(W unopened) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
a0d0e21e 1122
6df41af2
GS
1123=item %s: Command not found
1124
be771a83
GS
1125(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1126Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2 1127
7a2e2cd6
PP
1128=item Compilation failed in require
1129
1130(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
be771a83
GS
1131Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it
1132encountered were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
7a2e2cd6 1133
c3464db5
DD
1134=item Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
1135
be771a83
GS
1136(W regexp) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex
1137situations where back-tracking is required. Recursion depth is limited
1138to 32766, or perhaps less in architectures where the stack cannot grow
1139arbitrarily. ("Simple" and "medium" situations are handled without
1140recursion and are not subject to a limit.) Try shortening the string
1141under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with C<while>) rather than
1142in the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular expression so
c2e66d9e 1143that it is simpler or backtracks less. (See L<perlfaq2> for information
be771a83 1144on I<Mastering Regular Expressions>.)
c3464db5 1145
69282e91 1146=item connect() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1147
be771a83
GS
1148(W closed) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget
1149to check the return value of your socket() call? See
1150L<perlfunc/connect>.
a0d0e21e 1151
41ab332f 1152=item Constant(%s)%s: %s
6df41af2 1153
be771a83
GS
1154(F) The parser found inconsistencies either while attempting to define
1155an overloaded constant, or when trying to find the character name
1156specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you forgot to load the
1157corresponding C<overload> or C<charnames> pragma? See L<charnames> and
1158L<overload>.
6df41af2 1159
779c5bc9
GS
1160=item Constant is not %s reference
1161
1162(F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the C<use constant> pragma)
be771a83
GS
1163is being dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference.
1164The message indicates the type of reference that was expected. This
1165usually indicates a syntax error in dereferencing the constant value.
779c5bc9
GS
1166See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> and L<constant>.
1167
4cee8e80
CS
1168=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
1169
be771a83
GS
1170(S|W redefine) You redefined a subroutine which had previously been
1171eligible for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for
1172commentary and workarounds.
4cee8e80 1173
9607fc9c
PP
1174=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
1175
be771a83
GS
1176(W misc) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible
1177for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1178workarounds.
9607fc9c 1179
e7ea3e70
IZ
1180=item Copy method did not return a reference
1181
64977eb6 1182(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See
13a2d996 1183L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
e7ea3e70 1184
6798c92b
GS
1185=item CORE::%s is not a keyword
1186
1187(F) The CORE:: namespace is reserved for Perl keywords.
1188
a0d0e21e
LW
1189=item corrupted regexp pointers
1190
1191(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1192expression compiler gave it.
1193
1194=item corrupted regexp program
1195
be771a83
GS
1196(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without a
1197valid magic number.
a0d0e21e 1198
6df41af2
GS
1199=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%lx at 0x%lx
1200
1201(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
1202
1203=item C<-p> destination: %s
1204
1205(F) An error occurred during the implicit output invoked by the C<-p>
1206command-line switch. (This output goes to STDOUT unless you've
1207redirected it with select().)
1208
1209=item C<-T> and C<-B> not implemented on filehandles
1210
1211(F) Perl can't peek at the stdio buffer of filehandles when it doesn't
1212know about your kind of stdio. You'll have to use a filename instead.
1213
a0d0e21e
LW
1214=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
1215
be771a83
GS
1216(W recursion) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly)
1217100 times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an
1218infinite recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in
1219which case it indicates something else.
a0d0e21e 1220
f10b0346 1221=item defined(@array) is deprecated
69794302 1222
be771a83
GS
1223(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on arrays because it
1224checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the
64977eb6 1225array is empty, just use C<if (@array) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1226
f10b0346 1227=item defined(%hash) is deprecated
69794302 1228
be771a83
GS
1229(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on hashes because it
1230checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the hash
64977eb6 1231is empty, just use C<if (%hash) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1232
fc36a67e
PP
1233=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1234
be771a83
GS
1235(F) In a here document construct like C<<<FOO>, the label C<FOO> is too
1236long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously twisted to write code
1237that triggers this error.
fc36a67e 1238
3cdd684c
TP
1239=item Did not produce a valid header
1240
1241See Server error.
1242
6df41af2
GS
1243=item %s did not return a true value
1244
1245(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
1246it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
1247traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
1248do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
1249
cc507455 1250=item (Did you mean &%s instead?)
4633a7c4 1251
be771a83
GS
1252(W) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or some
1253such.
4633a7c4 1254
cc507455 1255=item (Did you mean "local" instead of "our"?)
33633739 1256
be771a83
GS
1257(W misc) Remember that "our" does not localize the declared global
1258variable. You have declared it again in the same lexical scope, which
1259seems superfluous.
33633739 1260
cc507455 1261=item (Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?)
a0d0e21e 1262
be771a83
GS
1263(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or
1264@hash{@keys}. On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got
1265carried away.
748a9306 1266
7e1af8bc 1267=item Died
5f05dabc
PP
1268
1269(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
1270you called it with no args and both C<$@> and C<$_> were empty.
1271
3cdd684c
TP
1272=item Document contains no data
1273
1274See Server error.
1275
a0d0e21e
LW
1276=item Don't know how to handle magic of type '%s'
1277
1278(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
1279
1280=item do_study: out of memory
1281
1282(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
1283
6df41af2
GS
1284=item (Do you need to predeclare %s?)
1285
1286(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
1287found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
1288name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
1289because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
be771a83
GS
1290"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're referencing
1291something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have to define the
1292subroutine or package before the current location. You can use an empty
1293"sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward" declaration.
6df41af2 1294
a0d0e21e
LW
1295=item Duplicate free() ignored
1296
be771a83
GS
1297(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had
1298already been freed.
a0d0e21e 1299
4633a7c4
LW
1300=item elseif should be elsif
1301
be771a83
GS
1302(S) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks it's ugly.
1303Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method named
1304"elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
4633a7c4
LW
1305unlikely to be what you want.
1306
85ab1d1d 1307=item entering effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1308
85ab1d1d 1309(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1310effective uids or gids failed.
1311
748a9306
LW
1312=item Error converting file specification %s
1313
5f05dabc 1314(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306 1315specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
be771a83
GS
1316single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've passed
1317an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a case the
1318conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
748a9306 1319
e4d48cc9
GS
1320=item %s: Eval-group in insecure regular expression
1321
be771a83
GS
1322(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
1323expression that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which
1324is unsafe. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
e4d48cc9 1325
e4d48cc9
GS
1326=item %s: Eval-group not allowed at run time
1327
be771a83
GS
1328(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the
1329C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the
1330pattern contains interpolated values. Since that is a security risk, it
1331is not allowed. If you insist, you may still do this by explicitly
1332building the pattern from an interpolated string at run time and using
1333that in an eval(). See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
e4d48cc9 1334
6df41af2
GS
1335=item %s: Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval'
1336
be771a83
GS
1337(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width
1338assertion, but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'>
1339pragma is in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
6df41af2 1340
fc36a67e
PP
1341=item Excessively long <> operator
1342
1343(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
1344Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
1345filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
1346variable and glob that.
1347
f86702cc 1348=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors
a0d0e21e
LW
1349
1350(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
1351
1352=item Exiting eval via %s
1353
be771a83
GS
1354(W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as a
1355goto, or a loop control statement.
e476b1b5
GS
1356
1357=item Exiting format via %s
1358
be771a83
GS
1359(W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as a
1360goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1361
0a753a76
PP
1362=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
1363
be771a83
GS
1364(W exiting) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a
1365sort block or subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a
1366loop control statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
0a753a76 1367
a0d0e21e
LW
1368=item Exiting subroutine via %s
1369
be771a83
GS
1370(W exiting) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such
1371as a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
1372
1373=item Exiting substitution via %s
1374
be771a83
GS
1375(W exiting) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such
1376as a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1377
7b8d334a
GS
1378=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
1379
be771a83
GS
1380(W misc) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
1381the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
1382usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target package,
1383e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');
7b8d334a 1384
6df41af2
GS
1385=item %s: Expression syntax
1386
be771a83
GS
1387(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1388Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2
GS
1389
1390=item %s failed--call queue aborted
1391
1392(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a CHECK, INIT, or
1393END subroutine. Processing of the remainder of the queue of such
1394routines has been prematurely ended.
1395
7253e4e3 1396=item False [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
73b437c8 1397
be771a83 1398(W regexp) A character class range must start and end at a literal
7253e4e3
RK
1399character, not another character class like C<\d> or C<[:alpha:]>. The "-"
1400in your false range is interpreted as a literal "-". Consider quoting the
1401"-", "\-". The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
1402problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
73b437c8 1403
748a9306 1404=item Fatal VMS error at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 1405
be771a83
GS
1406(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS
1407system service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more
1408details. The filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell
1409you which section of the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
1410
1411=item fcntl is not implemented
1412
1413(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
1414PDP-11 or something?
1415
af8c498a 1416=item Filehandle %s opened only for input
a0d0e21e 1417
be771a83
GS
1418(W io) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you intended it
1419to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with "+<" or "+>"
1420or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you intended only to write
1421the file, use ">" or ">>". See L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 1422
af8c498a 1423=item Filehandle %s opened only for output
a0d0e21e 1424
be771a83
GS
1425(W io) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing. If
1426you intended it to be a read/write filehandle, you needed to open it
1427with "+<" or "+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you
1428intended only to read from the file, use "<". See L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1429
1430=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
1431
1432(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
be771a83
GS
1433a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name that
1434happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or the
1435name.
a0d0e21e
LW
1436
1437=item Final @ should be \@ or @name
1438
1439(F) You must now decide whether the final @ in a string was meant to be
be771a83
GS
1440a literal "at" sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name that
1441happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or the
1442name.
a0d0e21e 1443
56e90b21
GS
1444=item flock() on closed filehandle %s
1445
be771a83 1446(W closed) The filehandle you're attempting to flock() got itself closed
c289d2f7 1447some time before now. Check your control flow. flock() operates on
be771a83
GS
1448filehandles. Are you attempting to call flock() on a dirhandle by the
1449same name?
56e90b21 1450
7253e4e3 1451=item Quantifier follows nothing in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2 1452
b45f050a 1453(F) You started a regular expression with a quantifier. Backslash it if you
7253e4e3
RK
1454meant it literally. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about
1455where the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
6df41af2
GS
1456
1457=item Format not terminated
1458
1459(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
1460to the end of your file without finding such a line.
1461
a0d0e21e
LW
1462=item Format %s redefined
1463
e476b1b5 1464(W redefine) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
a0d0e21e
LW
1465
1466 {
4438c4b7 1467 no warnings;
a0d0e21e
LW
1468 eval "format NAME =...";
1469 }
1470
a0d0e21e
LW
1471=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
1472
e476b1b5 1473(W syntax) You said
a0d0e21e
LW
1474
1475 if ($foo = 123)
1476
1477when you meant
1478
1479 if ($foo == 123)
1480
1481(or something like that).
1482
6df41af2
GS
1483=item %s found where operator expected
1484
1485(S) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator. If it
be771a83
GS
1486sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an
1487operator, it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an
1488operator or delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
6df41af2 1489
a0d0e21e
LW
1490=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
1491
1492(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
1493
1494=item gethostent not implemented
1495
1496(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
1497because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
1498on the Internet.
1499
69282e91 1500=item get%sname() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1501
be771a83
GS
1502(W closed) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed
1503socket. Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
a0d0e21e 1504
748a9306
LW
1505=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
1506
1507(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
1508C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
1509
6df41af2
GS
1510=item getsockopt() on closed socket %s
1511
be771a83
GS
1512(W closed) You tried to get a socket option on a closed socket. Did you
1513forget to check the return value of your socket() call? See
6df41af2
GS
1514L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
1515
1516=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
1517
1518(F) You've said "use strict vars", which indicates that all variables
1519must either be lexically scoped (using "my"), declared beforehand using
1520"our", or explicitly qualified to say which package the global variable
1521is in (using "::").
1522
e476b1b5
GS
1523=item glob failed (%s)
1524
be771a83
GS
1525(W glob) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used for
1526C<glob> and C<< <*.c> >>. Usually, this means that you supplied a
1527C<glob> pattern that caused the external program to fail and exit with a
1528nonzero status. If the message indicates that the abnormal exit
1529resulted in a coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C shell) is
1530broken. If so, you should change all of the csh-related variables in
1531config.sh: If you have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as if it
1532were csh (e.g. C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them all
1533empty (except that C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will
1534think csh is missing. In either case, after editing config.sh, run
75b44862 1535C<./Configure -S> and rebuild Perl.
e476b1b5 1536
a0d0e21e
LW
1537=item Glob not terminated
1538
1539(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
be771a83
GS
1540a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and
1541not finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out
1542earlier in the line, and you really meant a "less than".
a0d0e21e 1543
6df41af2 1544=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
a0d0e21e 1545
6df41af2
GS
1546(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
1547version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
a0d0e21e
LW
1548
1549=item goto must have label
1550
1551(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
1552unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
1553
6df41af2
GS
1554=item %s had compilation errors
1555
1556(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
1557
a0d0e21e
LW
1558=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
1559
be771a83
GS
1560(S internal) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought
1561to have existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be
1562created on an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
a0d0e21e
LW
1563
1564=item Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
1565
be771a83
GS
1566(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some
1567spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
a0d0e21e 1568
6df41af2
GS
1569=item %s has too many errors
1570
1571(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
1572Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
1573
252aa082
JH
1574=item Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
1575
e476b1b5 1576(W portable) The hexadecimal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
1577(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
1578L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 1579
8903cb82
PP
1580=item Identifier too long
1581
1582(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e 1583about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
be771a83
GS
1584names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future versions
1585of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 1586
6df41af2 1587=item Illegal binary digit %s
f675dbe5 1588
6df41af2 1589(F) You used a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
f675dbe5 1590
6df41af2 1591=item Illegal binary digit %s ignored
a0d0e21e 1592
be771a83
GS
1593(W digit) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a
1594binary number. Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the
1595offending digit.
a0d0e21e 1596
4fdae800
PP
1597=item Illegal character %s (carriage return)
1598
d5898338 1599(F) Perl normally treats carriage returns in the program text as it
be771a83
GS
1600would any other whitespace, which means you should never see this error
1601when Perl was built using standard options. For some reason, your
1602version of Perl appears to have been built without this support. Talk
1603to your Perl administrator.
4fdae800 1604
a0d0e21e
LW
1605=item Illegal division by zero
1606
be771a83
GS
1607(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in
1608your logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against
1609meaningless input.
a0d0e21e 1610
6df41af2
GS
1611=item Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
1612
be771a83
GS
1613(W digit) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or
1614A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal
1615number stopped before the illegal character.
6df41af2 1616
a0d0e21e
LW
1617=item Illegal modulus zero
1618
be771a83
GS
1619(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most
1620numbers don't take to this kindly.
a0d0e21e 1621
6df41af2 1622=item Illegal number of bits in vec
399388f4 1623
6df41af2
GS
1624(F) The number of bits in vec() (the third argument) must be a power of
1625two from 1 to 32 (or 64, if your platform supports that).
399388f4
GS
1626
1627=item Illegal octal digit %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1628
1629(F) You used an 8 or 9 in a octal number.
1630
399388f4 1631=item Illegal octal digit %s ignored
748a9306 1632
75b44862
GS
1633(W digit) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in a octal number.
1634Interpretation of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
748a9306 1635
6df41af2 1636=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: %s
6ff81951 1637
6df41af2
GS
1638(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
1639following switches: B<-[DIMUdmw]>.
6ff81951 1640
6df41af2 1641=item Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
81e118e0 1642
75b44862 1643(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the CRTL's
be771a83
GS
1644internal environ array, and encountered an element without the C<=>
1645delimiter used to separate keys from values. The element is ignored.
09bef843 1646
6df41af2 1647=item Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
54310121 1648
be771a83
GS
1649(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read a logical
1650name or CLI symbol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and
1651didn't see the expected delimiter between key and value, so the line was
1652ignored.
54310121 1653
6df41af2 1654=item (in cleanup) %s
9607fc9c 1655
be771a83
GS
1656(W misc) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised
1657the indicated exception. Since destructors are usually called by the
1658system at arbitrary points during execution, and often a vast number of
1659times, the warning is issued only once for any number of failures that
1660would otherwise result in the same message being repeated.
6df41af2 1661
be771a83
GS
1662Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the C<G_KEEPERR> flag could
1663also result in this warning. See L<perlcall/G_KEEPERR>.
9607fc9c 1664
a0d0e21e
LW
1665=item Insecure dependency in %s
1666
8b1a09fc 1667(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
be771a83
GS
1668The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or
1669setgid, or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The
1670tainting mechanism labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly
1671from the user, who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any
1672such data is used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See
1673L<perlsec> for more information.
a0d0e21e
LW
1674
1675=item Insecure directory in %s
1676
be771a83
GS
1677(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
1678setgid script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by
1679the world. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 1680
62f468fc 1681=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1682
1683(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc
G
1684setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
1685C<$ENV{ENV}> or C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> are derived from data supplied (or
a0d0e21e
LW
1686potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set the path to a
1687known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
1688
a7ae9550
GS
1689=item Integer overflow in %s number
1690
75b44862 1691(W overflow) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have specified
be771a83
GS
1692either as a literal or as an argument to hex() or oct() is too big for
1693your architecture, and has been converted to a floating point number.
1694On a 32-bit architecture the largest hexadecimal, octal or binary number
9e24b6e2
JH
1695representable without overflow is 0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or
16960b11111111111111111111111111111111 respectively. Note that Perl
1697transparently promotes all numbers to a floating point representation
1698internally--subject to loss of precision errors in subsequent
1699operations.
bbce6d69 1700
7253e4e3 1701=item Internal disaster in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
1702
1703(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
7253e4e3 1704The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
b45f050a
JF
1705discovered.
1706
6df41af2 1707
748a9306
LW
1708=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
1709
be771a83
GS
1710(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number of times
1711you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine whether the current call
1712to C<exec> should affect the current script or a subprocess (see
1713L<perlvms/"exec LIST">). Somehow, this count has become scrambled, so
1714Perl is making a guess and treating this C<exec> as a request to
1715terminate the Perl script and execute the specified command.
748a9306 1716
7253e4e3 1717=item Internal urp in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a 1718
7253e4e3
RK
1719(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser. The
1720<-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
1721discovered.
a0d0e21e 1722
a0d0e21e 1723
6df41af2
GS
1724=item %s (...) interpreted as function
1725
75b44862 1726(W syntax) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator
be771a83 1727followed by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list
64977eb6 1728operators arguments found inside the parentheses. See
13a2d996 1729L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
6df41af2 1730
09bef843
SB
1731=item Invalid %s attribute: %s
1732
1733The indicated attribute for a subroutine or variable was not recognized
1734by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
1735
1736=item Invalid %s attributes: %s
1737
be771a83
GS
1738The indicated attributes for a subroutine or variable were not
1739recognized by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
09bef843 1740
c635e13b
PP
1741=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
1742
be771a83
GS
1743(W printf) Perl does not understand the given format conversion. See
1744L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
c635e13b 1745
7253e4e3 1746=item Invalid [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
1747
1748(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
7253e4e3
RK
1749greater than the maximum character. One possibility is that you forgot the
1750C<{}> from your ending C<\x{}> - C<\x> without the curly braces can go only
1751up to C<ff>. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
1752problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 1753
7253e4e3 1754=item Invalid [] range "%s" in transliteration operator
c2e66d9e
GS
1755
1756(F) The range specified in the tr/// or y/// operator had a minimum
1757character greater than the maximum character. See L<perlop>.
1758
09bef843
SB
1759=item Invalid separator character %s in attribute list
1760
0120eecf 1761(F) Something other than a colon or whitespace was seen between the
be771a83
GS
1762elements of an attribute list. If the previous attribute had a
1763parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that list was terminated too soon.
1764See L<attributes>.
09bef843 1765
96e4d5b1
PP
1766=item Invalid type in pack: '%s'
1767
8903cb82 1768(F) The given character is not a valid pack type. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
be771a83
GS
1769(W pack) The given character is not a valid pack type but used to be
1770silently ignored.
96e4d5b1
PP
1771
1772=item Invalid type in unpack: '%s'
1773
be771a83
GS
1774(F) The given character is not a valid unpack type. See
1775L<perlfunc/unpack>.
75b44862
GS
1776(W unpack) The given character is not a valid unpack type but used to be
1777silently ignored.
96e4d5b1 1778
a0d0e21e
LW
1779=item ioctl is not implemented
1780
1781(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
1782strange for a machine that supports C.
1783
c289d2f7
JH
1784=item ioctl() on unopened %s
1785
1786(W unopened) You tried ioctl() on a filehandle that was never opened.
1787Check you control flow and number of arguments.
1788
80cbd5ad
JH
1789=item IO::Socket::atmark not implemented on this architecture
1790
1791(F) Your machine doesn't implement the sockatmark() functionality,
1792neither as a system call or an ioctl call (SIOCATMARK).
1793
6ad11d81
JH
1794=item `%s' is not a code reference
1795
1796(W) The second (fourth, sixth, ...) argument of overload::constant needs
1797to be a code reference. Either an anonymous subroutine, or a reference
1798to a subroutine.
1799
1800=item `%s' is not an overloadable type
1801
1802(W) You tried to overload a constant type the overload package is unaware of.
1803
a0d0e21e
LW
1804=item junk on end of regexp
1805
1806(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
1807
1808=item Label not found for "last %s"
1809
be771a83
GS
1810(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a loop
1811of that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
1812L<perlfunc/last>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1813
1814=item Label not found for "next %s"
1815
1816(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
1817that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
1818L<perlfunc/last>.
1819
1820=item Label not found for "redo %s"
1821
1822(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
1823that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
1824L<perlfunc/last>.
1825
85ab1d1d 1826=item leaving effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1827
85ab1d1d 1828(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1829effective uids or gids failed.
1830
69282e91 1831=item listen() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1832
be771a83
GS
1833(W closed) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget
1834to check the return value of your socket() call? See
1835L<perlfunc/listen>.
a0d0e21e 1836
9d837945
TM
1837=item lstat() on filehandle %s
1838
1839(W io) You tried to do a lstat on a filehandle. What did you mean
1840by that? lstat() makes sense only on filenames. (Perl did a fstat()
1841instead on the filehandle.)
1842
cd06dffe
GS
1843=item Lvalue subs returning %s not implemented yet
1844
1845(F) Due to limitations in the current implementation, array and hash
be771a83
GS
1846values cannot be returned in subroutines used in lvalue context. See
1847L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
cd06dffe 1848
7253e4e3 1849=item Lookbehind longer than %d not implemented in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
1850
1851(F) There is currently a limit on the length of string which lookbehind can
7253e4e3
RK
1852handle. This restriction may be eased in a future release. The <-- HERE
1853shows in the regular expression about where the problem was discovered.
2e50fd82 1854
6df41af2
GS
1855=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
1856
1857(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
1858
1859 prefix1;prefix2
1860
1861or
1862
1863 prefix1 prefix2
1864
be771a83
GS
1865with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix of
1866a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error may
1867appear if components are not found, or are too long. See
fecfaeb8 1868"PERLLIB_PREFIX" in L<perlos2>.
6df41af2 1869
ba210ebe
JH
1870=item Malformed UTF-8 character (%s)
1871
1872Perl detected something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding rules.
1873
dea0fc0b
JH
1874=item Malformed UTF-16 surrogate
1875
1876Perl thought it was reading UTF-16 encoded character data but while
1877doing it Perl met a malformed Unicode surrogate.
1878
7253e4e3 1879=item %s matches null string many times in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
1880
1881(W regexp) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
7253e4e3
RK
1882regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. The <-- HERE
1883shows in the regular expression about where the problem was discovered.
1884See L<perlre>.
6df41af2
GS
1885
1886=item % may only be used in unpack
1887
1888(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
be771a83
GS
1889checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other way.
1890See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
6df41af2 1891
a0d0e21e
LW
1892=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
1893
1894(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
e7ea3e70 1895doesn't resolve to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 1896
3cdd684c
TP
1897=item Method %s not permitted
1898
1899See Server error.
1900
a0d0e21e
LW
1901=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
1902
1903(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
1904by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
1905ended earlier on the current line.
1906
1907=item Misplaced _ in number
1908
d4ced10d
JH
1909(W syntax) An underscore (underbar) in a numeric constant did not
1910separate two digits.
a0d0e21e 1911
4a2d328f 1912=item Missing %sbrace%s on \N{}
423cee85 1913
4a2d328f 1914(F) Wrong syntax of character name literal C<\N{charname}> within
423cee85
JH
1915double-quotish context.
1916
a0d0e21e
LW
1917=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
1918
1919(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
1920"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
1921
06eaf0bc
GS
1922=item Missing command in piped open
1923
be771a83
GS
1924(W pipe) You used the C<open(FH, "| command")> or
1925C<open(FH, "command |")> construction, but the command was missing or
1926blank.
06eaf0bc 1927
6df41af2
GS
1928=item Missing name in "my sub"
1929
be771a83
GS
1930(F) The reserved syntax for lexically scoped subroutines requires that
1931they have a name with which they can be found.
6df41af2
GS
1932
1933=item Missing $ on loop variable
1934
be771a83
GS
1935(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables
1936are always mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it
1937can vary from one line to the next.
6df41af2 1938
cc507455 1939=item (Missing operator before %s?)
748a9306
LW
1940
1941(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
1942found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
1943
d98d5fff 1944=item Missing right curly or square bracket
a0d0e21e 1945
be771a83
GS
1946(F) The lexer counted more opening curly or square brackets than closing
1947ones. As a general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place you
1948were last editing.
a0d0e21e 1949
6df41af2
GS
1950=item (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
1951
1952(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
1953found where operator expected". Don't automatically put a semicolon on
1954the previous line just because you saw this message.
1955
a0d0e21e
LW
1956=item Modification of a read-only value attempted
1957
1958(F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
5f05dabc 1959constant. You didn't, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
a0d0e21e
LW
1960catches that. But an easy way to do the same thing is:
1961
1962 sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
1963 mod(2);
1964
1965Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.
1966
c5674021
PDF
1967Yet another way is to assign to a C<foreach> loop I<VAR> when I<VAR>
1968is aliased to a constant in the look I<LIST>:
1969
1970 $x = 1;
1971 foreach my $n ($x, 2) {
1972 $n *= 2; # modifies the $x, but fails on attempt to modify the 2
64977eb6 1973 }
c5674021 1974
7a4340ed 1975=item Modification of non-creatable array value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1976
1977(F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
1978subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the array
1979backwards.
1980
7a4340ed 1981=item Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e 1982
be771a83
GS
1983(P) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it
1984couldn't be created for some peculiar reason.
a0d0e21e
LW
1985
1986=item Module name must be constant
1987
1988(F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".
1989
be98fb35 1990=item Module name required with -%c option
6df41af2 1991
be98fb35
GS
1992(F) The C<-M> or C<-m> options say that Perl should load some module, but
1993you omitted the name of the module. Consult L<perlrun> for full details
1994about C<-M> and C<-m>.
6df41af2 1995
a0d0e21e
LW
1996=item msg%s not implemented
1997
1998(F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.
1999
2000=item Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
2001
75b44862
GS
2002(W syntax) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like C<$foo[1,2,3]>.
2003They're written like C<$foo[1][2][3]>, as in C.
8b1a09fc 2004
6df41af2 2005=item / must be followed by a*, A* or Z*
09bef843 2006
6df41af2 2007(F) You had a pack template indicating a counted-length string,
be771a83
GS
2008Currently the only things that can have their length counted are a*, A*
2009or Z*. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6df41af2
GS
2010
2011=item / must be followed by a, A or Z
2012
be771a83
GS
2013(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string, which
2014must be followed by one of the letters a, A or Z to indicate what sort
2015of string is to be unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6df41af2
GS
2016
2017=item / must follow a numeric type
2018
be771a83
GS
2019(F) You had an unpack template that contained a '#', but this did not
2020follow some numeric unpack specification. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6df41af2
GS
2021
2022=item "my sub" not yet implemented
2023
be771a83
GS
2024(F) Lexically scoped subroutines are not yet implemented. Don't try
2025that yet.
6df41af2
GS
2026
2027=item "my" variable %s can't be in a package
2028
be771a83
GS
2029(F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make
2030sense to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the front. Use
2031local() if you want to localize a package variable.
09bef843 2032
8b1a09fc
PP
2033=item Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
2034
e476b1b5 2035(W once) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable names.
be771a83
GS
2036If you had a good reason for having a unique name, then just mention it
2037again somehow to suppress the message. The C<our> declaration is
77ca0c92 2038provided for this purpose.
a0d0e21e
LW
2039
2040=item Negative length
2041
be771a83
GS
2042(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer
2043length that is less than 0. This is difficult to imagine.
a0d0e21e 2044
7253e4e3 2045=item Nested quantifiers in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 2046
b45f050a 2047(F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses. So
7253e4e3 2048things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal. The <-- HERE shows in the regular
b45f050a 2049expression about where the problem was discovered.
a0d0e21e 2050
7253e4e3 2051Note that the minimal matching quantifiers, C<*?>, C<+?>, and
be771a83 2052C<??> appear to be nested quantifiers, but aren't. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 2053
6df41af2 2054=item %s never introduced
a0d0e21e 2055
be771a83
GS
2056(S internal) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of
2057scope before it could possibly have been used.
a0d0e21e
LW
2058
2059=item No %s allowed while running setuid
2060
be771a83
GS
2061(F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or
2062setgid script to even be allowed to attempt. Generally speaking there
2063will be another way to do what you want that is, if not secure, at least
2064securable. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2065
2066=item No B<-e> allowed in setuid scripts
2067
2068(F) A setuid script can't be specified by the user.
2069
2070=item No comma allowed after %s
2071
2072(F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is not
2073allowed to have a comma between that and the following arguments.
2074Otherwise it'd be just another one of the arguments.
2075
0a753a76
PP
2076One possible cause for this is that you expected to have imported a
2077constant to your name space with B<use> or B<import> while no such
2078importing took place, it may for example be that your operating system
2079does not support that particular constant. Hopefully you did use an
2080explicit import list for the constants you expect to see, please see
2081L<perlfunc/use> and L<perlfunc/import>. While an explicit import list
2082would probably have caught this error earlier it naturally does not
2083remedy the fact that your operating system still does not support that
2084constant. Maybe you have a typo in the constants of the symbol import
2085list of B<use> or B<import> or in the constant name at the line where
2086this error was triggered?
2087
748a9306
LW
2088=item No command into which to pipe on command line
2089
be771a83
GS
2090(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2091redirection, and found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it
2092doesn't know where you want to pipe the output from this command.
748a9306 2093
a0d0e21e
LW
2094=item No DB::DB routine defined
2095
be771a83
GS
2096(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
2097for some reason the perl5db.pl file (or some facsimile thereof) didn't
2098define a routine to be called at the beginning of each statement. Which
2099is odd, because the file should have been required automatically, and
2100should have blown up the require if it didn't parse right.
a0d0e21e
LW
2101
2102=item No dbm on this machine
2103
2104(P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine should
5f05dabc 2105supply dbm nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM. See L<SDBM_File>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2106
2107=item No DBsub routine
2108
2109(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch,
2110but for some reason the perl5db.pl file (or some facsimile thereof)
2111didn't define a DB::sub routine to be called at the beginning of each
2112ordinary subroutine call.
2113
c47ff5f1 2114=item No error file after 2> or 2>> on command line
748a9306 2115
be771a83
GS
2116(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2117redirection, and found a '2>' or a '2>>' on the command line, but can't
2118find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stderr.
748a9306 2119
c47ff5f1 2120=item No input file after < on command line
748a9306 2121
be771a83
GS
2122(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2123redirection, and found a '<' on the command line, but can't find the
2124name of the file from which to read data for stdin.
748a9306 2125
6df41af2
GS
2126=item No #! line
2127
2128(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
2129even on machines that don't support the #! construct.
2130
2131=item "no" not allowed in expression
2132
be771a83
GS
2133(F) The "no" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and
2134returns no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
6df41af2 2135
c47ff5f1 2136=item No output file after > on command line
748a9306 2137
be771a83
GS
2138(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2139redirection, and found a lone '>' at the end of the command line, so it
2140doesn't know where you wanted to redirect stdout.
748a9306 2141
c47ff5f1 2142=item No output file after > or >> on command line
748a9306 2143
be771a83
GS
2144(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2145redirection, and found a '>' or a '>>' on the command line, but can't
2146find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stdout.
748a9306 2147
1ec3e8de
GS
2148=item No package name allowed for variable %s in "our"
2149
be771a83
GS
2150(F) Fully qualified variable names are not allowed in "our"
2151declarations, because that doesn't make much sense under existing
2152semantics. Such syntax is reserved for future extensions.
1ec3e8de 2153
a0d0e21e
LW
2154=item No Perl script found in input
2155
2156(F) You called C<perl -x>, but no line was found in the file beginning
2157with #! and containing the word "perl".
2158
2159=item No setregid available
2160
2161(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setregid() call for
2162your system.
2163
2164=item No setreuid available
2165
2166(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setreuid() call for
2167your system.
2168
a67e862a 2169=item No space allowed after -%c
a0d0e21e 2170
be771a83
GS
2171(F) The argument to the indicated command line switch must follow
2172immediately after the switch, without intervening spaces.
a0d0e21e 2173
6df41af2
GS
2174=item No %s specified for -%c
2175
2176(F) The indicated command line switch needs a mandatory argument, but
2177you haven't specified one.
2178
2179=item No such pipe open
2180
2181(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The internal routine my_pclose() tried to
be771a83
GS
2182close a pipe which hadn't been opened. This should have been caught
2183earlier as an attempt to close an unopened filehandle.
6df41af2 2184
88e9b055 2185=item No such pseudo-hash field "%s"
57079c46 2186
88e9b055 2187(F) You tried to access an array as a hash, but the field name used is
57079c46
GA
2188not defined. The hash at index 0 should map all valid field names to
2189array indices for that to work.
2190
88e9b055 2191=item No such pseudo-hash field "%s" in variable %s of type %s
f1192cee 2192
be771a83
GS
2193(F) You tried to access a field of a typed variable where the type does
2194not know about the field name. The field names are looked up in the
2195%FIELDS hash in the type package at compile time. The %FIELDS hash is
2196%usually set up with the 'fields' pragma.
f1192cee 2197
a0d0e21e
LW
2198=item No such signal: SIG%s
2199
be771a83
GS
2200(W signal) You specified a signal name as a subscript to %SIG that was
2201not recognized. Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal
2202names on your system.
a0d0e21e
LW
2203
2204=item Not a CODE reference
2205
2206(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
2207subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
2208use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
2209also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2210
2211=item Not a format reference
2212
2213(F) I'm not sure how you managed to generate a reference to an anonymous
2214format, but this indicates you did, and that it didn't exist.
2215
2216=item Not a GLOB reference
2217
be771a83
GS
2218(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a "typeglob" (that is, a
2219symbol table entry that looks like C<*foo>), but found a reference to
2220something else instead. You can use the ref() function to find out what
2221kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2222
2223=item Not a HASH reference
2224
be771a83
GS
2225(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a hash value, but found a
2226reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function to
2227find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 2228
6df41af2
GS
2229=item Not an ARRAY reference
2230
be771a83
GS
2231(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to an array value, but found
2232a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
2233to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 2234
a0d0e21e
LW
2235=item Not a perl script
2236
2237(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
2238even on machines that don't support the #! construct. The line must
2239mention perl.
2240
2241=item Not a SCALAR reference
2242
be771a83
GS
2243(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a scalar value, but found
2244a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
2245to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2246
2247=item Not a subroutine reference
2248
2249(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
2250subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
2251use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
2252also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 2253
e7ea3e70 2254=item Not a subroutine reference in overload table
a0d0e21e
LW
2255
2256(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
8b1a09fc 2257doesn't somehow point to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 2258
a0d0e21e
LW
2259=item Not enough arguments for %s
2260
2261(F) The function requires more arguments than you specified.
2262
6df41af2
GS
2263=item Not enough format arguments
2264
be771a83
GS
2265(W syntax) A format specified more picture fields than the next line
2266supplied. See L<perlform>.
6df41af2
GS
2267
2268=item %s: not found
2269
be771a83
GS
2270(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell instead
2271of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl
2272yourself.
6df41af2
GS
2273
2274=item no UTC offset information; assuming local time is UTC
a0d0e21e 2275
6df41af2
GS
2276(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl was unable to find the local
2277timezone offset, so it's assuming that local system time is equivalent
be771a83
GS
2278to UTC. If it's not, define the logical name
2279F<SYS$TIMEZONE_DIFFERENTIAL> to translate to the number of seconds which
2280need to be added to UTC to get local time.
a0d0e21e
LW
2281
2282=item Null filename used
2283
be771a83
GS
2284(F) You can't require the null filename, especially because on many
2285machines that means the current directory! See L<perlfunc/require>.
a0d0e21e 2286
6df41af2
GS
2287=item NULL OP IN RUN
2288
be771a83
GS
2289(P debugging) Some internal routine called run() with a null opcode
2290pointer.
6df41af2 2291
55497cff
PP
2292=item Null picture in formline
2293
2294(F) The first argument to formline must be a valid format picture
2295specification. It was found to be empty, which probably means you
2296supplied it an uninitialized value. See L<perlform>.
2297
a0d0e21e
LW
2298=item Null realloc
2299
2300(P) An attempt was made to realloc NULL.
2301
2302=item NULL regexp argument
2303
5f05dabc 2304(P) The internal pattern matching routines blew it big time.
a0d0e21e
LW
2305
2306=item NULL regexp parameter
2307
2308(P) The internal pattern matching routines are out of their gourd.
2309
fc36a67e
PP
2310=item Number too long
2311
be771a83
GS
2312(F) Perl limits the representation of decimal numbers in programs to
2313about about 250 characters. You've exceeded that length. Future
2314versions of Perl are likely to eliminate this arbitrary limitation. In
2315the meantime, try using scientific notation (e.g. "1e6" instead of
2316"1_000_000").
fc36a67e 2317
6df41af2
GS
2318=item Octal number in vector unsupported
2319
be771a83
GS
2320(F) Numbers with a leading C<0> are not currently allowed in vectors.
2321The octal number interpretation of such numbers may be supported in a
2322future version.
6df41af2 2323
252aa082
JH
2324=item Octal number > 037777777777 non-portable
2325
75b44862 2326(W portable) The octal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
be771a83
GS
2327(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
2328L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082
JH
2329
2330See also L<perlport> for writing portable code.
2331
6ad11d81
JH
2332=item Odd number of arguments for overload::constant
2333
2334(W) The call to overload::constant contained an odd number of arguments.
2335The arguments should come in pairs.
2336
1930e939 2337=item Odd number of elements in hash assignment
a0d0e21e 2338
be771a83
GS
2339(W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash,
2340which is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
a0d0e21e 2341
bbce6d69
PP
2342=item Offset outside string
2343
2344(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with an offset
be771a83
GS
2345pointing outside the buffer. This is difficult to imagine. The sole
2346exception to this is that C<sysread()>ing past the buffer will extend
2347the buffer and zero pad the new area.
bbce6d69 2348
9ddeeac9
JH
2349=item -%s on unopened filehandle %s
2350
2351(W unopened) You tried to invoke a file test operator on a filehandle
c289d2f7 2352that isn't open. Check your control flow. See also L<perlfunc/-X>.
9ddeeac9 2353
c289d2f7 2354=item %s() on unopened %s
2dd78f96
JH
2355
2356(W unopened) An I/O operation was attempted on a filehandle that was
2357never initialized. You need to do an open(), a sysopen(), or a socket()
2358call, or call a constructor from the FileHandle package.
2359
a0d0e21e
LW
2360=item oops: oopsAV
2361
e476b1b5 2362(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e
LW
2363
2364=item oops: oopsHV
2365
e476b1b5 2366(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e 2367
56f7f34b 2368=item Operation `%s': no method found, %s
44a8e56a 2369
be771a83
GS
2370(F) An attempt was made to perform an overloaded operation for which no
2371handler was defined. While some handlers can be autogenerated in terms
2372of other handlers, there is no default handler for any operation, unless
2373C<fallback> overloading key is specified to be true. See L<overload>.
44a8e56a 2374
748a9306
LW
2375=item Operator or semicolon missing before %s
2376
be771a83
GS
2377(S ambiguous) You used a variable or subroutine call where the parser
2378was expecting an operator. The parser has assumed you really meant to
2379use an operator, but this is highly likely to be incorrect. For
2380example, if you say "*foo *foo" it will be interpreted as if you said
2381"*foo * 'foo'".
748a9306 2382
6df41af2
GS
2383=item "our" variable %s redeclared
2384
be771a83
GS
2385(W misc) You seem to have already declared the same global once before
2386in the current lexical scope.
6df41af2 2387
a80b8354
GS
2388=item Out of memory!
2389
2390(X) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
be771a83
GS
2391remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. Perl has
2392no option but to exit immediately.
a80b8354 2393
6df41af2 2394=item Out of memory during "large" request for %s
a0d0e21e 2395
6df41af2
GS
2396(F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
2397remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. However,
be771a83
GS
2398the request was judged large enough (compile-time default is 64K), so a
2399possibility to shut down by trapping this error is granted.
a0d0e21e 2400
1b979e0a 2401=item Out of memory during request for %s
a0d0e21e 2402
be771a83
GS
2403(X|F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was
2404insufficient remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the
2405request.
eff9c6e2
CS
2406
2407The request was judged to be small, so the possibility to trap it
2408depends on the way perl was compiled. By default it is not trappable.
be771a83
GS
2409However, if compiled for this, Perl may use the contents of C<$^M> as an
2410emergency pool after die()ing with this message. In this case the error
b022d2d2
IZ
2411is trappable I<once>, and the error message will include the line and file
2412where the failed request happened.
55497cff 2413
1b979e0a
IZ
2414=item Out of memory during ridiculously large request
2415
2416(F) You can't allocate more than 2^31+"small amount" bytes. This error
be771a83
GS
2417is most likely to be caused by a typo in the Perl program. e.g.,
2418C<$arr[time]> instead of C<$arr[$time]>.
1b979e0a 2419
6df41af2
GS
2420=item Out of memory for yacc stack
2421
be771a83
GS
2422(F) The yacc parser wanted to grow its stack so it could continue
2423parsing, but realloc() wouldn't give it more memory, virtual or
2424otherwise.
6df41af2
GS
2425
2426=item @ outside of string
2427
2428(F) You had a pack template that specified an absolute position outside
2429the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2430
2431=item %s package attribute may clash with future reserved word: %s
2432
be771a83
GS
2433(W reserved) A lowercase attribute name was used that had a
2434package-specific handler. That name might have a meaning to Perl itself
2435some day, even though it doesn't yet. Perhaps you should use a
2436mixed-case attribute name, instead. See L<attributes>.
6df41af2 2437
a0d0e21e
LW
2438=item page overflow
2439
be771a83
GS
2440(W io) A single call to write() produced more lines than can fit on a
2441page. See L<perlform>.
a0d0e21e 2442
6df41af2
GS
2443=item panic: %s
2444
2445(P) An internal error.
2446
a0d0e21e
LW
2447=item panic: ck_grep
2448
2449(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a grep.
2450
2451=item panic: ck_split
2452
2453(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a split.
2454
2455=item panic: corrupt saved stack index
2456
be771a83
GS
2457(P) The savestack was requested to restore more localized values than
2458there are in the savestack.
a0d0e21e 2459
810b8aa5
GS
2460=item panic: del_backref
2461
2462(P) Failed an internal consistency check while trying to reset a weak
2463reference.
2464
a0d0e21e
LW
2465=item panic: die %s
2466
2467(P) We popped the context stack to an eval context, and then discovered
2468it wasn't an eval context.
2469
2269b42e 2470=item panic: pp_match
a0d0e21e 2471
be771a83
GS
2472(P) The internal pp_match() routine was called with invalid operational
2473data.
a0d0e21e 2474
a0d0e21e
LW
2475=item panic: do_subst
2476
be771a83
GS
2477(P) The internal pp_subst() routine was called with invalid operational
2478data.
a0d0e21e 2479
2269b42e 2480=item panic: do_trans_%s
a0d0e21e 2481
2269b42e 2482(P) The internal do_trans routines were called with invalid operational
be771a83 2483data.
a0d0e21e 2484
c635e13b
PP
2485=item panic: frexp
2486
2487(P) The library function frexp() failed, making printf("%f") impossible.
2488
a0d0e21e
LW
2489=item panic: goto
2490
2491(P) We popped the context stack to a context with the specified label,
2492and then discovered it wasn't a context we know how to do a goto in.
2493
2494=item panic: INTERPCASEMOD
2495
2496(P) The lexer got into a bad state at a case modifier.
2497
2498=item panic: INTERPCONCAT
2499
2500(P) The lexer got into a bad state parsing a string with brackets.
2501
e446cec8
IZ
2502=item panic: kid popen errno read
2503
2504(F) forked child returned an incomprehensible message about its errno.
2505
a0d0e21e
LW
2506=item panic: last
2507
2508(P) We popped the context stack to a block context, and then discovered
2509it wasn't a block context.
2510
2511=item panic: leave_scope clearsv
2512
be771a83
GS
2513(P) A writable lexical variable became read-only somehow within the
2514scope.
a0d0e21e
LW
2515
2516=item panic: leave_scope inconsistency
2517
2518(P) The savestack probably got out of sync. At least, there was an
2519invalid enum on the top of it.
2520
810b8aa5
GS
2521=item panic: magic_killbackrefs
2522
2523(P) Failed an internal consistency check while trying to reset all weak
2524references to an object.
2525
6df41af2
GS
2526=item panic: malloc
2527
2528(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of malloc.
2529
a0d0e21e
LW
2530=item panic: mapstart
2531
2532(P) The compiler is screwed up with respect to the map() function.
2533
2534=item panic: null array
2535
2536(P) One of the internal array routines was passed a null AV pointer.
2537
2538=item panic: pad_alloc
2539
2540(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2541and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2542
2543=item panic: pad_free curpad
2544
2545(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2546and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2547
2548=item panic: pad_free po
2549
2550(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
2551
2552=item panic: pad_reset curpad
2553
2554(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2555and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2556
2557=item panic: pad_sv po
2558
2559(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
2560
2561=item panic: pad_swipe curpad
2562
2563(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2564and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2565
2566=item panic: pad_swipe po
2567
2568(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
2569
2570=item panic: pp_iter
2571
2572(P) The foreach iterator got called in a non-loop context frame.
2573
2269b42e
JH
2574=item panic: pp_split
2575
2576(P) Something terrible went wrong in setting up for the split.
2577
a0d0e21e
LW
2578=item panic: realloc
2579
2580(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of realloc.
2581
2582=item panic: restartop
2583
2584(P) Some internal routine requested a goto (or something like it), and
2585didn't supply the destination.
2586
2587=item panic: return
2588
2589(P) We popped the context stack to a subroutine or eval context, and
2590then discovered it wasn't a subroutine or eval context.
2591
2592=item panic: scan_num
2593
2594(P) scan_num() got called on something that wasn't a number.
2595
2596=item panic: sv_insert
2597
2598(P) The sv_insert() routine was told to remove more string than there
2599was string.
2600
2601=item panic: top_env
2602
6224f72b 2603(P) The compiler attempted to do a goto, or something weird like that.
a0d0e21e
LW
2604
2605=item panic: yylex
2606
2607(P) The lexer got into a bad state while processing a case modifier.
2608
dea0fc0b
JH
2609=item panic: utf16_to_utf8: odd bytelen
2610
2611(P) Something tried to call utf16_to_utf8 with an odd (as opposed
64977eb6 2612to even) byte length.
dea0fc0b 2613
7b8d334a 2614=item Parentheses missing around "%s" list
a0d0e21e 2615
e476b1b5 2616(W parenthesis) You said something like
a0d0e21e
LW
2617
2618 my $foo, $bar = @_;
2619
2620when you meant
2621
2622 my ($foo, $bar) = @_;
2623
54884818 2624Remember that "my", "our", and "local" bind tighter than comma.
a0d0e21e 2625
75b44862 2626=item Perl %s required--this is only version %s, stopped
a0d0e21e 2627
be771a83
GS
2628(F) The module in question uses features of a version of Perl more
2629recent than the currently running version. How long has it been since
2630you upgraded, anyway? See L<perlfunc/require>.
a0d0e21e 2631
6df41af2
GS
2632=item PERL_SH_DIR too long
2633
2634(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERL_SH_DIR is the directory to find the
fecfaeb8 2635C<sh>-shell in. See "PERL_SH_DIR" in L<perlos2>.
6df41af2
GS
2636
2637=item perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
2638
2639(S) The whole warning message will look something like:
2640
2641 perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
2642 perl: warning: Please check that your locale settings:
2643 LC_ALL = "En_US",
2644 LANG = (unset)
2645 are supported and installed on your system.
2646 perl: warning: Falling back to the standard locale ("C").
2647
2648Exactly what were the failed locale settings varies. In the above the
2649settings were that the LC_ALL was "En_US" and the LANG had no value.
0ea6b70f
JH
2650This error means that Perl detected that you and/or your operating
2651system supplier and/or system administrator have set up the so-called
2652locale system but Perl could not use those settings. This was not
2653dead serious, fortunately: there is a "default locale" called "C" that
2654Perl can and will use, the script will be run. Before you really fix
2655the problem, however, you will get the same error message each time
2656you run Perl. How to really fix the problem can be found in
2657L<perllocale> section B<LOCALE PROBLEMS>.
6df41af2 2658
bccbfa77
NC
2659=item perlio: argument list not closed for layer "%s"
2660
64977eb6 2661(S) When pushing a layer with arguments onto the Perl I/O system you forgot
bccbfa77 2662the ) that closes the argument list. (Layers take care of transforming
64977eb6
NC
2663data between external and internal representations.) Perl stopped parsing
2664the layer list at this point and did not attempt to push this layer.
2665If your program didn't explicitly request the failing operation, it may be
2666the result of the value of the environment variable PERLIO.
2667
2668=item perlio: invalid separator character %s in attribute list
2669
2670(S) When pushing layers onto the Perl I/O system, something other than a
2671colon or whitespace was seen between the elements of an layer list.
2672If the previous attribute had a parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that
2673list was terminated too soon.
bccbfa77 2674
ef0f9817
DD
2675=item perlio: unknown layer "%s"
2676
2677(S) An attempt was made to push an unknown layer onto the Perl I/O
2678system. (Layers take care of transforming data between external and
2679internal representations.) Note that some layers, such as C<mmap>,
2680are not supported in all environments. If your program didn't
2681explicitly request the failing operation, it may be the result of the
2682value of the environment variable PERLIO.
2683
a0d0e21e
LW
2684=item Permission denied
2685
2686(F) The setuid emulator in suidperl decided you were up to no good.
2687
bd3fa61c 2688=item pid %x not a child
748a9306 2689
be771a83
GS
2690(W exec) A warning peculiar to VMS. Waitpid() was asked to wait for a
2691process which isn't a subprocess of the current process. While this is
2692fine from VMS' perspective, it's probably not what you intended.
748a9306 2693
7253e4e3 2694=item POSIX syntax [%s] belongs inside character classes in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
2695
2696(W unsafe) The character class constructs [: :], [= =], and [. .] go
7253e4e3
RK
2697I<inside> character classes, the [] are part of the construct, for example:
2698/[012[:alpha:]345]/. Note that [= =] and [. .] are not currently
2699implemented; they are simply placeholders for future extensions and will
2700cause fatal errors. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about
2701where the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
b45f050a 2702
7253e4e3 2703=item POSIX syntax [. .] is reserved for future extensions in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
2704
2705(F regexp) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax
7253e4e3
RK
2706beginning with "[." and ending with ".]" is reserved for future extensions.
2707If you need to represent those character sequences inside a regular
2708expression character class, just quote the square brackets with the
2709backslash: "\[." and ".\]". The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression
2710about where the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
b45f050a 2711
7253e4e3 2712=item POSIX syntax [= =] is reserved for future extensions in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a 2713
7253e4e3
RK
2714(F) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax beginning
2715with "[=" and ending with "=]" is reserved for future extensions. If you
2716need to represent those character sequences inside a regular expression
2717character class, just quote the square brackets with the backslash: "\[="
2718and "=\]". The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
2719problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
b45f050a 2720
7253e4e3 2721=item POSIX class [:%s:] unknown in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a 2722
7253e4e3
RK
2723(F) The class in the character class [: :] syntax is unknown. The <-- HERE
2724shows in the regular expression about where the problem was discovered.
2725See L<perlre>.
b45f050a 2726
a0d0e21e
LW
2727=item POSIX getpgrp can't take an argument
2728
81777298 2729(F) Your system has POSIX getpgrp(), which takes no argument, unlike
a0d0e21e
LW
2730the BSD version, which takes a pid.
2731
bbce6d69
PP
2732=item Possible attempt to put comments in qw() list
2733
e476b1b5 2734(W qw) qw() lists contain items separated by whitespace; as with literal
75b44862 2735strings, comment characters are not ignored, but are instead treated as
be771a83
GS
2736literal data. (You may have used different delimiters than the
2737parentheses shown here; braces are also frequently used.)
bbce6d69 2738
774d564b
PP
2739You probably wrote something like this:
2740
54310121 2741 @list = qw(
774d564b 2742 a # a comment
bbce6d69 2743 b # another comment
774d564b 2744 );
bbce6d69
PP
2745
2746when you should have written this:
2747
774d564b 2748 @list = qw(
54310121
PP
2749 a
2750 b
774d564b
PP
2751 );
2752
2753If you really want comments, build your list the
2754old-fashioned way, with quotes and commas:
2755
2756 @list = (
2757 'a', # a comment
2758 'b', # another comment
2759 );
bbce6d69
PP
2760
2761=item Possible attempt to separate words with commas
2762
be771a83
GS
2763(W qw) qw() lists contain items separated by whitespace; therefore
2764commas aren't needed to separate the items. (You may have used
2765different delimiters than the parentheses shown here; braces are also
2766frequently used.)
bbce6d69 2767
54310121 2768You probably wrote something like this:
bbce6d69 2769
774d564b
PP
2770 qw! a, b, c !;
2771
2772which puts literal commas into some of the list items. Write it without
2773commas if you don't want them to appear in your data:
bbce6d69 2774
774d564b 2775 qw! a b c !;
bbce6d69 2776
a0d0e21e
LW
2777=item Possible memory corruption: %s overflowed 3rd argument
2778
2779(F) An ioctl() or fcntl() returned more than Perl was bargaining for.
2780Perl guesses a reasonable buffer size, but puts a sentinel byte at the
2781end of the buffer just in case. This sentinel byte got clobbered, and
2782Perl assumes that memory is now corrupted. See L<perlfunc/ioctl>.
2783
6df41af2
GS
2784=item Possible Y2K bug: %s
2785
2786(W y2k) You are concatenating the number 19 with another number, which
2787could be a potential Year 2000 problem.
2788
8cd79558
GS
2789=item pragma "attrs" is deprecated, use "sub NAME : ATTRS" instead
2790
a1063b2d 2791(D deprecated) You have written something like this:
8cd79558
GS
2792
2793 sub doit
2794 {
2795 use attrs qw(locked);
2796 }
2797
2798You should use the new declaration syntax instead.
2799
2800 sub doit : locked
2801 {
2802 ...
2803
2804The C<use attrs> pragma is now obsolete, and is only provided for
2805backward-compatibility. See L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes">.
2806
a0d0e21e
LW
2807=item Precedence problem: open %s should be open(%s)
2808
e476b1b5 2809(S precedence) The old irregular construct
cb1a09d0 2810
a0d0e21e
LW
2811 open FOO || die;
2812
2813is now misinterpreted as
2814
2815 open(FOO || die);
2816
be771a83
GS
2817because of the strict regularization of Perl 5's grammar into unary and
2818list operators. (The old open was a little of both.) You must put
2819parentheses around the filehandle, or use the new "or" operator instead
2820of "||".
a0d0e21e 2821
3cdd684c
TP
2822=item Premature end of script headers
2823
2824See Server error.
2825
6df41af2
GS
2826=item printf() on closed filehandle %s
2827
be771a83 2828(W closed) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime
c289d2f7 2829before now. Check your control flow.
6df41af2 2830
9a7dcd9c 2831=item print() on closed filehandle %s
a0d0e21e 2832
be771a83 2833(W closed) The filehandle you're printing on got itself closed sometime
c289d2f7 2834before now. Check your control flow.
a0d0e21e 2835
6df41af2 2836=item Process terminated by SIG%s
a0d0e21e 2837
6df41af2
GS
2838(W) This is a standard message issued by OS/2 applications, while *nix
2839applications die in silence. It is considered a feature of the OS/2
2840port. One can easily disable this by appropriate sighandlers, see
2841L<perlipc/"Signals">. See also "Process terminated by SIGTERM/SIGINT"
fecfaeb8 2842in L<perlos2>.
a0d0e21e 2843
3fe9a6f1 2844=item Prototype mismatch: %s vs %s
4633a7c4 2845
be771a83
GS
2846(S unsafe) The subroutine being declared or defined had previously been
2847declared or defined with a different function prototype.
4633a7c4 2848
7253e4e3 2849=item Quantifier in {,} bigger than %d in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
9baa0206 2850
b45f050a 2851(F) There is currently a limit to the size of the min and max values of the
7253e4e3 2852{min,max} construct. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where
b45f050a 2853the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
9baa0206 2854
7253e4e3 2855=item Quantifier unexpected on zero-length expression; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
9baa0206 2856
b45f050a
JF
2857(W regexp) You applied a regular expression quantifier in a place where
2858it makes no sense, such as on a zero-width assertion. Try putting the
2859quantifier inside the assertion instead. For example, the way to match
2860"abc" provided that it is followed by three repetitions of "xyz" is
2861C</abc(?=(?:xyz){3})/>, not C</abc(?=xyz){3}/>.
9baa0206 2862
7253e4e3
RK
2863The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
2864discovered.
2865
89ea2908
GA
2866=item Range iterator outside integer range
2867
2868(F) One (or both) of the numeric arguments to the range operator ".."
2869are outside the range which can be represented by integers internally.
be771a83
GS
2870One possible workaround is to force Perl to use magical string increment
2871by prepending "0" to your numbers.
89ea2908 2872
9a7dcd9c 2873=item readline() on closed filehandle %s
a0d0e21e 2874
75b44862 2875(W closed) The filehandle you're reading from got itself closed sometime
c289d2f7 2876before now. Check your control flow.
a0d0e21e 2877
6df41af2
GS
2878=item Reallocation too large: %lx
2879
2880(F) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
2881
4ad56ec9
IZ
2882=item realloc() of freed memory ignored
2883
be771a83
GS
2884(S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that had
2885already been freed.
4ad56ec9 2886
a0d0e21e
LW
2887=item Recompile perl with B<-D>DEBUGGING to use B<-D> switch
2888
be771a83
GS
2889(F debugging) You can't use the B<-D> option unless the code to produce
2890the desired output is compiled into Perl, which entails some overhead,
a0d0e21e
LW
2891which is why it's currently left out of your copy.
2892
3e0ccd42 2893=item Recursive inheritance detected in package '%s'
a0d0e21e
LW
2894
2895(F) More than 100 levels of inheritance were used. Probably indicates
2896an unintended loop in your inheritance hierarchy.
2897
7a4340ed 2898=item Recursive inheritance detected while looking for method %s
3e0ccd42 2899
be771a83
GS
2900(F) More than 100 levels of inheritance were encountered while invoking
2901a method. Probably indicates an unintended loop in your inheritance
2902hierarchy.
3e0ccd42 2903
1930e939
TP
2904=item Reference found where even-sized list expected
2905
be771a83
GS
2906(W misc) You gave a single reference where Perl was expecting a list
2907with an even number of elements (for assignment to a hash). This usually
2908means that you used the anon hash constructor when you meant to use
2909parens. In any case, a hash requires key/value B<pairs>.
7b8d334a
GS
2910
2911 %hash = { one => 1, two => 2, }; # WRONG
2912 %hash = [ qw/ an anon array / ]; # WRONG
2913 %hash = ( one => 1, two => 2, ); # right
2914 %hash = qw( one 1 two 2 ); # also fine
2915
810b8aa5
GS
2916=item Reference is already weak
2917
e476b1b5 2918(W misc) You have attempted to weaken a reference that is already weak.
810b8aa5
GS
2919Doing so has no effect.
2920
a0d0e21e
LW
2921=item Reference miscount in sv_replace()
2922
be771a83
GS
2923(W internal) The internal sv_replace() function was handed a new SV with
2924a reference count of other than 1.
a0d0e21e 2925
7253e4e3 2926=item Reference to nonexistent group in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
2927
2928(F) You used something like C<\7> in your regular expression, but there are
2929not at least seven sets of capturing parentheses in the expression. If you
2930wanted to have the character with value 7 inserted into the regular expression,
2931prepend a zero to make the number at least two digits: C<\07>
9baa0206 2932
7253e4e3 2933The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
b45f050a 2934discovered.
9baa0206 2935
a0d0e21e
LW
2936=item regexp memory corruption
2937
2938(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
2939expression compiler gave it.
2940
b45f050a 2941=item Regexp out of space
a0d0e21e 2942
be771a83
GS
2943(P) A "can't happen" error, because safemalloc() should have caught it
2944earlier.
a0d0e21e 2945
7a95317d
GS
2946=item Repeat count in pack overflows
2947
be771a83
GS
2948(F) You can't specify a repeat count so large that it overflows your
2949signed integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
7a95317d
GS
2950
2951=item Repeat count in unpack overflows
2952
be771a83
GS
2953(F) You can't specify a repeat count so large that it overflows your
2954signed integers. See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
7a95317d 2955
a0d0e21e
LW
2956=item Reversed %s= operator
2957
be771a83
GS
2958(W syntax) You wrote your assignment operator backwards. The = must
2959always comes last, to avoid ambiguity with subsequent unary operators.
a0d0e21e
LW
2960
2961=item Runaway format
2962
2963(F) Your format contained the ~~ repeat-until-blank sequence, but it
2964produced 200 lines at once, and the 200th line looked exactly like the
2965199th line. Apparently you didn't arrange for the arguments to exhaust
2966themselves, either by using ^ instead of @ (for scalar variables), or by
2967shifting or popping (for array variables). See L<perlform>.
2968
2969=item Scalar value @%s[%s] better written as $%s[%s]
2970
be771a83
GS
2971(W syntax) You've used an array slice (indicated by @) to select a
2972single element of an array. Generally it's better to ask for a scalar
2973value (indicated by $). The difference is that C<$foo[&bar]> always
2974behaves like a scalar, both when assigning to it and when evaluating its
2975argument, while C<@foo[&bar]> behaves like a list when you assign to it,
2976and provides a list context to its subscript, which can do weird things
2977if you're expecting only one subscript.
a0d0e21e 2978
748a9306 2979On the other hand, if you were actually hoping to treat the array
5f05dabc 2980element as a list, you need to look into how references work, because
748a9306
LW
2981Perl will not magically convert between scalars and lists for you. See
2982L<perlref>.
2983
a6006777
PP
2984=item Scalar value @%s{%s} better written as $%s{%s}
2985
75b44862 2986(W syntax) You've used a hash slice (indicated by @) to select a single
be771a83
GS
2987element of a hash. Generally it's better to ask for a scalar value
2988(indicated by $). The difference is that C<$foo{&bar}> always behaves
2989like a scalar, both when assigning to it and when evaluating its
2990argument, while C<@foo{&bar}> behaves like a list when you assign to it,
2991and provides a list context to its subscript, which can do weird things
2992if you're expecting only one subscript.
2993
2994On the other hand, if you were actually hoping to treat the hash element
2995as a list, you need to look into how references work, because Perl will
2996not magically convert between scalars and lists for you. See
a6006777
PP
2997L<perlref>.
2998
3e2f796a
NIS
2999=item Scalars leaked: %d
3000
3001(P) Something went wrong in Perl's internal bookkeeping of scalars:
3002not all scalar variables were deallocated by the time Perl exited.
3003What this usually indicates is a memory leak, which is of course bad,
3004especially if the Perl program is intended to be long-running.
3005
a0d0e21e
LW
3006=item Script is not setuid/setgid in suidperl
3007
54310121
PP
3008(F) Oddly, the suidperl program was invoked on a script without a setuid
3009or setgid bit set. This doesn't make much sense.
a0d0e21e
LW
3010
3011=item Search pattern not terminated
3012
3013(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a // or m{}
3014construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 3015Missing the leading C<$> from a variable C<$m> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e 3016
9ddeeac9 3017=item %sseek() on unopened filehandle
a0d0e21e 3018
be771a83
GS
3019(W unopened) You tried to use the seek() or sysseek() function on a
3020filehandle that was either never opened or has since been closed.
a0d0e21e
LW
3021
3022=item select not implemented
3023
3024(F) This machine doesn't implement the select() system call.
3025
ae21d580 3026=item Self-ties of arrays and hashes are not supported
68a4a7e4 3027
ae21d580
JH
3028(F) Self-ties are of arrays and hashes are not supported in
3029the current implementation.
68a4a7e4 3030
6df41af2 3031=item Semicolon seems to be missing
a0d0e21e 3032
75b44862
GS
3033(W semicolon) A nearby syntax error was probably caused by a missing
3034semicolon, or possibly some other missing operator, such as a comma.
a0d0e21e
LW
3035
3036=item semi-panic: attempt to dup freed string
3037
be771a83
GS
3038(S internal) The internal newSVsv() routine was called to duplicate a
3039scalar that had previously been marked as free.
a0d0e21e 3040
6df41af2 3041=item sem%s not implemented
a0d0e21e 3042
6df41af2 3043(F) You don't have System V semaphore IPC on your system.
a0d0e21e 3044
69282e91 3045=item send() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 3046
be771a83 3047(W closed) The socket you're sending to got itself closed sometime
c289d2f7 3048before now. Check your control flow.
a0d0e21e 3049
7253e4e3 3050=item Sequence (? incomplete in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
7b8d334a 3051
7253e4e3 3052(F) A regular expression ended with an incomplete extension (?. The <-- HERE
b45f050a 3053shows in the regular expression about where the problem was discovered. See
be771a83 3054L<perlre>.
1b1626e4 3055
7253e4e3 3056=item Sequence (?{...}) not terminated or not {}-balanced in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
3057
3058(F) If the contents of a (?{...}) clause contains braces, they must balance
7253e4e3
RK
3059for Perl to properly detect the end of the clause. The <-- HERE shows in
3060the regular expression about where the problem was discovered. See
3061L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 3062
7253e4e3 3063=item Sequence (?%s...) not implemented in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 3064
b45f050a 3065(F) A proposed regular expression extension has the character reserved but
7253e4e3 3066has not yet been written. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about
b45f050a
JF
3067where the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
3068
7253e4e3 3069=item Sequence (?%s...) not recognized in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 3070
7253e4e3
RK
3071(F) You used a regular expression extension that doesn't make sense. The
3072<-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
3073discovered. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 3074
7253e4e3 3075=item Sequence (?#... not terminated in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
3076
3077(F) A regular expression comment must be terminated by a closing
7253e4e3
RK
3078parenthesis. Embedded parentheses aren't allowed. The <-- HERE shows in
3079the regular expression about where the problem was discovered. See
3080L<perlre>.
6df41af2
GS
3081
3082=item 500 Server error
3083
3084See Server error.
3085
a5f75d66
AD
3086=item Server error
3087
3cdd684c 3088This is the error message generally seen in a browser window when trying
be771a83
GS
3089to run a CGI program (including SSI) over the web. The actual error text
3090varies widely from server to server. The most frequently-seen variants
3091are "500 Server error", "Method (something) not permitted", "Document
3092contains no data", "Premature end of script headers", and "Did not
3093produce a valid header".
9607fc9c
PP
3094
3095B<This is a CGI error, not a Perl error>.
3096
be771a83
GS
3097You need to make sure your script is executable, is accessible by the
3098user CGI is running the script under (which is probably not the user
3099account you tested it under), does not rely on any environment variables
3100(like PATH) from the user it isn't running under, and isn't in a
3101location where the CGI server can't find it, basically, more or less.
3102Please see the following for more information:
9607fc9c 3103
be94a901
GS
3104 http://www.perl.com/CPAN/doc/FAQs/cgi/idiots-guide.html
3105 http://www.perl.com/CPAN/doc/FAQs/cgi/perl-cgi-faq.html
9607fc9c
PP
3106 ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/www/cgi-faq
3107 http://hoohoo.ncsa.uiuc.edu/cgi/interface.html
3108 http://www-genome.wi.mit.edu/WWW/faqs/www-security-faq.html
a5f75d66 3109
be94a901
GS
3110You should also look at L<perlfaq9>.
3111
a0d0e21e
LW
3112=item setegid() not implemented
3113
be771a83
GS
3114(F) You tried to assign to C<$)>, and your operating system doesn't
3115support the setegid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure
3116didn't think so.
a0d0e21e
LW
3117
3118=item seteuid() not implemented
3119
be771a83
GS
3120(F) You tried to assign to C<< $> >>, and your operating system doesn't
3121support the seteuid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure
3122didn't think so.
a0d0e21e 3123
81777298
GS
3124=item setpgrp can't take arguments
3125
be771a83
GS
3126(F) Your system has the setpgrp() from BSD 4.2, which takes no
3127arguments, unlike POSIX setpgid(), which takes a process ID and process
3128group ID.
81777298 3129
a0d0e21e
LW
3130=item setrgid() not implemented
3131
be771a83
GS
3132(F) You tried to assign to C<$(>, and your operating system doesn't
3133support the setrgid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure
3134didn't think so.
a0d0e21e
LW
3135
3136=item setruid() not implemented
3137
be771a83
GS
3138(F) You tried to assign to C<$<>, and your operating system doesn't
3139support the setruid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure
3140didn't think so.
a0d0e21e 3141
6df41af2
GS
3142=item setsockopt() on closed socket %s
3143
be771a83
GS
3144(W closed) You tried to set a socket option on a closed socket. Did you
3145forget to check the return value of your socket() call? See
6df41af2
GS
3146L<perlfunc/setsockopt>.
3147
a0d0e21e
LW
3148=item Setuid/gid script is writable by world
3149
be771a83
GS
3150(F) The setuid emulator won't run a script that is writable by the
3151world, because the world might have written on it already.
a0d0e21e
LW
3152
3153=item shm%s not implemented
3154
3155(F) You don't have System V shared memory IPC on your system.
3156
6df41af2
GS
3157=item <> should be quotes
3158
3159(F) You wrote C<< require <file> >> when you should have written
3160C<require 'file'>.
3161
3162=item /%s/ should probably be written as "%s"
3163
3164(W syntax) You have used a pattern where Perl expected to find a string,
be771a83
GS
3165as in the first argument to C<join>. Perl will treat the true or false
3166result of matching the pattern against $_ as the string, which is
3167probably not what you had in mind.
6df41af2 3168
69282e91 3169=item shutdown() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 3170
75b44862
GS
3171(W closed) You tried to do a shutdown on a closed socket. Seems a bit
3172superfluous.
a0d0e21e 3173
f86702cc 3174=item SIG%s handler "%s" not defined
a0d0e21e 3175
be771a83
GS
3176(W signal) The signal handler named in %SIG doesn't, in fact, exist.
3177Perhaps you put it into the wrong package?
a0d0e21e
LW
3178
3179=item sort is now a reserved word
3180
3181(F) An ancient error message that almost nobody ever runs into anymore.
3182But before sort was a keyword, people sometimes used it as a filehandle.
3183
3184=item Sort subroutine didn't return a numeric value
3185
3186(F) A sort comparison routine must return a number. You probably blew
c47ff5f1 3187it by not using C<< <=> >> or C<cmp>, or by not using them correctly.
a0d0e21e
LW
3188See L<perlfunc/sort>.
3189
3190=item Sort subroutine didn't return single value
3191
3192(F) A sort comparison subroutine may not return a list value with more
3193or less than one element. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
3194
3195=item Split loop
3196
be771a83
GS
3197(P) The split was looping infinitely. (Obviously, a split shouldn't
3198iterate more times than there are characters of input, which is what
3199happened.) See L<perlfunc/split>.
a0d0e21e 3200
a0d0e21e
LW
3201=item Statement unlikely to be reached
3202
be771a83
GS
3203(W exec) You did an exec() with some statement after it other than a
3204die(). This is almost always an error, because exec() never returns
3205unless there was a failure. You probably wanted to use system()
3206instead, which does return. To suppress this warning, put the exec() in
3207a block by itself.
a0d0e21e 3208
9ddeeac9 3209=item stat() on unopened filehandle %s
6df41af2 3210
355b1299
JH
3211(W unopened) You tried to use the stat() function on a filehandle that
3212was either never opened or has since been closed.
6df41af2 3213
7a4340ed 3214=item Stub found while resolving method `%s' overloading %s
e7ea3e70 3215
be771a83
GS
3216(P) Overloading resolution over @ISA tree may be broken by importation
3217stubs. Stubs should never be implicitly created, but explicit calls to
3218C<can> may break this.
e7ea3e70 3219
a0d0e21e
LW
3220=item Subroutine %s redefined
3221
e476b1b5 3222(W redefine) You redefined a subroutine. To suppress this warning, say
a0d0e21e
LW
3223
3224 {
4438c4b7 3225 no warnings;
a0d0e21e
LW
3226 eval "sub name { ... }";
3227 }
3228
3229=item Substitution loop
3230
be771a83
GS
3231(P) The substitution was looping infinitely. (Obviously, a substitution
3232shouldn't iterate more times than there are characters of input, which
3233is what happened.) See the discussion of substitution in
5f05dabc 3234L<perlop/"Quote and Quote-like Operators">.
a0d0e21e
LW
3235
3236=item Substitution pattern not terminated
3237
3238(F) The lexer couldn't find the interior delimiter of a s/// or s{}{}
3239construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 3240Missing the leading C<$> from variable C<$s> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e
LW
3241
3242=item Substitution replacement not terminated
3243
3244(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a s/// or s{}{}
3245construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 3246Missing the leading C<$> from variable C<$s> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e
LW
3247
3248=item substr outside of string
3249
be771a83
GS
3250(W substr),(F) You tried to reference a substr() that pointed outside of
3251a string. That is, the absolute value of the offset was larger than the
3252length of the string. See L<perlfunc/substr>. This warning is fatal if
3253substr is used in an lvalue context (as the left hand side of an
3254assignment or as a subroutine argument for example).
a0d0e21e 3255
f86702cc 3256=item suidperl is no longer needed since %s
a0d0e21e 3257
be771a83
GS
3258(F) Your Perl was compiled with B<-D>SETUID_SCRIPTS_ARE_SECURE_NOW, but
3259a version of the setuid emulator somehow got run anyway.
a0d0e21e 3260
7253e4e3 3261=item Switch (?(condition)... contains too many branches in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
3262
3263(F) A (?(condition)if-clause|else-clause) construct can have at most two
3264branches (the if-clause and the else-clause). If you want one or both to
3265contain alternation, such as using C<this|that|other>, enclose it in
3266clustering parentheses:
3267
3268 (?(condition)(?:this|that|other)|else-clause)
3269
7253e4e3 3270The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
b45f050a
JF
3271discovered. See L<perlre>.
3272
7253e4e3 3273=item Switch condition not recognized in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
3274
3275(F) If the argument to the (?(...)if-clause|else-clause) construct is a
7253e4e3 3276number, it can be only a number. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression
b45f050a
JF
3277about where the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
3278
85ab1d1d
JH
3279=item switching effective %s is not implemented
3280
be771a83
GS
3281(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, we cannot switch the real
3282and effective uids or gids.
85ab1d1d 3283
a0d0e21e
LW
3284=item syntax error
3285
3286(F) Probably means you had a syntax error. Common reasons include:
3287
3288 A keyword is misspelled.
3289 A semicolon is missing.
3290 A comma is missing.
3291 An opening or closing parenthesis is missing.
3292 An opening or closing brace is missing.
3293 A closing quote is missing.
3294
3295Often there will be another error message associated with the syntax
3296error giving more information. (Sometimes it helps to turn on B<-w>.)
3297The error message itself often tells you where it was in the line when
3298it decided to give up. Sometimes the actual error is several tokens
5f05dabc 3299before this, because Perl is good at understanding random input.
a0d0e21e
LW
3300Occasionally the line number may be misleading, and once in a blue moon
3301the only way to figure out what's triggering the error is to call
3302C<perl -c> repeatedly, chopping away half the program each time to see
be771a83
GS
3303if the error went away. Sort of the cybernetic version of S<20
3304questions>.
a0d0e21e 3305
cb1a09d0
AD
3306=item syntax error at line %d: `%s' unexpected
3307
be771a83
GS
3308(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell instead
3309of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl
3310yourself.
cb1a09d0 3311
6df41af2
GS
3312=item %s syntax OK
3313
3314(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> succeeds.
3315
6087ac44 3316=item System V %s is not implemented on this machine
a0d0e21e 3317
6087ac44
JH
3318(F) You tried to do something with a function beginning with "sem",
3319"shm", or "msg" but that System V IPC is not implemented in your
3320machine. In some machines the functionality can exist but be
3321unconfigured. Consult your system support.
a0d0e21e 3322
69282e91 3323=item syswrite() on closed filehandle %s
a0d0e21e 3324
be771a83 3325(W closed) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime
c289d2f7 3326before now. Check your control flow.
a0d0e21e 3327
fc36a67e
PP
3328=item Target of goto is too deeply nested
3329
be771a83
GS
3330(F) You tried to use C<goto> to reach a label that was too deeply nested
3331for Perl to reach. Perl is doing you a favor by refusing.
fc36a67e 3332
9ddeeac9 3333=item tell() on unopened filehandle
a0d0e21e 3334
be771a83
GS
3335(W unopened) You tried to use the tell() function on a filehandle that
3336was either never opened or has since been closed.
a0d0e21e 3337
a0d0e21e
LW
3338=item That use of $[ is unsupported
3339
be771a83
GS
3340(F) Assignment to C<$[> is now strictly circumscribed, and interpreted
3341as a compiler directive. You may say only one of
a0d0e21e
LW
3342
3343 $[ = 0;
3344 $[ = 1;
3345 ...
3346 local $[ = 0;
3347 local $[ = 1;
3348 ...
3349
be771a83
GS
3350This is to prevent the problem of one module changing the array base out
3351from under another module inadvertently. See L<perlvar/$[>.
a0d0e21e 3352
f86702cc 3353=item The crypt() function is unimplemented due to excessive paranoia
a0d0e21e
LW
3354
3355(F) Configure couldn't find the crypt() function on your machine,
3356probably because your vendor didn't supply it, probably because they
8b1a09fc 3357think the U.S. Government thinks it's a secret, or at least th