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1If you read this file _as_is_, just ignore the funny characters you see.
2It is written in the POD format (see pod/perlpod.pod) which is specially
3designed to be readable as is.
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4
5=head1 NAME
6
d66be8f9 7README.hpux - Perl version 5 on Hewlett-Packard Unix (HP-UX) systems
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8
9=head1 DESCRIPTION
10
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11This document describes various features of HP's Unix operating system
12(HP-UX) that will affect how Perl version 5 (hereafter just Perl) is
13compiled and/or runs.
f2a260d6 14
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15=head2 Using perl as shipped with HP-UX
16
17As of application release September 2001, HP-UX 11.00 is shipped with
210b36aa 18perl-5.6.1 in /opt/perl. The first occurrence is on CD 5012-7954 and
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19can be installed using
20
21 swinstall -s /cdrom perl
22
23assuming you have mounted that CD on /cdrom. In this version the
24following modules are installed:
25
26 ActivePerl::DocTools-0.04 HTML::Parser-3.19 XML::DOM-1.25
27 Archive::Tar-0.072 HTML::Tagset-3.03 XML::Parser-2.27
28 Compress::Zlib-1.08 MIME::Base64-2.11 XML::Simple-1.05
29 Convert::ASN1-0.10 Net-1.07 XML::XPath-1.09
30 Digest::MD5-2.11 PPM-2.1.5 XML::XSLT-0.32
31 File::CounterFile-0.12 SOAP::Lite-0.46 libwww-perl-5.51
32 Font::AFM-1.18 Storable-1.011 libxml-perl-0.07
33 HTML-Tree-3.11 URI-1.11 perl-ldap-0.23
34
35The build is a portable hppa-1.1 multithread build that supports large
36files compiled with gcc-2.9-hppa-991112
37
38If you perform a new installation, then Perl will be installed
39automatically.
40
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41=head2 Compiling Perl 5 on HP-UX
42
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43When compiling Perl, you must use an ANSI C compiler. The C compiler
44that ships with all HP-UX systems is a K&R compiler that should only be
45used to build new kernels.
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46
47Perl can be compiled with either HP's ANSI C compiler or with gcc. The
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48former is recommended, as not only can it compile Perl with no
49difficulty, but also can take advantage of features listed later that
50require the use of HP compiler-specific command-line flags.
f2a260d6 51
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52If you decide to use gcc, make sure your installation is recent and
53complete, and be sure to read the Perl README file for more gcc-specific
54details.
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55
56=head2 PA-RISC
57
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58HP's current Unix systems run on its own Precision Architecture
59(PA-RISC) chip. HP-UX used to run on the Motorola MC68000 family of
60chips, but any machine with this chip in it is quite obsolete and this
61document will not attempt to address issues for compiling Perl on the
62Motorola chipset.
f2a260d6 63
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64The most recent version of PA-RISC at the time of this document's last
65update is 2.0.
f2a260d6 66
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67A complete list of models at the time the OS was built is in the file
68/usr/sam/lib/mo/sched.models. The first column corresponds to the last
69part of the output of the "model" command. The second column is the
70PA-RISC version and the third column is the exact chip type used.
71(Start browsing at the bottom to prevent confusion ;-)
72
73 # model
74 9000/800/L1000-44
75 # grep L1000-44 /usr/sam/lib/mo/sched.models
76 L1000-44 2.0 PA8500
77
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78=head2 PA-RISC 1.0
79
80The original version of PA-RISC, HP no longer sells any system with this chip.
81
13e84f2c 82The following systems contained PA-RISC 1.0 chips:
f2a260d6 83
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84 600, 635, 645, 808, 815, 822, 825, 832, 834, 835, 840, 842, 845, 850,
85 852, 855, 860, 865, 870, 890
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86
87=head2 PA-RISC 1.1
88
89An upgrade to the PA-RISC design, it shipped for many years in many different
90system.
91
92The following systems contain with PA-RISC 1.1 chips:
93
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94 705, 710, 712, 715, 720, 722, 725, 728, 730, 735, 742, 743, 744, 745,
95 747, 750, 755, 770, 777, 778, 779, 800, 801, 803, 806, 807, 809, 811,
96 813, 816, 817, 819, 821, 826, 827, 829, 831, 837, 839, 841, 847, 849,
97 851, 856, 857, 859, 867, 869, 877, 887, 891, 892, 897, A180, A180C,
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98 B115, B120, B132L, B132L+, B160L, B180L, C100, C110, C115, C120,
99 C160L, D200, D210, D220, D230, D250, D260, D310, D320, D330, D350,
100 D360, D410, DX0, DX5, DXO, E25, E35, E45, E55, F10, F20, F30, G30,
101 G40, G50, G60, G70, H20, H30, H40, H50, H60, H70, I30, I40, I50, I60,
102 I70, J200, J210, J210XC, K100, K200, K210, K220, K230, K400, K410,
103 K420, S700i, S715, S744, S760, T500, T520
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104
105=head2 PA-RISC 2.0
106
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107The most recent upgrade to the PA-RISC design, it added support for
10864-bit integer data.
f2a260d6 109
60ed1d8c 110As of the date of this document's last update, the following systems
d464cda8 111contain PA-RISC 2.0 chips:
f2a260d6 112
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113 700, 780, 781, 782, 783, 785, 802, 804, 810, 820, 861, 871, 879, 889,
114 893, 895, 896, 898, 899, A400, A500, B1000, B2000, C130, C140, C160,
115 C180, C180+, C180-XP, C200+, C400+, C3000, C360, C3600, CB260, D270,
116 D280, D370, D380, D390, D650, J220, J2240, J280, J282, J400, J410,
117 J5000, J5500XM, J5600, J7000, J7600, K250, K260, K260-EG, K270, K360,
118 K370, K380, K450, K460, K460-EG, K460-XP, K470, K570, K580, L1000,
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119 L2000, L3000, N4000, R380, R390, RP2400, RP2430, RP2450, RP2470,
120 RP5400, RP5430, RP5450, RP5470, RP7400, RP7410, RP8400, SD16000,
121 SD32000, SD64000, T540, T600, V2000, V2200, V2250, V2500, V2600
1a4e8251 122
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123Just before HP took over Compaq, some systems were renamed. Visit
124http://www.hp.com/products1/servers/server_names.html to see what
125the changes are, or will be.
126
127 HP 9000 A-Class servers, now renamed HP Server rp2400 series.
128 HP 9000 N-Class servers, now renamed HP Server rp7400.
129 HP 9000 L-Class servers, now renamed HP Server rp5400 series.
130
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131=head2 Itanium
132
133HP also ships servers with the 128-bit Itanium processor(s). As of the
134date of this document's last update, the following systems contain
135Itanium chips (this is very likely to be out of date):
136
969db73b 137 RX2600, RX4610, RX5670, RX9610
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138
139=head2 Portability Between PA-RISC Versions
140
141An executable compiled on a PA-RISC 2.0 platform will not execute on a
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142PA-RISC 1.1 platform, even if they are running the same version of
143HP-UX. If you are building Perl on a PA-RISC 2.0 platform and want that
d1be9408 144Perl to also run on a PA-RISC 1.1, the compiler flags +DAportable and
60ed1d8c 145+DS32 should be used.
f2a260d6 146
60ed1d8c 147It is no longer possible to compile PA-RISC 1.0 executables on either
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148the PA-RISC 1.1 or 2.0 platforms. The command-line flags are accepted,
149but the resulting executable will not run when transferred to a PA-RISC
1501.0 system.
151
a83b6f46 152=head2 Itanium Processor Family and HP-UX
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153
154HP-UX also runs on the new Itanium processor. This requires the use
155of a different version of HP-UX (currently 11.20), and with the exception
156of a few differences detailed below and in later sections, Perl should
157compile with no problems.
158
159Although PA-RISC binaries can run on Itanium systems, you should not
160attempt to use a PA-RISC version of Perl on an Itanium system. This is
161because shared libraries created on an Itanium system cannot be loaded
162while running a PA-RISC executable.
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163
164=head2 Building Dynamic Extensions on HP-UX
165
166HP-UX supports dynamically loadable libraries (shared libraries).
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167Shared libraries end with the suffix .sl. On Itanium systems,
168they end with the suffix .so.
f2a260d6 169
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170Shared libraries created on a platform using a particular PA-RISC
171version are not usable on platforms using an earlier PA-RISC version by
172default. However, this backwards compatibility may be enabled using the
173same +DAportable compiler flag (with the same PA-RISC 1.0 caveat
174mentioned above).
f2a260d6 175
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176Shared libraries created on an Itanium platform cannot be loaded on
177a PA-RISC platform. Shared libraries created on a PA-RISC platform
178can only be loaded on an Itanium platform if it is a PA-RISC executable
179that is attempting to load the PA-RISC library. A PA-RISC shared
180library cannot be loaded into an Itanium executable nor vice-versa.
181
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182To create a shared library, the following steps must be performed:
183
184 1. Compile source modules with +z or +Z flag to create a .o module
185 which contains Position-Independent Code (PIC). The linker will
186 tell you in the next step if +Z was needed.
187
188 2. Link the shared library using the -b flag. If the code calls
189 any functions in other system libraries (e.g., libm), it must
190 be included on this line.
191
192(Note that these steps are usually handled automatically by the extension's
193Makefile).
194
195If these dependent libraries are not listed at shared library creation
196time, you will get fatal "Unresolved symbol" errors at run time when the
197library is loaded.
198
a75f7dba 199You may create a shared library that refers to another library, which
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200may be either an archive library or a shared library. If this second
201library is a shared library, this is called a "dependent library". The
202dependent library's name is recorded in the main shared library, but it
203is not linked into the shared library. Instead, it is loaded when the
204main shared library is loaded. This can cause problems if you build an
205extension on one system and move it to another system where the
206libraries may not be located in the same place as on the first system.
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207
208If the referred library is an archive library, then it is treated as a
209simple collection of .o modules (all of which must contain PIC). These
210modules are then linked into the shared library.
211
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212Note that it is okay to create a library which contains a dependent
213library that is already linked into perl.
f2a260d6 214
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215Some extensions, like DB_File and Compress::Zlib use/require prebuilt
216libraries for the perl extensions/modules to work. If these libraries
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217are built using the default configuration, it might happen that you
218run into an error like "invalid loader fixup" during load phase.
219HP is aware of this problem. Search the HP-UX cxx-dev forums for
220discussions about the subject. The short answer is that B<everything>
221(all libraries, everything) must be compiled with C<+z> or C<+Z> to be
222PIC (position independent code). In HP-UX 11.00 or newer the linker
223error message should tell the name of the offending object file.
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224
225A more general approach is to intervene manually, as with an example for
226the DB_File module, which requires SleepyCat's libdb.sl:
227
228 # cd .../db-3.2.9/build_unix
229 # vi Makefile
230 ... add +Z to all cflags to create shared objects
231 CFLAGS= -c $(CPPFLAGS) +Z -Ae +O2 +Onolimit \
232 -I/usr/local/include -I/usr/include/X11R6
233 CXXFLAGS= -c $(CPPFLAGS) +Z -Ae +O2 +Onolimit \
234 -I/usr/local/include -I/usr/include/X11R6
235
236 # make clean
237 # make
238 # mkdir tmp
239 # cd tmp
240 # ar x ../libdb.a
241 # ld -b -o libdb-3.2.sl *.o
242 # mv libdb-3.2.sl /usr/local/lib
243 # rm *.o
244 # cd /usr/local/lib
245 # rm -f libdb.sl
246 # ln -s libdb-3.2.sl libdb.sl
247
248 # cd .../DB_File-1.76
249 # make distclean
250 # perl Makefile.PL
251 # make
252 # make test
253 # make install
254
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255It is no longer possible to link PA-RISC 1.0 shared libraries (even
256though the command-line flags are still present).
257
258PA-RISC and Itanium object files are not interchangeable. Although
259you may be able to use ar to create an archive library of PA-RISC
260object files on an Itanium system, you cannot link against it using
261an Itanium link editor.
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262
263=head2 The HP ANSI C Compiler
264
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265When using this compiler to build Perl, you should make sure that the
266flag -Aa is added to the cpprun and cppstdin variables in the config.sh
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267file (though see the section on 64-bit perl below). If you are using a
268recent version of the Perl distribution, these flags are set automatically.
f2a260d6 269
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270=head2 The GNU C Compiler
271
272When you are going to use the GNU C compiler (gcc), and you don't have
273gcc yet, you can either build it yourself from the sources (available
274from e.g. http://www.gnu.ai.mit.edu/software/gcc/releases.html) or fetch
275a prebuilt binary from the HP porting center. There are two places where
276gcc prebuilds can be fetched the first and best (for HP-UX 11 only) is
277http://h21007.www2.hp.com/dspp/tech/tech_TechSoftwareDetailPage_IDX/1,1703,547,00.html
278the second is http://hpux.cs.utah.edu/hppd/hpux/Gnu/ where you can also
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279find the GNU binutils package. (Browse through the list, because there
280are often multiple versions of the same package available).
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281
282Building a 64bit capable gcc from source is possible only when you have
283the HP C-ANSI C compiler available, which you should use anyway when
284building perl.
285
a83b6f46 286=head2 Using Large Files with Perl on HP-UX
f2a260d6 287
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288Beginning with HP-UX version 10.20, files larger than 2GB (2^31 bytes)
289may be created and manipulated. Three separate methods of doing this
290are available. Of these methods, the best method for Perl is to compile
291using the -Duselargefiles flag to Configure. This causes Perl to be
292compiled using structures and functions in which these are 64 bits wide,
293rather than 32 bits wide. (Note that this will only work with HP's ANSI
294C compiler. If you want to compile Perl using gcc, you will have to get
2be3a552 295a version of the compiler that support 64-bit operations. See above for
f3e4a94e 296where to find it.)
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297
298There are some drawbacks to this approach. One is that any extension
299which calls any file-manipulating C function will need to be recompiled
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300(just follow the usual "perl Makefile.PL; make; make test; make install"
301procedure).
60ed1d8c 302
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303The list of functions that will need to recompiled is:
304creat, fgetpos, fopen,
305freopen, fsetpos, fstat,
306fstatvfs, fstatvfsdev, ftruncate,
307ftw, lockf, lseek,
308lstat, mmap, nftw,
309open, prealloc, stat,
310statvfs, statvfsdev, tmpfile,
311truncate, getrlimit, setrlimit
f2a260d6 312
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313Another drawback is only valid for Perl versions before 5.6.0. This
314drawback is that the seek and tell functions (both the builtin version
315and POSIX module version) will not perform correctly.
316
317It is strongly recommended that you use this flag when you run
318Configure. If you do not do this, but later answer the question about
319large files when Configure asks you, you may get a configuration that
320cannot be compiled, or that does not function as expected.
321
a83b6f46 322=head2 Threaded Perl on HP-UX
f2a260d6 323
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324It is possible to compile a version of threaded Perl on any version of
325HP-UX before 10.30, but it is strongly suggested that you be running on
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326HP-UX 11.00 at least.
327
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328To compile Perl with threads, add -Dusethreads to the arguments of
329Configure. Verify that the -D_POSIX_C_SOURCE=199506L compiler flag is
330automatically added to the list of flags. Also make sure that -lpthread
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331is listed before -lc in the list of libraries to link Perl with. The
332hints provided for HP-UX during Configure will try very hard to get
333this right for you.
f2a260d6 334
210b36aa 335HP-UX versions before 10.30 require a separate installation of a POSIX
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336threads library package. Two examples are the HP DCE package, available
337on "HP-UX Hardware Extensions 3.0, Install and Core OS, Release 10.20,
338April 1999 (B3920-13941)" or the Freely available PTH package, available
339though worldwide HP-UX mirrors of precompiled packages
37a78d01 340(e.g. http://hpux.tn.tudelft.nl/hppd/hpux/)
c7d9b096 341
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342If you are going to use the HP DCE package, the library used for threading
343is /usr/lib/libcma.sl, but there have been multiple updates of that
344library over time. Perl will build with the first version, but it
345will not pass the test suite. Older Oracle versions might be a compelling
8e4bcd96 346reason not to update that library, otherwise please find a newer version
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347in one of the following patches: PHSS_19739, PHSS_20608, or PHSS_23672
348
349reformatted output:
350
351 d3:/usr/lib 106 > what libcma-*.1
352 libcma-00000.1:
353 HP DCE/9000 1.5 Module: libcma.sl (Export)
354 Date: Apr 29 1996 22:11:24
355 libcma-19739.1:
356 HP DCE/9000 1.5 PHSS_19739-40 Module: libcma.sl (Export)
357 Date: Sep 4 1999 01:59:07
358 libcma-20608.1:
359 HP DCE/9000 1.5 PHSS_20608 Module: libcma.1 (Export)
360 Date: Dec 8 1999 18:41:23
361 libcma-23672.1:
362 HP DCE/9000 1.5 PHSS_23672 Module: libcma.1 (Export)
363 Date: Apr 9 2001 10:01:06
364 d3:/usr/lib 107 >
365
366
a83b6f46 367=head2 64-bit Perl on HP-UX
f2a260d6 368
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369Beginning with HP-UX 11.00, programs compiled under HP-UX can take
370advantage of the LP64 programming environment (LP64 means Longs and
371Pointers are 64 bits wide).
f2a260d6 372
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373Work is being performed on Perl to make it 64-bit compliant on all
374versions of Unix. Once this is complete, scalar variables will be able
375to hold numbers larger than 2^32 with complete precision.
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376
377As of the date of this document, Perl is not 64-bit compliant on HP-UX.
378
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379Should a user wish to experiment with compiling Perl in the LP64
380environment, use the -Duse64bitall flag to Configure. This will force
381Perl to be compiled in a pure LP64 environment (via the +DD64 flag).
f74a9bd3 382
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383You can also use the -Duse64bitint flag to Configure. Although there
384are some minor differences between compiling Perl with this flag versus
385the -Duse64bitall flag, they should not be noticeable from a Perl user's
386perspective.
f74a9bd3 387
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388In both cases, it is strongly recommended that you use these flags when
389you run Configure. If you do not use do this, but later answer the
390questions about 64-bit numbers when Configure asks you, you may get a
391configuration that cannot be compiled, or that does not function as
392expected.
f74a9bd3 393
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394(Note that these Configure flags will only work with HP's ANSI C
395compiler. If you want to compile Perl using gcc, you will have to get a
396version of the compiler that support 64-bit operations.)
f2a260d6 397
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398=head2 Oracle on HP-UX
399
400Using perl to connect to Oracle databases through DBI and DBD::Oracle
401has caused a lot of people many headaches. Read README.hpux in the
402DBD::Oracle for much more information. The reason to mention it here
403is that Oracle requires a perl built with libcl and libpthread, the
404latter even when perl is build without threads. Building perl using
405all defaults, but still enabling to build DBD::Oracle later on can be
406achieved using
407
408 Configure -A prepend:libswanted='cl pthread ' ...
409
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410Do not forget the space before the trailing quote.
411
412Also note that this does not (yet) work with all configurations,
413it is known to fail with 64bit versions of GCC.
5df8692c 414
a83b6f46 415=head2 GDBM and Threads on HP-UX
d66be8f9 416
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417If you attempt to compile Perl with threads on an 11.X system and also
418link in the GDBM library, then Perl will immediately core dump when it
419starts up. The only workaround at this point is to relink the GDBM
420library under 11.X, then relink it into Perl.
d66be8f9 421
a83b6f46 422=head2 NFS filesystems and utime(2) on HP-UX
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423
424If you are compiling Perl on a remotely-mounted NFS filesystem, the test
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425io/fs.t may fail on test #18. This appears to be a bug in HP-UX and no
426fix is currently available.
d66be8f9 427
a83b6f46 428=head2 perl -P and // and HP-UX
183968aa 429
efdf3af0 430In HP-UX Perl is compiled with flags that will cause problems if the
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431-P flag of Perl (preprocess Perl code with the C preprocessor before
432perl sees it) is used. The problem is that C<//>, being a C++-style
433until-end-of-line comment, will disappear along with the remainder
434of the line. This means that common Perl constructs like
435
efdf3af0 436 s/foo//;
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437
438will turn into illegal code
439
efdf3af0 440 s/foo
183968aa 441
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442The workaround is to use some other quoting separator than C<"/">,
443like for example C<"!">:
183968aa 444
efdf3af0 445 s!foo!!;
183968aa 446
a83b6f46 447=head2 HP-UX Kernel Parameters (maxdsiz) for Compiling Perl
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448
449By default, HP-UX comes configured with a maximum data segment size of
45064MB. This is too small to correctly compile Perl with the maximum
451optimization levels. You can increase the size of the maxdsiz kernel
452parameter through the use of SAM.
453
454When using the GUI version of SAM, click on the Kernel Configuration
455icon, then the Configurable Parameters icon. Scroll down and select
456the maxdsiz line. From the Actions menu, select the Modify Configurable
457Parameter item. Insert the new formula into the Formula/Value box.
458Then follow the instructions to rebuild your kernel and reboot your
459system.
460
461In general, a value of 256MB (or "256*1024*1024") is sufficient for
462Perl to compile at maximum optimization.
463
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464=head1 nss_delete core dump from op/pwent or op/grent
465
466You may get a bus error core dump from the op/pwent or op/grent
467tests. If compiled with -g you will see a stack trace much like
468the following:
469
470 #0 0xc004216c in () from /usr/lib/libc.2
471 #1 0xc00d7550 in __nss_src_state_destr () from /usr/lib/libc.2
472 #2 0xc00d7768 in __nss_src_state_destr () from /usr/lib/libc.2
473 #3 0xc00d78a8 in nss_delete () from /usr/lib/libc.2
474 #4 0xc01126d8 in endpwent () from /usr/lib/libc.2
475 #5 0xd1950 in Perl_pp_epwent () from ./perl
476 #6 0x94d3c in Perl_runops_standard () from ./perl
477 #7 0x23728 in S_run_body () from ./perl
478 #8 0x23428 in perl_run () from ./perl
479 #9 0x2005c in main () from ./perl
480
481The key here is the C<nss_delete> call. One workaround for this
482bug seems to be to create add to the file F</etc/nsswitch.conf>
483(at least) the following lines
484
485 group: files
486 passwd: files
487
488Whether you are using NIS does not matter. Amazingly enough,
489the same bug affects also Solaris.
490
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491=head1 AUTHOR
492
493Jeff Okamoto <okamoto@corp.hp.com>
fa01be49 494H.Merijn Brand <h.m.brand@hccnet.nl>
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495
496With much assistance regarding shared libraries from Marc Sabatella.
497
498=head1 DATE
499
5df8692c 500Version 0.6.6: 2002-05-30
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501
502=cut