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1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
d1d15184 11 (D) A deprecation (enabled by default).
00eb3f2b 12 (S) A severe warning (enabled by default).
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13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
75b44862 18The majority of messages from the first three classifications above
64977eb6 19(W, D & S) can be controlled using the C<warnings> pragma.
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20
21If a message can be controlled by the C<warnings> pragma, its warning
22category is included with the classification letter in the description
466416ed 23below. E.g. C<(W closed)> means a warning in the C<closed> category.
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24
25Optional warnings are enabled by using the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-w>
fa816bf3 26and B<-W> switches. Warnings may be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}>
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27to a reference to a routine that will be called on each warning instead
28of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
29
b7eceb5b 30Severe warnings are always enabled, unless they are explicitly disabled
e476b1b5 31with the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-X> switch.
4438c4b7 32
748a9306 33Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
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34L<perlfunc/eval>. In almost all cases, warnings may be selectively
35disabled or promoted to fatal errors using the C<warnings> pragma.
36See L<warnings>.
a0d0e21e 37
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38The messages are in alphabetical order, without regard to upper or
39lower-case. Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are
40denoted with a %s or other printf-style escape. These escapes are
41ignored by the alphabetical order, as are all characters other than
42letters. To look up your message, just ignore anything that is not a
43letter.
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44
45=over 4
46
6df41af2 47=item accept() on closed socket %s
33633739 48
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49(W closed) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget
50to check the return value of your socket() call? See
51L<perlfunc/accept>.
33633739 52
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53=item Aliasing via reference is experimental
54
55(S experimental::refaliasing) This warning is emitted if you use
56a reference constructor on the left-hand side of an assignment to
57alias one variable to another. Simply suppress the warning if you
58want to use the feature, but know that in doing so you are taking
59the risk of using an experimental feature which may change or be
60removed in a future Perl version:
61
62 no warnings "experimental::refaliasing";
63 use feature "refaliasing";
64 \$x = \$y;
65
de42a5a9 66=item Allocation too large: %x
a0d0e21e 67
6df41af2 68(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e 69
04f74579 70=item '%c' allowed only after types %s in %s
ef54e1a4 71
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72(F) The modifiers '!', '<' and '>' are allowed in pack() or unpack() only
73after certain types. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
ef54e1a4 74
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75=item alpha->numify() is lossy
76
77(W numeric) An alpha version can not be numified without losing
78information.
79
6df41af2 80=item Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
43192e07 81
75b44862 82(W ambiguous) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl
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83keyword, and you have used the name without qualification for calling
84one or the other. Perl decided to call the builtin because the
85subroutine is not imported.
43192e07 86
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87To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand
88before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.
89Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's
90imported with the C<use subs> pragma).
43192e07 91
6df41af2 92To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the C<CORE::> prefix
496a33f5 93on the operator (e.g. C<CORE::log($x)>) or declare the subroutine
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94to be an object method (see L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes"> or
95L<attributes>).
43192e07 96
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97=item Ambiguous range in transliteration operator
98
99(F) You wrote something like C<tr/a-z-0//> which doesn't mean anything at
100all. To include a C<-> character in a transliteration, put it either
101first or last. (In the past, C<tr/a-z-0//> was synonymous with
102C<tr/a-y//>, which was probably not what you would have expected.)
103
6df41af2 104=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
43192e07 105
7c7af292 106(S ambiguous) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
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107you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
108a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
a0d0e21e 109
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110=item Ambiguous use of -%s resolved as -&%s()
111
112(S ambiguous) You wrote something like C<-foo>, which might be the
113string C<"-foo">, or a call to the function C<foo>, negated. If you meant
114the string, just write C<"-foo">. If you meant the function call,
115write C<-foo()>.
116
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117=item Ambiguous use of %c resolved as operator %c
118
7c7af292 119(S ambiguous) C<%>, C<&>, and C<*> are both infix operators (modulus,
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120bitwise and, and multiplication) I<and> initial special characters
121(denoting hashes, subroutines and typeglobs), and you said something
122like C<*foo * foo> that might be interpreted as either of them. We
123assumed you meant the infix operator, but please try to make it more
124clear -- in the example given, you might write C<*foo * foo()> if you
125really meant to multiply a glob by the result of calling a function.
d8225693 126
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127=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s} resolved to %c%s
128
129(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<@{foo}>, which might be
130asking for the variable C<@foo>, or it might be calling a function
131named foo, and dereferencing it as an array reference. If you wanted
1cecf2c0 132the variable, you can just write C<@foo>. If you wanted to call the
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133function, write C<@{foo()}> ... or you could just not have a variable
134and a function with the same name, and save yourself a lot of trouble.
135
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136=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s[...]} resolved to %c%s[...]
137
138=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s{...}} resolved to %c%s{...}
4da60377 139
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140(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<${foo[2]}> (where foo represents
141the name of a Perl keyword), which might be looking for element number
1422 of the array named C<@foo>, in which case please write C<$foo[2]>, or you
143might have meant to pass an anonymous arrayref to the function named
144foo, and then do a scalar deref on the value it returns. If you meant
145that, write C<${foo([2])}>.
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146
147In regular expressions, the C<${foo[2]}> syntax is sometimes necessary
148to disambiguate between array subscripts and character classes.
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149C</$length[2345]/>, for instance, will be interpreted as C<$length> followed
150by the character class C<[2345]>. If an array subscript is what you
151want, you can avoid the warning by changing C</${length[2345]}/> to the
152unsightly C</${\$length[2345]}/>, by renaming your array to something
153that does not coincide with a built-in keyword, or by simply turning
154off warnings with C<no warnings 'ambiguous';>.
4da60377 155
6df41af2 156=item '|' and '<' may not both be specified on command line
a0d0e21e 157
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158(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
159redirection, and found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to
160redirect STDIN using '<'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
c9f97d15 161
6df41af2 162=item '|' and '>' may not both be specified on command line
1028017a 163
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164(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
165redirection, and thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and
166into a pipe to another command. You need to choose one or the other,
167though nothing's stopping you from piping into a program or Perl script
168which 'splits' output into two streams, such as
1028017a 169
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170 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
171 while (<STDIN>) {
172 print;
173 print OUT;
174 }
175 close OUT;
c9f97d15 176
6df41af2 177=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
eb6e2d6f 178
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179(W misc) The pattern match (C<//>), substitution (C<s///>), and
180transliteration (C<tr///>) operators work on scalar values. If you apply
be771a83 181one of them to an array or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to
ac036724 182a scalar value (the length of an array, or the population info of a
183hash) and then work on that scalar value. This is probably not what
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184you meant to do. See L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for
185alternatives.
eb6e2d6f 186
6df41af2 187=item Arg too short for msgsnd
76cd736e 188
6df41af2 189(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
76cd736e 190
f86702cc 191=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
a0d0e21e 192
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193(W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator
194that expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
195will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
a0d0e21e 196
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197Note that for the C<Inf> and C<NaN> (infinity and not-a-number) the
198definition of "numeric" is somewhat unusual: the strings themselves
199(like "Inf") are considered numeric, and anything following them is
200considered non-numeric.
201
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202=item Argument list not closed for PerlIO layer "%s"
203
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204(W layer) When pushing a layer with arguments onto the Perl I/O
205system you forgot the ) that closes the argument list. (Layers
206take care of transforming data between external and internal
207representations.) Perl stopped parsing the layer list at this
208point and did not attempt to push this layer. If your program
209didn't explicitly request the failing operation, it may be the
210result of the value of the environment variable PERLIO.
b4581f09 211
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212=item Argument "%s" treated as 0 in increment (++)
213
214(W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to the C<++>
215operator which expects either a number or a string matching
216C</^[a-zA-Z]*[0-9]*\z/>. See L<perlop/Auto-increment and
217Auto-decrement> for details.
218
637494ac 219=item Array passed to stat will be coerced to a scalar%s
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220
221(W syntax) You called stat() on an array, but the array will be
222coerced to a scalar - the number of elements in the array.
223
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224=item assertion botched: %s
225
21b5e840 226(X) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
a0d0e21e 227
0eacef8e 228=item Assertion %s failed: file "%s", line %d
a0d0e21e 229
21b5e840 230(X) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
a0d0e21e 231
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232=item Assigned value is not a reference
233
234(F) You tried to assign something that was not a reference to an lvalue
235reference (e.g., C<\$x = $y>). If you meant to make $x an alias to $y, use
236C<\$x = \$y>.
237
238=item Assigned value is not %s reference
239
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240(F) You tried to assign a reference to a reference constructor, but the
241two references were not of the same type. You cannot alias a scalar to
242an array, or an array to a hash; the two types must match.
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243
244 \$x = \@y; # error
245 \@x = \%y; # error
246 $y = [];
247 \$x = $y; # error; did you mean \$y?
248
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249=item Assigning non-zero to $[ is no longer possible
250
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251(F) When the "array_base" feature is disabled (e.g., under C<use v5.16;>)
252the special variable C<$[>, which is deprecated, is now a fixed zero value.
82122228 253
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254=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
255
256(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
257must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
258know which context to supply to the right side.
259
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260=item Assuming NOT a POSIX class since %s in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
261
262(W regexp) You had something like these:
263
264 [[:alnum]]
265 [[:digit:xyz]
266
267They look like they might have been meant to be the POSIX classes
268C<[:alnum:]> or C<[:digit:]>. If so, they should be written:
269
270 [[:alnum:]]
271 [[:digit:]xyz]
272
273Since these aren't legal POSIX class specifications, but are legal
274bracketed character classes, Perl treats them as the latter. In the
275first example, it matches the characters C<":">, C<"[">, C<"a">, C<"l">,
276C<"m">, C<"n">, and C<"u">.
277
278If these weren't meant to be POSIX classes, this warning message is
279spurious, and can be suppressed by reordering things, such as
280
281 [[al:num]]
282
283or
284
285 [[:munla]]
286
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287=item <> at require-statement should be quotes
288
289(F) You wrote C<< require <file> >> when you should have written
290C<require 'file'>.
291
2393f1b9 292=item Attempt to access disallowed key '%s' in a restricted hash
1b1f1335 293
49293501 294(F) The failing code has attempted to get or set a key which is not in
2393f1b9 295the current set of allowed keys of a restricted hash.
49293501 296
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297=item Attempt to bless into a freed package
298
299(F) You wrote C<bless $foo> with one argument after somehow causing
300the current package to be freed. Perl cannot figure out what to
301do, so it throws up in hands in despair.
302
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303=item Attempt to bless into a reference
304
305(F) The CLASSNAME argument to the bless() operator is expected to be
57dedab9 306the name of the package to bless the resulting object into. You've
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307supplied instead a reference to something: perhaps you wrote
308
309 bless $self, $proto;
310
311when you intended
312
313 bless $self, ref($proto) || $proto;
314
315If you actually want to bless into the stringified version
316of the reference supplied, you need to stringify it yourself, for
317example by:
318
319 bless $self, "$proto";
320
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321=item Attempt to clear deleted array
322
323(S debugging) An array was assigned to when it was being freed.
324Freed values are not supposed to be visible to Perl code. This
325can also happen if XS code calls C<av_clear> from a custom magic
326callback on the array.
327
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328=item Attempt to delete disallowed key '%s' from a restricted hash
329
330(F) The failing code attempted to delete from a restricted hash a key
331which is not in its key set.
332
333=item Attempt to delete readonly key '%s' from a restricted hash
334
335(F) The failing code attempted to delete a key whose value has been
336declared readonly from a restricted hash.
337
de42a5a9 338=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%x
a0d0e21e 339
f84fe999 340(S internal) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas
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341that will be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be
342outside any of those arenas.
a0d0e21e 343
12578ffb 344=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string '%s'%s
bbce6d69 345
f84fe999 346(S internal) Perl maintains a reference-counted internal table of
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347strings to optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other
348strings. This indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count
349of a string that can no longer be found in the table.
bbce6d69 350
7d5b40b4 351=item Attempt to free temp prematurely: SV 0x%x
a0d0e21e 352
f84fe999 353(S debugging) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the
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354free_tmps() routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the
355SV before the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the
356free_tmps() routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does
357try to free it.
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358
359=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
360
f84fe999 361(S internal) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
a0d0e21e 362
7d5b40b4 363=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar: SV 0x%x
a0d0e21e 364
8f7e4d2c 365(S internal) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to
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366see if it would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0
367earlier, and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed.
368This could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or
369that SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was
370mortalized when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been
371corrupted.
a0d0e21e 372
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373=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
374
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375(W pack) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
376function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
377means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
378invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
379literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
380avoid this warning.
84902520 381
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382=item Attempt to reload %s aborted.
383
384(F) You tried to load a file with C<use> or C<require> that failed to
385compile once already. Perl will not try to compile this file again
386unless you delete its entry from %INC. See L<perlfunc/require> and
387L<perlvar/%INC>.
388
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389=item Attempt to set length of freed array
390
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391(W misc) You tried to set the length of an array which has
392been freed. You can do this by storing a reference to the
393scalar representing the last index of an array and later
394assigning through that reference. For example
1b20cd17
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395
396 $r = do {my @a; \$#a};
397 $$r = 503
398
b7a902f4 399=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
400
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401(W substr) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr()
402used as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
403dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
b7a902f4 404
c32124fe
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405=item Attribute "locked" is deprecated
406
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407(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragma to modify the
408"locked" attribute on a code reference. The :locked attribute is
409obsolete, has had no effect since 5005 threads were removed, and
410will be removed in a future release of Perl 5.
c32124fe 411
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412=item Attribute prototype(%s) discards earlier prototype attribute in same sub
413
414(W misc) A sub was declared as sub foo : prototype(A) : prototype(B) {}, for
415example. Since each sub can only have one prototype, the earlier
416declaration(s) are discarded while the last one is applied.
417
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418=item Attribute "unique" is deprecated
419
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420(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragma to modify
421the "unique" attribute on an array, hash or scalar reference.
422The :unique attribute has had no effect since Perl 5.8.8, and
423will be removed in a future release of Perl 5.
f1a3ce43 424
ccce04a4
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425=item av_reify called on tied array
426
427(S debugging) This indicates that something went wrong and Perl got I<very>
428confused about C<@_> or C<@DB::args> being tied.
429
de42a5a9 430=item Bad arg length for %s, is %u, should be %d
a0d0e21e 431
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432(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl()
433or shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 434S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
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435S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
436
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437=item Bad evalled substitution pattern
438
496a33f5 439(F) You've used the C</e> switch to evaluate the replacement for a
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440substitution, but perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate,
441most likely an unexpected right brace '}'.
442
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443=item Bad filehandle: %s
444
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445(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the
446symbol has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an
447open(), or did it in another package.
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448
449=item Bad free() ignored
450
be771a83 451(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had never
fa816bf3 452been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
9ea8bc6d 453setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 0.
33c8a3fe 454
9ea8bc6d 455This message can be seen quite often with DB_File on systems with "hard"
6903afa2 456dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of C<Berkeley DB>
be771a83 457which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving> system malloc().
a0d0e21e 458
aa689395 459=item Bad hash
460
461(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
462
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463=item Badly placed ()'s
464
465(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
466of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
467Perl yourself.
468
a7cb8dae 469=item Bad name after %s
a0d0e21e 470
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471(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then
472didn't finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside
473of quotes, so
a0d0e21e
LW
474
475 $var = 'myvar';
476 $sym = mypack::$var;
477
478is not the same as
479
480 $var = 'myvar';
481 $sym = "mypack::$var";
482
88e1f1a2
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483=item Bad plugin affecting keyword '%s'
484
485(F) An extension using the keyword plugin mechanism violated the
486plugin API.
487
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488=item Bad realloc() ignored
489
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490(S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that
491had never been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can
492be disabled by setting the environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
4ad56ec9 493
a0d0e21e
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494=item Bad symbol for array
495
496(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
497wasn't a symbol table entry.
498
4df3f177
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499=item Bad symbol for dirhandle
500
501(P) An internal request asked to add a dirhandle entry to something
502that wasn't a symbol table entry.
503
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504=item Bad symbol for filehandle
505
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506(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something
507that wasn't a symbol table entry.
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508
509=item Bad symbol for hash
510
511(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
512wasn't a symbol table entry.
513
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FC
514=item Bad symbol for scalar
515
516(P) An internal request asked to add a scalar entry to something that
517wasn't a symbol table entry.
518
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519=item Bareword found in conditional
520
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521(W bareword) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a
522conditional, which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part
523of the last argument of the previous construct, for example:
34d09196
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524
525 open FOO || die;
526
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527It may also indicate a misspelled constant that has been interpreted as
528a bareword:
34d09196
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529
530 use constant TYPO => 1;
531 if (TYOP) { print "foo" }
532
533The C<strict> pragma is useful in avoiding such errors.
534
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535=item Bareword in require contains "%s"
536
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NC
537=item Bareword in require maps to disallowed filename "%s"
538
09eb1f39 539=item Bareword in require maps to empty filename
5bad2b39 540
a52f2cce
NC
541(F) The bareword form of require has been invoked with a filename which could
542not have been generated by a valid bareword permitted by the parser. You
543shouldn't be able to get this error from Perl code, but XS code may throw it
544if it passes an invalid module name to C<Perl_load_module>.
545
5bad2b39
DM
546=item Bareword in require must not start with a double-colon: "%s"
547
548(F) In C<require Bare::Word>, the bareword is not allowed to start with a
549double-colon. Write C<require ::Foo::Bar> as C<require Foo::Bar> instead.
550
6df41af2
GS
551=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
552
553(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
be771a83
GS
554subroutine identifier, in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>"
555symbol. Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
6df41af2
GS
556
557=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
558
be771a83
GS
559(W bareword) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but the
560compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point. Perhaps
561you need to predeclare a package?
6df41af2 562
a0d0e21e
LW
563=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
564
be771a83
GS
565(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN
566subroutine. Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is
567exited.
a0d0e21e 568
68dc0745 569=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
570
571(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
be771a83
GS
572implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had already
573occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}> could not
574be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code likely
575depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
68dc0745 576
c782d7ee 577=item \%d better written as $%d
6df41af2 578
be771a83
GS
579(W syntax) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables.
580The use of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
581substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
582because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better if
583there are more than 9 backreferences.
6df41af2 584
252aa082
JH
585=item Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable
586
e476b1b5 587(W portable) The binary number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
588(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
589L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 590
69282e91 591=item bind() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 592
be771a83
GS
593(W closed) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to
594check the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
a0d0e21e 595
c289d2f7
JH
596=item binmode() on closed filehandle %s
597
598(W unopened) You tried binmode() on a filehandle that was never opened.
4dcecea4 599Check your control flow and number of arguments.
c289d2f7 600
c5a0f51a
JH
601=item Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
602
e476b1b5 603(W portable) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is non-portable.
c5a0f51a 604
043c750c 605=item Bizarre copy of %s
4633a7c4 606
be771a83 607(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not
ab830aa0 608copiable.
4633a7c4 609
5a25739d
FC
610=item Bizarre SvTYPE [%d]
611
434f489b 612(P) When starting a new thread or returning values from a thread, Perl
5a25739d
FC
613encountered an invalid data type.
614
b927b7e9 615=item Both or neither range ends should be Unicode in regex; marked by
6e8a73f2 616S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
b927b7e9
KW
617
618(W regexp) (only under C<S<use re 'strict'>> or within C<(?[...])>)
619
620In a bracketed character class in a regular expression pattern, you
621had a range which has exactly one end of it specified using C<\N{}>, and
622the other end is specified using a non-portable mechanism. Perl treats
623the range as a Unicode range, that is, all the characters in it are
624considered to be the Unicode characters, and which may be different code
625points on some platforms Perl runs on. For example, C<[\N{U+06}-\x08]>
626is treated as if you had instead said C<[\N{U+06}-\N{U+08}]>, that is it
627matches the characters whose code points in Unicode are 6, 7, and 8.
628But that C<\x08> might indicate that you meant something different, so
629the warning gets raised.
630
f675dbe5
CB
631=item Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
632
be771a83
GS
633(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. While Perl was preparing to
634iterate over %ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition
635which was too long, so it was truncated to the string shown.
f675dbe5 636
a0d0e21e
LW
637=item Callback called exit
638
4929bf7b 639(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via call_sv()
a0d0e21e
LW
640exited by calling exit.
641
6df41af2 642=item %s() called too early to check prototype
f675dbe5 643
be771a83
GS
644(W prototype) You've called a function that has a prototype before the
645parser saw a definition or declaration for it, and Perl could not check
646that the call conforms to the prototype. You need to either add an
647early prototype declaration for the subroutine in question, or move the
648subroutine definition ahead of the call to get proper prototype
649checking. Alternatively, if you are certain that you're calling the
650function correctly, you may put an ampersand before the name to avoid
651the warning. See L<perlsub>.
f675dbe5 652
56feebad
FC
653=item Calling POSIX::%s() is deprecated
654
655(D deprecated) You called a function whose use is deprecated. See
656the function's name in L<POSIX> for details.
657
0c7df902
JH
658=item Cannot chr %f
659
660(F) You passed an invalid number (like an infinity or not-a-number) to C<chr>.
661
5dee29d4 662=item Cannot compress %f in pack
0c7df902 663
5dee29d4
JH
664(F) You tried compressing an infinity or not-a-number as an unsigned
665integer with BER, which makes no sense.
0c7df902 666
49704364 667=item Cannot compress integer in pack
0258719b 668
717feafc
JH
669(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was too large to compress.
670The BER compressed integer format can only be used with positive
671integers, and you attempted to compress a very large number (> 1e308).
672See L<perlfunc/pack>.
0258719b 673
49704364 674=item Cannot compress negative numbers in pack
0258719b
NC
675
676(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was negative. The BER compressed integer
677format can only be used with positive integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
678
5c1f4d79
NC
679=item Cannot convert a reference to %s to typeglob
680
6903afa2
FC
681(F) You manipulated Perl's symbol table directly, stored a reference
682in it, then tried to access that symbol via conventional Perl syntax.
683The access triggers Perl to autovivify that typeglob, but it there is
684no legal conversion from that type of reference to a typeglob.
5c1f4d79 685
4040665a 686=item Cannot copy to %s
ba2fdce6
NC
687
688(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy a value to an internal type that cannot
4dcecea4 689be directly assigned to.
ba2fdce6 690
b5d97229
RGS
691=item Cannot find encoding "%s"
692
693(S io) You tried to apply an encoding that did not exist to a filehandle,
694either with open() or binmode().
695
0c7df902
JH
696=item Cannot pack %f with '%c'
697
5dee29d4 698(F) You tried converting an infinity or not-a-number to an integer,
0c7df902
JH
699which makes no sense.
700
701=item Cannot printf %f with '%c'
702
703(F) You tried printing an infinity or not-a-number as a character (%c),
704which makes no sense. Maybe you meant '%s', or just stringifying it?
705
7355df7e
FC
706=item Cannot set tied @DB::args
707
708(F) C<caller> tried to set C<@DB::args>, but found it tied. Tying C<@DB::args>
709is not supported. (Before this error was added, it used to crash.)
710
ce65bc73
FC
711=item Cannot tie unreifiable array
712
713(P) You somehow managed to call C<tie> on an array that does not
714keep a reference count on its arguments and cannot be made to
715do so. Such arrays are not even supposed to be accessible to
716Perl code, but are only used internally.
717
46e58bd2
AC
718=item Cannot yet reorder sv_catpvfn() arguments from va_list
719
720(F) Some XS code tried to use C<sv_catpvfn()> or a related function with a
721format string that specifies explicit indexes for some of the elements, and
722using a C-style variable-argument list (a C<va_list>). This is not currently
723supported. XS authors wanting to do this must instead construct a C array of
724C<SV*> scalars containing the arguments.
725
96ebfdd7
RK
726=item Can only compress unsigned integers in pack
727
728(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was not an integer. The BER compressed
729integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you attempted
730to compress something else. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
731
a0d0e21e
LW
732=item Can't bless non-reference value
733
734(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
735encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
736
dc57907a
RGS
737=item Can't "break" in a loop topicalizer
738
0d863452 739(F) You called C<break>, but you're in a C<foreach> block rather than
6903afa2 740a C<given> block. You probably meant to use C<next> or C<last>.
0d863452
RH
741
742=item Can't "break" outside a given block
dc57907a 743
0d863452
RH
744(F) You called C<break>, but you're not inside a C<given> block.
745
6df41af2
GS
746=item Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
747
748(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
749object reference or package name contains an undefined value. Something
750like this will reproduce the error:
6df41af2
GS
751
752 $BADREF = undef;
753 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
754 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
755
a0d0e21e
LW
756=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
757
54310121 758(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
be771a83
GS
759ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but you
760didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't an
761object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
762
763=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
764
765(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
766object reference or package name contains an expression that returns a
767defined value which is neither an object reference nor a package name.
72b5445b
GS
768Something like this will reproduce the error:
769
770 $BADREF = 42;
771 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
772 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
773
dfe378f1
FC
774=item Can't call mro_isa_changed_in() on anonymous symbol table
775
776(P) Perl got confused as to whether a hash was a plain hash or a
777symbol table hash when trying to update @ISA caches.
778
2bf7e7b2
FC
779=item Can't call mro_method_changed_in() on anonymous symbol table
780
781(F) An XS module tried to call C<mro_method_changed_in> on a hash that was
782not attached to the symbol table.
783
a0d0e21e
LW
784=item Can't chdir to %s
785
f703fc96 786(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but F</foo/bar> is not a directory
a0d0e21e
LW
787that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
788
0545a864 789=item Can't check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid
104d25b7 790
be771a83
GS
791(P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for
792nosuid.
104d25b7 793
22e74366 794=item Can't coerce %s to %s in %s
a0d0e21e
LW
795
796(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 797(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
a0d0e21e
LW
798say things like:
799
800 *foo += 1;
801
802You CAN say
803
804 $foo = *foo;
805 $foo += 1;
806
807but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
808
0d863452 809=item Can't "continue" outside a when block
dc57907a 810
0d863452
RH
811(F) You called C<continue>, but you're not inside a C<when>
812or C<default> block.
813
a0d0e21e
LW
814=item Can't create pipe mailbox
815
be771a83
GS
816(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted
817quotas or other plumbing problems.
a0d0e21e 818
eb64745e
GS
819=item Can't declare %s in "%s"
820
30c282f6
NC
821(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as "my", "our" or
822"state" variables. They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
a0d0e21e 823
fc7debfb
FC
824=item Can't "default" outside a topicalizer
825
826(F) You have used a C<default> block that is neither inside a
827C<foreach> loop nor a C<given> block. (Note that this error is
828issued on exit from the C<default> block, so you won't get the
829error if you use an explicit C<continue>.)
830
a2162cd9
FC
831=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
832
833(S inplace) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as
834a file in /dev, a FIFO or an uneditable directory. The file was ignored.
835
836=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
837
838(S inplace) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated
839reason.
840
841=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
842
843(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try
844reading from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say
845C<-i.bak>, or some such.
846
847=item Can't do inplace edit: %s would not be unique
848
849(S inplace) Your filesystem does not support filenames longer than 14
850characters and Perl was unable to create a unique filename during
851inplace editing with the B<-i> switch. The file was ignored.
852
ab0b796c
KW
853=item Can't do %s("%s") on non-UTF-8 locale; resolved to "%s".
854
855(W locale) You are 1) running under "C<use locale>"; 2) the current
856locale is not a UTF-8 one; 3) you tried to do the designated case-change
857operation on the specified Unicode character; and 4) the result of this
858operation would mix Unicode and locale rules, which likely conflict.
859Mixing of different rule types is forbidden, so the operation was not
860done; instead the result is the indicated value, which is the best
861available that uses entirely Unicode rules. That turns out to almost
862always be the original character, unchanged.
863
864It is generally a bad idea to mix non-UTF-8 locales and Unicode, and
865this issue is one of the reasons why. This warning is raised when
866Unicode rules would normally cause the result of this operation to
867contain a character that is in the range specified by the locale,
8680..255, and hence is subject to the locale's rules, not Unicode's.
869
870If you are using locale purely for its characteristics related to things
871like its numeric and time formatting (and not C<LC_CTYPE>), consider
872using a restricted form of the locale pragma (see L<perllocale/The "use
873locale" pragma>) like "S<C<use locale ':not_characters'>>".
874
875Note that failed case-changing operations done as a result of
876case-insensitive C</i> regular expression matching will show up in this
877warning as having the C<fc> operation (as that is what the regular
878expression engine calls behind the scenes.)
879
a0d0e21e
LW
880=item Can't do waitpid with flags
881
be771a83
GS
882(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only
883waitpid() without flags is emulated.
a0d0e21e 884
a0d0e21e
LW
885=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
886
be771a83
GS
887(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this
888point. For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #!
889line.
a0d0e21e 890
1109a392
MHM
891=item Can't %s %s-endian %ss on this platform
892
893(F) Your platform's byte-order is neither big-endian nor little-endian,
894or it has a very strange pointer size. Packing and unpacking big- or
895little-endian floating point values and pointers may not be possible.
896See L<perlfunc/pack>.
897
a0d0e21e
LW
898=item Can't exec "%s": %s
899
d1be9408 900(W exec) A system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the
be771a83
GS
901named program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the
902permissions were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in
903C<$ENV{PATH}>, the executable in question was compiled for another
904architecture, or the #! line in a script points to an interpreter that
905can't be run for similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support
906#! at all.)
a0d0e21e
LW
907
908=item Can't exec %s
909
be771a83
GS
910(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because
911that's what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may
912need to mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
a0d0e21e
LW
913
914=item Can't execute %s
915
be771a83
GS
916(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute
917found in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
2a92aaa0 918
6df41af2 919=item Can't find an opnumber for "%s"
2a92aaa0 920
be771a83
GS
921(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but there
922is no builtin with the name C<word>.
6df41af2
GS
923
924=item Can't find label %s
925
be771a83
GS
926(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's
927possible for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2a92aaa0
GS
928
929=item Can't find %s on PATH
930
be771a83
GS
931(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
932found in the PATH.
a0d0e21e 933
6df41af2 934=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
a0d0e21e 935
be771a83
GS
936(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
937found in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The
938script exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
a0d0e21e
LW
939
940=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
941
be771a83
GS
942(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means
943that the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count
944nesting levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
a0d0e21e 945
fb73857a 946 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
947
97b3d10f 948If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have
b6b8cb97
FC
949included unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag or there
950may not be a linebreak after it. A good programmer's editor will have
951a way to help you find these characters (or lack of characters). See
952L<perlop> for the full details on here-documents.
a0d0e21e 953
660a4616
TS
954=item Can't find Unicode property definition "%s"
955
29f52644
KW
956=item Can't find Unicode property definition "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
957
958(F) The named property which you specified via C<\p> or C<\P> is not one
959known to Perl. Perhaps you misspelled the name? See
e1b711da 960L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
29f52644
KW
961for a complete list of available official
962properties. If it is a
963L<user-defined property|perlunicode/User-Defined Character Properties>
964it must have been defined by the time the regular expression is
965matched.
966
967If you didn't mean to use a Unicode property, escape the C<\p>, either
968by C<\\p> (just the C<\p>) or by C<\Q\p> (the rest of the string, or
5f8ad6b6 969until C<\E>).
660a4616 970
b3647a36 971=item Can't fork: %s
a0d0e21e 972
be771a83
GS
973(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a
974pipeline.
a0d0e21e 975
b3647a36
SR
976=item Can't fork, trying again in 5 seconds
977
c973c02e 978(W pipe) A fork in a piped open failed with EAGAIN and will be retried
b3647a36
SR
979after five seconds.
980
748a9306
LW
981=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
982
be771a83
GS
983(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference
984between access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes.
985Under VMS, access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in
986the stat buffer, so that ACLs and other protections can be taken into
987account. Unfortunately, Perl assumes that the stat buffer contains all
988the necessary information, and passes it, instead of the filespec, to
2fe2bdfd 989the access-checking routine. It will try to retrieve the filespec using
be771a83
GS
990the device name and FID present in the stat buffer, but this works only
991if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat() routine,
992because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
2fe2bdfd
FC
993appears, the name lookup failed, and the access-checking routine gave up
994and returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access-checking
be771a83
GS
995routine knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you
996shouldn't ever see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises
997only if some internal code takes stat buffers lightly.)
748a9306 998
a0d0e21e
LW
999=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
1000
be771a83
GS
1001(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a
1002pipe, Perl can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
1003
1004=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
1005
748a9306
LW
1006(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
1007mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e 1008
6df41af2 1009=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
a0d0e21e 1010
be771a83
GS
1011(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a foreach
1012loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2
GS
1013
1014=item Can't "goto" out of a pseudo block
1015
be771a83
GS
1016(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look like
1017a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually occurs if
1018you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which is a no-no.
1019See L<perlfunc/goto>.
a0d0e21e 1020
5a25739d
FC
1021=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-%s
1022
1023(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval
1024"string" or block.
1025
9850bf21 1026=item Can't goto subroutine from a sort sub (or similar callback)
cd299c6e 1027
9850bf21
RH
1028(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of the
1029comparison sub for a sort(), or from a similar callback (such
1030as the reduce() function in List::Util).
1031
6df41af2
GS
1032=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
1033
be771a83
GS
1034(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one
1035subroutine call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole
1036cloth. In general you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD
1037routine anyway. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2 1038
0b5b802d
GS
1039=item Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default
1040
be771a83
GS
1041(W signal) Perl has detected that it is being run with the SIGCHLD
1042signal (sometimes known as SIGCLD) disabled. Since disabling this
1043signal will interfere with proper determination of exit status of child
1044processes, Perl has reset the signal to its default value. This
1045situation typically indicates that the parent program under which Perl
1046may be running (e.g. cron) is being very careless.
0b5b802d 1047
e2c0f81f
DG
1048=item Can't kill a non-numeric process ID
1049
1050(F) Process identifiers must be (signed) integers. It is a fatal error to
1051attempt to kill() an undefined, empty-string or otherwise non-numeric
1052process identifier.
1053
6df41af2 1054=item Can't "last" outside a loop block
4633a7c4 1055
6df41af2 1056(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
be771a83
GS
1057except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a current
1058block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a "loopish"
1059block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or grep(). You can
1060usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the
1061inner curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See
1062L<perlfunc/last>.
4633a7c4 1063
2c7d6b9c
RGS
1064=item Can't linearize anonymous symbol table
1065
1066(F) Perl tried to calculate the method resolution order (MRO) of a
1067package, but failed because the package stash has no name.
1068
b8170e59
JB
1069=item Can't load '%s' for module %s
1070
6903afa2
FC
1071(F) The module you tried to load failed to load a dynamic extension.
1072This may either mean that you upgraded your version of perl to one
1073that is incompatible with your old dynamic extensions (which is known
1074to happen between major versions of perl), or (more likely) that your
1075dynamic extension was built against an older version of the library
1076that is installed on your system. You may need to rebuild your old
1077dynamic extensions.
b8170e59 1078
748a9306
LW
1079=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
1080
2ba9eb46 1081(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
b7e4ecc1
FC
1082lexical variable using "my" or "state". This is not allowed. If you
1083want to localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with
1084the package name.
748a9306 1085
6df41af2 1086=item Can't localize through a reference
4727527e 1087
6df41af2
GS
1088(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
1089handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
be771a83 1090pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be sure
64977eb6 1091that $ref will still be a reference.
4727527e 1092
ea071790 1093=item Can't locate %s
ec889f3a 1094
fa816bf3
FC
1095(F) You said to C<do> (or C<require>, or C<use>) a file that couldn't be found.
1096Perl looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in @INC, unless
1097the file name included the full path to the file. Perhaps you need
1098to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where the
1099extra library is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name
be771a83
GS
1100to @INC. Or maybe you just misspelled the name of the file. See
1101L<perlfunc/require> and L<lib>.
a0d0e21e 1102
6df41af2
GS
1103=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
1104
be771a83
GS
1105(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows
1106autoload, but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes
1107are a misprint in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit>
1108the file, say, by doing C<make install>.
6df41af2 1109
b8170e59
JB
1110=item Can't locate loadable object for module %s in @INC
1111
1112(F) The module you loaded is trying to load an external library, like
d70d8e57 1113for example, F<foo.so> or F<bar.dll>, but the L<DynaLoader> module was
b8170e59
JB
1114unable to locate this library. See L<DynaLoader>.
1115
a0d0e21e
LW
1116=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
1117
1118(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
1119functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 1120method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e 1121
8af56b9d
FC
1122=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s" (perhaps you forgot
1123to load "%s"?)
1124
1125(F) You called a method on a class that did not exist, and the method
1126could not be found in UNIVERSAL. This often means that a method
1127requires a package that has not been loaded.
1128
a0d0e21e
LW
1129=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
1130
be771a83
GS
1131(W syntax) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that
1132doesn't seem to exist.
a0d0e21e 1133
2f7da168
RK
1134=item Can't locate PerlIO%s
1135
1136(F) You tried to use in open() a PerlIO layer that does not exist,
1137e.g. open(FH, ">:nosuchlayer", "somefile").
1138
f4ad53f4 1139=item Can't make list assignment to %ENV on this system
3e3baf6d 1140
be771a83
GS
1141(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably
1142VMS.
3e3baf6d 1143
cd40cd58
NC
1144=item Can't make loaded symbols global on this platform while loading %s
1145
ff9c1ae8 1146(S) A module passed the flag 0x01 to DynaLoader::dl_load_file() to request
cd40cd58
NC
1147that symbols from the stated file are made available globally within the
1148process, but that functionality is not available on this platform. Whilst
1149the module likely will still work, this may prevent the perl interpreter
1150from loading other XS-based extensions which need to link directly to
1151functions defined in the C or XS code in the stated file.
1152
a0d0e21e
LW
1153=item Can't modify %s in %s
1154
be771a83
GS
1155(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try
1156to change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 1157
54310121 1158=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
1159
1160(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
1161a NULL.
1162
0f948285 1163=item Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call of &%s
6df41af2
GS
1164
1165(F) Subroutines meant to be used in lvalue context should be declared as
2fe2bdfd 1166such. See L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
6df41af2 1167
cf6e1fa1
FC
1168=item Can't modify reference to %s in %s assignment
1169
1170(F) Only a limited number of constructs can be used as the argument to a
1171reference constructor on the left-hand side of an assignment, and what
1172you used was not one of them. See L<perlref/Assigning to References>.
1173
1174=item Can't modify reference to localized parenthesized array in list
1175assignment
1176
1177(F) Assigning to C<\local(@array)> or C<\(local @array)> is not supported, as
1178it is not clear exactly what it should do. If you meant to make @array
1179refer to some other array, use C<\@array = \@other_array>. If you want to
1180make the elements of @array aliases of the scalars referenced on the
1181right-hand side, use C<\(@array) = @scalar_refs>.
1182
1183=item Can't modify reference to parenthesized hash in list assignment
1184
1185(F) Assigning to C<\(%hash)> is not supported. If you meant to make %hash
1186refer to some other hash, use C<\%hash = \%other_hash>. If you want to
1187make the elements of %hash into aliases of the scalars referenced on the
1188right-hand side, use a hash slice: C<\@hash{@keys} = @those_scalar_refs>.
1189
5f05dabc 1190=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 1191
5f05dabc 1192(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
1193buffer.
1194
6df41af2
GS
1195=item Can't "next" outside a loop block
1196
1197(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
1198there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
be771a83
GS
1199count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or
1200grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1201though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that loops
1202once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
6df41af2 1203
a0d0e21e
LW
1204=item Can't open %s: %s
1205
c47ff5f1 1206(S inplace) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<< <> >>
08e9d68e 1207filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
46fa9b26
FC
1208switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually
1209this is because you don't have read permission for a file which
1210you named on the command line.
1211
1212(F) You tried to call perl with the B<-e> switch, but F</dev/null> (or
1213your operating system's equivalent) could not be opened.
a0d0e21e 1214
9a869a14
RGS
1215=item Can't open a reference
1216
1217(W io) You tried to open a scalar reference for reading or writing,
2fe2bdfd 1218using the 3-arg open() syntax:
9a869a14
RGS
1219
1220 open FH, '>', $ref;
1221
1222but your version of perl is compiled without perlio, and this form of
1223open is not supported.
1224
a0d0e21e
LW
1225=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
1226
be771a83
GS
1227(W pipe) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported.
1228You can try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such
1229as IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using
1230">", and then read it in under a different file handle.
a0d0e21e 1231
748a9306
LW
1232=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
1233
be771a83
GS
1234(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1235redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '2>' or '2>>' on
1236the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1237
1238=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
1239
be771a83
GS
1240(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1241redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '<' on the
1242command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
1243
1244=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
1245
be771a83
GS
1246(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1247redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '>' or '>>' on
1248the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1249
1250=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
1251
be771a83
GS
1252(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1253redirection, and couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined
1254for stdout.
748a9306 1255
3b1cf97d 1256=item Can't open perl script "%s": %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1257
1258(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
1259
fa3aa65a
JC
1260If you're debugging a script that uses #!, and normally relies on the
1261shell's $PATH search, the -S option causes perl to do that search, so
1262you don't have to type the path or C<`which $scriptname`>.
1263
6df41af2
GS
1264=item Can't read CRTL environ
1265
1266(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read an element of %ENV
1267from the CRTL's internal environment array and discovered the array was
1268missing. You need to figure out where your CRTL misplaced its environ
be771a83
GS
1269or define F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that environ is not
1270searched.
6df41af2 1271
f3106bc8
LM
1272=item Can't redeclare "%s" in "%s"
1273
1274(F) A "my", "our" or "state" declaration was found within another declaration,
1275such as C<my ($x, my($y), $z)> or C<our (my $x)>.
1276
6df41af2
GS
1277=item Can't "redo" outside a loop block
1278
1279(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
1280there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
1281count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map()
1282or grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1283though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that
1284loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
1285
64977eb6 1286=item Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file
10f9c03d 1287
be771a83
GS
1288(S inplace) You requested an inplace edit without creating a backup
1289file. Perl was unable to remove the original file to replace it with
1290the modified file. The file was left unmodified.
10f9c03d 1291
a0d0e21e
LW
1292=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
1293
e476b1b5 1294(S inplace) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason,
10f9c03d 1295probably because you don't have write permission to the directory.
a0d0e21e 1296
748a9306
LW
1297=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
1298
be771a83
GS
1299(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried
1300to reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
748a9306 1301
9415f659
KW
1302=item Can't represent character for Ox%X on this platform
1303
1304(F) There is a hard limit to how big a character code point can be due
1305to the fundamental properties of UTF-8, especially on EBCDIC
1306platforms. The given code point exceeds that. The only work-around is
1307to not use such a large code point.
1308
4f12ec0e
FC
1309=item Can't reset %ENV on this system
1310
1311(F) You called C<reset('E')> or similar, which tried to reset
1312all variables in the current package beginning with "E". In
1313the main package, that includes %ENV. Resetting %ENV is not
1314supported on some systems, notably VMS.
1315
fe13d51d 1316=item Can't resolve method "%s" overloading "%s" in package "%s"
6df41af2 1317
1fa582fa
FC
1318(F)(P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as
1319opposed to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the
1320package. If the method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
6df41af2 1321
cd06dffe
GS
1322=item Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine
1323
be771a83
GS
1324(F) Perl detected an attempt to return illegal lvalues (such as
1325temporary or readonly values) from a subroutine used as an lvalue. This
1326is not allowed.
cd06dffe 1327
96ebfdd7
RK
1328=item Can't return outside a subroutine
1329
1330(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
1331there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
1332
78f9721b
SM
1333=item Can't return %s to lvalue scalar context
1334
6903afa2
FC
1335(F) You tried to return a complete array or hash from an lvalue
1336subroutine, but you called the subroutine in a way that made Perl
1337think you meant to return only one value. You probably meant to
1338write parentheses around the call to the subroutine, which tell
1339Perl that the call should be in list context.
78f9721b 1340
a0d0e21e
LW
1341=item Can't stat script "%s"
1342
be771a83
GS
1343(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have it
1344open already. Bizarre.
a0d0e21e 1345
a0d0e21e
LW
1346=item Can't take log of %g
1347
fb73857a 1348(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
6903afa2 1349negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
be771a83
GS
1350standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for the
1351negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
1352
1353=item Can't take sqrt of %g
1354
1355(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a 1356negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
1357with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
1358
1359=item Can't undef active subroutine
1360
1361(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
1362however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
1363redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
1364
c81225bc 1365=item Can't upgrade %s (%d) to %d
a0d0e21e 1366
be771a83
GS
1367(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making it
1368into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are so
1369specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This message
1370indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
a0d0e21e 1371
6651ba0b
FC
1372=item Can't use '%c' after -mname
1373
1374(F) You tried to call perl with the B<-m> switch, but you put something
1375other than "=" after the module name.
1376
1f1ec7b5
KW
1377=item Can't use a hash as a reference
1378
1379(F) You tried to use a hash as a reference, as in
66a1f5ec
FC
1380C<< %foo->{"bar"} >> or C<< %$ref->{"hello"} >>. Versions of perl
1381<= 5.22.0 used to allow this syntax, but shouldn't
1382have. This was deprecated in perl 5.6.1.
1f1ec7b5
KW
1383
1384=item Can't use an array as a reference
1385
1386(F) You tried to use an array as a reference, as in
66a1f5ec
FC
1387C<< @foo->[23] >> or C<< @$ref->[99] >>. Versions of perl <= 5.22.0
1388used to allow this syntax, but shouldn't have. This
1389was deprecated in perl 5.6.1.
1f1ec7b5 1390
1db89ea5
BS
1391=item Can't use anonymous symbol table for method lookup
1392
e27ad1f2 1393(F) The internal routine that does method lookup was handed a symbol
1db89ea5
BS
1394table that doesn't have a name. Symbol tables can become anonymous
1395for example by undefining stashes: C<undef %Some::Package::>.
1396
96ebfdd7
RK
1397=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
1398
1399(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
1400be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
1401
6df41af2
GS
1402=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
1403
be771a83
GS
1404(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1405references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 1406
90b75b61 1407=item Can't use %! because Errno.pm is not available
1d2dff63 1408
20561843 1409(F) The first time the C<%!> hash is used, perl automatically loads the
6903afa2 1410Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
1d2dff63
GS
1411provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
1412
1109a392
MHM
1413=item Can't use both '<' and '>' after type '%c' in %s
1414
1415(F) A type cannot be forced to have both big-endian and little-endian
1416byte-order at the same time, so this combination of modifiers is not
1417allowed. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1418
e35475de
KW
1419=item Can't use 'defined(@array)' (Maybe you should just omit the defined()?)
1420
1421(F) defined() is not useful on arrays because it
1422checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the
1423array is empty, just use C<if (@array) { # not empty }> for example.
1424
1425=item Can't use 'defined(%hash)' (Maybe you should just omit the defined()?)
1426
1427(F) C<defined()> is not usually right on hashes.
1428
1429Although C<defined %hash> is false on a plain not-yet-used hash, it
1430becomes true in several non-obvious circumstances, including iterators,
1431weak references, stash names, even remaining true after C<undef %hash>.
1432These things make C<defined %hash> fairly useless in practice, so it now
1433generates a fatal error.
1434
1435If a check for non-empty is what you wanted then just put it in boolean
1436context (see L<perldata/Scalar values>):
1437
1438 if (%hash) {
1439 # not empty
1440 }
1441
1442If you had C<defined %Foo::Bar::QUUX> to check whether such a package
1443variable exists then that's never really been reliable, and isn't
1444a good way to enquire about the features of a package, or whether
1445it's loaded, etc.
1446
6df41af2
GS
1447=item Can't use %s for loop variable
1448
c1f06047 1449(P) The parser got confused when trying to parse a C<foreach> loop.
6df41af2 1450
aab6a793 1451=item Can't use global %s in "%s"
6df41af2 1452
be771a83
GS
1453(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This
1454is not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location
1455(namely the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to
1456have variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
6df41af2
GS
1457weren't.
1458
6d3b25aa
RGS
1459=item Can't use '%c' in a group with different byte-order in %s
1460
1461(F) You attempted to force a different byte-order on a type
1462that is already inside a group with a byte-order modifier.
1463For example you cannot force little-endianness on a type that
1464is inside a big-endian group.
1465
c07a80fd 1466=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
1467
1468(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
c47ff5f1 1469You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the <=> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd 1470and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
1471Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
1472lexical variable.
1473
a0d0e21e
LW
1474=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
1475
1476(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
1477reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
1478test the type of the reference, if need be.
1479
748a9306 1480=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e 1481
5e634d20
FC
1482=item Can't use string ("%s"...) as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
1483
b41bf23f
FC
1484(F) You've told Perl to dereference a string, something which
1485C<use strict> blocks to prevent it happening accidentally. See
1486L<perlref/"Symbolic references">. This can be triggered by an C<@> or C<$>
1487in a double-quoted string immediately before interpolating a variable,
1488for example in C<"user @$twitter_id">, which says to treat the contents
1489of C<$twitter_id> as an array reference; use a C<\> to have a literal C<@>
1490symbol followed by the contents of C<$twitter_id>: C<"user \@$twitter_id">.
a0d0e21e 1491
748a9306
LW
1492=item Can't use subscript on %s
1493
1494(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
1495subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
209e7cf1 1496didn't look like a hash or array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
748a9306 1497
6df41af2
GS
1498=item Can't use \%c to mean $%c in expression
1499
75b44862
GS
1500(W syntax) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that
1501creates a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a
1502backreference to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular
be771a83
GS
1503expression pattern. Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a
1504value that prints out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form
1505instead.
6df41af2 1506
810b8aa5
GS
1507=item Can't weaken a nonreference
1508
1509(F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference. Only
1510references can be weakened.
1511
fc7debfb
FC
1512=item Can't "when" outside a topicalizer
1513
1514(F) You have used a when() block that is neither inside a C<foreach>
1515loop nor a C<given> block. (Note that this error is issued on exit
1516from the C<when> block, so you won't get the error if the match fails,
1517or if you use an explicit C<continue>.)
1518
5f05dabc 1519=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e 1520
be771a83
GS
1521(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value)
1522with an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
a0d0e21e
LW
1523Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
1524
a04e6aad 1525=item Character following "\c" must be printable ASCII
f9d13529 1526
7357bd17 1527(F) In C<\cI<X>>, I<X> must be a printable (non-control) ASCII character.
17a3df4c 1528
727b6379 1529Note that ASCII characters that don't map to control characters are
7357bd17 1530discouraged, and will generate the warning (when enabled)
727b6379 1531L</""\c%c" is more clearly written simply as "%s"">.
f9d13529 1532
163a633c
KW
1533=item Character following \%c must be '{' or a single-character Unicode property name in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1534
1535(F) (In the above the C<%c> is replaced by either C<p> or C<P>.) You
1536specified something that isn't a legal Unicode property name. Most
1537Unicode properties are specified by C<\p{...}>. But if the name is a
1538single character one, the braces may be omitted.
1539
f337b084 1540=item Character in 'C' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1541
1542(W pack) You said
1543
1544 pack("C", $x)
1545
1546where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255; the C<"C"> format is
1547only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1548and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1549
1550 pack("C", $x & 255)
1551
1552If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1553instead.
1554
f337b084 1555=item Character in 'c' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1556
1557(W pack) You said
1558
1559 pack("c", $x)
1560
1561where $x is either less than -128 or more than 127; the C<"c"> format
1562is only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1563and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1564
1565 pack("c", $x & 255);
1566
1567If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1568instead.
1569
f337b084
TH
1570=item Character in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1571
1572(W unpack) You tried something like
1573
1574 unpack("H", "\x{2a1}")
1575
1a147d38 1576where the format expects to process a byte (a character with a value
6903afa2
FC
1577below 256), but a higher value was provided instead. Perl uses the
1578value modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
f337b084
TH
1579
1580 unpack("H", "\x{a1}")
1581
5a25739d
FC
1582=item Character in 'W' format wrapped in pack
1583
1584(W pack) You said
1585
1586 pack("U0W", $x)
1587
1588where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255. However, C<U0>-mode
1589expects all values to fall in the interval [0, 255], so Perl behaved
1590as if you meant:
1591
1592 pack("U0W", $x & 255)
1593
f337b084
TH
1594=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in pack
1595
1596(W pack) You tried something like
1597
1598 pack("u", "\x{1f3}b")
1599
1a147d38 1600where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
6903afa2 1601value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1602uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1603
1604 pack("u", "\x{f3}b")
1605
1606=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1607
1608(W unpack) You tried something like
1609
1610 unpack("s", "\x{1f3}b")
1611
1a147d38 1612where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
6903afa2 1613value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1614uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1615
1616 unpack("s", "\x{f3}b")
1617
f51551f7
FC
1618=item charnames alias definitions may not contain a sequence of multiple spaces
1619
1620(F) You defined a character name which had multiple space characters
1621in a row. Change them to single spaces. Usually these names are
1622defined in the C<:alias> import argument to C<use charnames>, but they
1623could be defined by a translator installed into C<$^H{charnames}>. See
1624L<charnames/CUSTOM ALIASES>.
1625
1626=item charnames alias definitions may not contain trailing white-space
1627
1628(F) You defined a character name which ended in a space
1629character. Remove the trailing space(s). Usually these names are
1630defined in the C<:alias> import argument to C<use charnames>, but they
1631could be defined by a translator installed into C<$^H{charnames}>.
1632See L<charnames/CUSTOM ALIASES>.
1633
60121127
TC
1634=item chdir() on unopened filehandle %s
1635
1636(W unopened) You tried chdir() on a filehandle that was never opened.
1637
f866a7cd
FC
1638=item "\c%c" is more clearly written simply as "%s"
1639
1640(W syntax) The C<\cI<X>> construct is intended to be a way to specify
7ed0dd93
FC
1641non-printable characters. You used it for a printable one, which
1642is better written as simply itself, perhaps preceded by a backslash
1643for non-word characters. Doing it the way you did is not portable
1644between ASCII and EBCDIC platforms.
f866a7cd 1645
6651ba0b
FC
1646=item Cloning substitution context is unimplemented
1647
1648(F) Creating a new thread inside the C<s///> operator is not supported.
1649
abc7ecad
SP
1650=item closedir() attempted on invalid dirhandle %s
1651
1652(W io) The dirhandle you tried to close is either closed or not really
1653a dirhandle. Check your control flow.
1654
5a25739d
FC
1655=item close() on unopened filehandle %s
1656
1657(W unopened) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
1658
541ed3a9
FC
1659=item Closure prototype called
1660
1661(F) If a closure has attributes, the subroutine passed to an attribute
1662handler is the prototype that is cloned when a new closure is created.
1663This subroutine cannot be called.
1664
74d1b2e4
FC
1665=item \C no longer supported in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
1666
1667(F) The \C character class used to allow a match of single byte
1668within a multi-byte utf-8 character, but was removed in v5.24 as
1669it broke encapsulation and its implementation was extremely buggy.
1670If you really need to process the individual bytes, you probably
1671want to convert your string to one where each underlying byte is
1672stored as a character, with utf8::encode().
1673
49704364
WL
1674=item Code missing after '/'
1675
6903afa2
FC
1676(F) You had a (sub-)template that ends with a '/'. There must be
1677another template code following the slash. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
49704364 1678
c0236afe
KW
1679=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, and not portable
1680
1681(S non_unicode) You had a code point that has never been in any
1682standard, so it is likely that languages other than Perl will NOT
1683understand it. At one time, it was legal in some standards to have code
1684points up to 0x7FFF_FFFF, but not higher, and this code point is higher.
1685
1686Acceptance of these code points is a Perl extension, and you should
1687expect that nothing other than Perl can handle them; Perl itself on
1688EBCDIC platforms before v5.24 does not handle them.
1689
1690Code points above 0xFFFF_FFFF require larger than a 32 bit word.
1691
1692Perl also makes no guarantees that the representation of these code
1693points won't change at some point in the future, say when machines
1694become available that have larger than a 64-bit word. At that time,
1695files written by an older Perl would require conversion before being
1696readable by a newer Perl.
1697
5a25739d
FC
1698=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, may not be portable
1699
2d88a86a 1700(S non_unicode) You had a code point above the Unicode maximum
1b64326b
FC
1701of U+10FFFF.
1702
c0236afe
KW
1703Perl allows strings to contain a superset of Unicode code points, but
1704these may not be accepted by other languages/systems. Further, even if
1705these languages/systems accept these large code points, they may have
1706chosen a different representation for them than the UTF-8-like one that
1707Perl has, which would mean files are not exchangeable between them and
1708Perl.
1709
1710On EBCDIC platforms, code points above 0x3FFF_FFFF have a different
1711representation in Perl v5.24 than before, so any file containing these
1712that was written before that version will require conversion before
1713being readable by a later Perl.
0876b9a0 1714
6df41af2
GS
1715=item %s: Command not found
1716
a892b81a 1717(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> or another shell
66a1f5ec
FC
1718instead of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
1719Perl yourself. The #! line at the top of your file could look like
8f721816
MM
1720
1721 #!/usr/bin/perl -w
6df41af2 1722
7a2e2cd6 1723=item Compilation failed in require
1724
1725(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
be771a83
GS
1726Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it
1727encountered were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
7a2e2cd6 1728
c3464db5
DD
1729=item Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
1730
be771a83
GS
1731(W regexp) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex
1732situations where back-tracking is required. Recursion depth is limited
1733to 32766, or perhaps less in architectures where the stack cannot grow
1734arbitrarily. ("Simple" and "medium" situations are handled without
1735recursion and are not subject to a limit.) Try shortening the string
1736under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with C<while>) rather than
1737in the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular expression so
c2e66d9e 1738that it is simpler or backtracks less. (See L<perlfaq2> for information
be771a83 1739on I<Mastering Regular Expressions>.)
c3464db5 1740
69282e91 1741=item connect() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1742
be771a83
GS
1743(W closed) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget
1744to check the return value of your socket() call? See
1745L<perlfunc/connect>.
a0d0e21e 1746
e21e7c6a
FC
1747=item Constant(%s): Call to &{$^H{%s}} did not return a defined value
1748
1749(F) The subroutine registered to handle constant overloading
1750(see L<overload>) or a custom charnames handler (see
1751L<charnames/CUSTOM TRANSLATORS>) returned an undefined value.
1752
1753=item Constant(%s): $^H{%s} is not defined
1754
1755(F) The parser found inconsistencies while attempting to define an
1756overloaded constant. Perhaps you forgot to load the corresponding
f738a371 1757L<overload> pragma?
e21e7c6a 1758
779c5bc9
GS
1759=item Constant is not %s reference
1760
1761(F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the C<use constant> pragma)
be771a83 1762is being dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference.
6903afa2 1763The message indicates the type of reference that was expected. This
be771a83 1764usually indicates a syntax error in dereferencing the constant value.
779c5bc9
GS
1765See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> and L<constant>.
1766
0ac016fc
FC
1767=item Constants from lexical variables potentially modified elsewhere are
1768deprecated
1769
1770(D deprecated) You wrote something like
1771
1772 my $var;
1773 $sub = sub () { $var };
1774
1775but $var is referenced elsewhere and could be modified after the C<sub>
1776expression is evaluated. Either it is explicitly modified elsewhere
1777(C<$var = 3>) or it is passed to a subroutine or to an operator like
1778C<printf> or C<map>, which may or may not modify the variable.
1779
1780Traditionally, Perl has captured the value of the variable at that
1781point and turned the subroutine into a constant eligible for inlining.
1782In those cases where the variable can be modified elsewhere, this
1783breaks the behavior of closures, in which the subroutine captures
1784the variable itself, rather than its value, so future changes to the
1785variable are reflected in the subroutine's return value.
1786
1787This usage is deprecated, because the behavior is likely to change
1788in a future version of Perl.
1789
1790If you intended for the subroutine to be eligible for inlining, then
1791make sure the variable is not referenced elsewhere, possibly by
1792copying it:
1793
1794 my $var2 = $var;
1795 $sub = sub () { $var2 };
1796
1797If you do want this subroutine to be a closure that reflects future
1798changes to the variable that it closes over, add an explicit C<return>:
1799
1800 my $var;
1801 $sub = sub () { return $var };
1802
4cee8e80
CS
1803=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
1804
aeb94125
FC
1805(W redefine)(S) You redefined a subroutine which had previously
1806been eligible for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions">
1807for commentary and workarounds.
4cee8e80 1808
9607fc9c 1809=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
1810
be771a83
GS
1811(W misc) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible
1812for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1813workarounds.
9607fc9c 1814
5a25739d
FC
1815=item Constant(%s) unknown
1816
1817(F) The parser found inconsistencies either while attempting
1818to define an overloaded constant, or when trying to find the
1819character name specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you
3ee1a09c 1820forgot to load the corresponding L<overload> pragma?
5a25739d 1821
4a873d7a
FC
1822=item :const is experimental
1823
1824(S experimental::const_attr) The "const" attribute is experimental.
1825If you want to use the feature, disable the warning with C<no warnings
1826'experimental::const_attr'>, but know that in doing so you are taking
1827the risk that your code may break in a future Perl version.
1828
b77472f9
FC
1829=item :const is not permitted on named subroutines
1830
1831(F) The "const" attribute causes an anonymous subroutine to be run and
465068b9 1832its value captured at the time that it is cloned. Named subroutines are
b77472f9
FC
1833not cloned like this, so the attribute does not make sense on them.
1834
e7ea3e70
IZ
1835=item Copy method did not return a reference
1836
6903afa2 1837(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See
13a2d996 1838L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
e7ea3e70 1839
4aaa4757
FC
1840=item &CORE::%s cannot be called directly
1841
1842(F) You tried to call a subroutine in the C<CORE::> namespace
8d605c0d 1843with C<&foo> syntax or through a reference. Some subroutines
4aaa4757
FC
1844in this package cannot yet be called that way, but must be
1845called as barewords. Something like this will work:
1846
1847 BEGIN { *shove = \&CORE::push; }
1848 shove @array, 1,2,3; # pushes on to @array
1849
6798c92b
GS
1850=item CORE::%s is not a keyword
1851
1852(F) The CORE:: namespace is reserved for Perl keywords.
1853
675fa9ff
FC
1854=item Corrupted regexp opcode %d > %d
1855
1856(P) This is either an error in Perl, or, if you're using
1857one, your L<custom regular expression engine|perlreapi>. If not the
1858latter, report the problem through the L<perlbug> utility.
1859
a0d0e21e
LW
1860=item corrupted regexp pointers
1861
1862(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1863expression compiler gave it.
1864
1865=item corrupted regexp program
1866
be771a83
GS
1867(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without a
1868valid magic number.
a0d0e21e 1869
de42a5a9 1870=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%x at 0x%x
6df41af2
GS
1871
1872(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
1873
49704364
WL
1874=item Count after length/code in unpack
1875
1876(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string, but
1877you have also specified an explicit size for the string. See
1878L<perlfunc/pack>.
1879
f2cccb4c
KW
1880=for comment
1881The following are used in lib/diagnostics.t for testing two =items that
1882share the same description. Changes here need to be propagated to there
1883
6651ba0b
FC
1884=item Deep recursion on anonymous subroutine
1885
a0d0e21e
LW
1886=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
1887
be771a83
GS
1888(W recursion) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly)
1889100 times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an
1890infinite recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in
1891which case it indicates something else.
a0d0e21e 1892
aad1d01f
NC
1893This threshold can be changed from 100, by recompiling the F<perl> binary,
1894setting the C pre-processor macro C<PERL_SUB_DEPTH_WARN> to the desired value.
1895
e0e4a6e3
FC
1896=item (?(DEFINE)....) does not allow branches in regex; marked by
1897S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
bcb95744 1898
6903afa2 1899(F) You used something like C<(?(DEFINE)...|..)> which is illegal. The
bcb95744
FC
1900most likely cause of this error is that you left out a parenthesis inside
1901of the C<....> part.
1902
6e8a73f2 1903The S<<-- HERE> shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
bcb95744
FC
1904discovered.
1905
62658f4d
PM
1906=item %s defines neither package nor VERSION--version check failed
1907
1908(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but in the Module file
1909there are neither package declarations nor a C<$VERSION>.
1910
36447869
FC
1911=item delete argument is index/value array slice, use array slice
1912
1913(F) You used index/value array slice syntax (C<%array[...]>) as
1914the argument to C<delete>. You probably meant C<@array[...]> with
1915an @ symbol instead.
1916
1917=item delete argument is key/value hash slice, use hash slice
1918
1919(F) You used key/value hash slice syntax (C<%hash{...}>) as the argument to
1920C<delete>. You probably meant C<@hash{...}> with an @ symbol instead.
1921
0ffcbc25
FC
1922=item delete argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice
1923
4a0af295 1924(F) The argument to C<delete> must be either a hash or array element,
0ffcbc25
FC
1925such as:
1926
1927 $foo{$bar}
1928 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
1929
1930or a hash or array slice, such as:
1931
1932 @foo[$bar, $baz, $xyzzy]
1933 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
1934
fc36a67e 1935=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1936
be771a83
GS
1937(F) In a here document construct like C<<<FOO>, the label C<FOO> is too
1938long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously twisted to write code
1939that triggers this error.
fc36a67e 1940
6d3b25aa
RGS
1941=item Deprecated use of my() in false conditional
1942
fa816bf3
FC
1943(D deprecated) You used a declaration similar to C<my $x if 0>. There
1944has been a long-standing bug in Perl that causes a lexical variable
6d3b25aa 1945not to be cleared at scope exit when its declaration includes a false
6903afa2 1946conditional. Some people have exploited this bug to achieve a kind of
fa816bf3 1947static variable. Since we intend to fix this bug, we don't want people
6903afa2 1948relying on this behavior. You can achieve a similar static effect by
6d3b25aa 1949declaring the variable in a separate block outside the function, eg
36fb85f3 1950
6d3b25aa
RGS
1951 sub f { my $x if 0; return $x++ }
1952
1953becomes
1954
1955 { my $x; sub f { return $x++ } }
1956
ea9d9ebc 1957Beginning with perl 5.10.0, you can also use C<state> variables to have
fa816bf3 1958lexicals that are initialized only once (see L<feature>):
36fb85f3
RGS
1959
1960 sub f { state $x; return $x++ }
1961
500ab966
RGS
1962=item DESTROY created new reference to dead object '%s'
1963
1964(F) A DESTROY() method created a new reference to the object which is
6903afa2
FC
1965just being DESTROYed. Perl is confused, and prefers to abort rather
1966than to create a dangling reference.
500ab966 1967
3cdd684c
TP
1968=item Did not produce a valid header
1969
1970See Server error.
1971
6df41af2
GS
1972=item %s did not return a true value
1973
1974(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
1975it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
1976traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
1977do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
1978
cc507455 1979=item (Did you mean &%s instead?)
4633a7c4 1980
413ff9f6
FC
1981(W misc) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or
1982some such.
4633a7c4 1983
cc507455 1984=item (Did you mean "local" instead of "our"?)
33633739 1985
be771a83
GS
1986(W misc) Remember that "our" does not localize the declared global
1987variable. You have declared it again in the same lexical scope, which
1988seems superfluous.
33633739 1989
cc507455 1990=item (Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?)
a0d0e21e 1991
be771a83
GS
1992(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or
1993@hash{@keys}. On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got
1994carried away.
748a9306 1995
7e1af8bc 1996=item Died
5f05dabc 1997
1998(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
075b00aa 1999you called it with no args and C<$@> was empty.
5f05dabc 2000
3cdd684c
TP
2001=item Document contains no data
2002
2003See Server error.
2004
62658f4d
PM
2005=item %s does not define %s::VERSION--version check failed
2006
2007(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but the Module did not
943fc58e 2008define a C<$VERSION>.
62658f4d 2009
49704364
WL
2010=item '/' does not take a repeat count
2011
2012(F) You cannot put a repeat count of any kind right after the '/' code.
2013See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2014
95cb0d72
FC
2015=item Don't know how to get file name
2016
2017(P) C<PerlIO_getname>, a perl internal I/O function specific to VMS, was
2018somehow called on another platform. This should not happen.
2019
4021c788 2020=item Don't know how to handle magic of type \%o
a0d0e21e
LW
2021
2022(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
2023
2024=item do_study: out of memory
2025
2026(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
2027
6df41af2
GS
2028=item (Do you need to predeclare %s?)
2029
56da5a46
RGS
2030(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2031"%s found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
6df41af2
GS
2032name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
2033because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
be771a83
GS
2034"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're referencing
2035something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have to define the
2036subroutine or package before the current location. You can use an empty
2037"sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward" declaration.
6df41af2 2038
ac206dc8
RGS
2039=item dump() better written as CORE::dump()
2040
2041(W misc) You used the obsolescent C<dump()> built-in function, without fully
2042qualifying it as C<CORE::dump()>. Maybe it's a typo. See L<perlfunc/dump>.
2043
84d78eb7
YO
2044=item dump is not supported
2045
2046(F) Your machine doesn't support dump/undump.
2047
a0d0e21e
LW
2048=item Duplicate free() ignored
2049
be771a83
GS
2050(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had
2051already been freed.
a0d0e21e 2052
1109a392
MHM
2053=item Duplicate modifier '%c' after '%c' in %s
2054
35f0cd76
FC
2055(W unpack) You have applied the same modifier more than once after a
2056type in a pack template. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1109a392 2057
4633a7c4
LW
2058=item elseif should be elsif
2059
fa816bf3
FC
2060(S syntax) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks
2061it's ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method
2062named "elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
4633a7c4
LW
2063unlikely to be what you want.
2064
c30c479a
KW
2065=item Empty \%c in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
2066
e0e4a6e3 2067=item Empty \%c{} in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
ab13f0c7 2068
af6f566e 2069(F) C<\p> and C<\P> are used to introduce a named Unicode property, as
6903afa2 2070described in L<perlunicode> and L<perlre>. You used C<\p> or C<\P> in
af6f566e 2071a regular expression without specifying the property name.
ab13f0c7 2072
85ab1d1d 2073=item entering effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 2074
85ab1d1d 2075(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
2076effective uids or gids failed.
2077
c038024b
RGS
2078=item %ENV is aliased to %s
2079
2080(F) You're running under taint mode, and the C<%ENV> variable has been
2081aliased to another hash, so it doesn't reflect anymore the state of the
6903afa2 2082program's environment. This is potentially insecure.
c038024b 2083
748a9306
LW
2084=item Error converting file specification %s
2085
5f05dabc 2086(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306 2087specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
be771a83
GS
2088single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've passed
2089an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a case the
2090conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
748a9306 2091
ad19ef22 2092=item Eval-group in insecure regular expression
e4d48cc9 2093
be771a83
GS
2094(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
2095expression that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which
2096is unsafe. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
e4d48cc9 2097
ad19ef22 2098=item Eval-group not allowed at runtime, use re 'eval' in regex m/%s/
e4d48cc9 2099
be771a83
GS
2100(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the
2101C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the
f11307f5
FC
2102pattern contains interpolated values. Since that is a security risk,
2103it is not allowed. If you insist, you may still do this by using the
2104C<re 'eval'> pragma or by explicitly building the pattern from an
2105interpolated string at run time and using that in an eval(). See
2106L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
e4d48cc9 2107
ad19ef22 2108=item Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval' in regex m/%s/
6df41af2 2109
be771a83
GS
2110(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width
2111assertion, but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'>
2112pragma is in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
6df41af2 2113
e0e4a6e3
FC
2114=item EVAL without pos change exceeded limit in regex; marked by
2115S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
1a147d38
YO
2116
2117(F) You used a pattern that nested too many EVAL calls without consuming
6903afa2 2118any text. Restructure the pattern so that text is consumed.
1a147d38 2119
6e8a73f2 2120The S<<-- HERE> shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
1a147d38
YO
2121discovered.
2122
fc36a67e 2123=item Excessively long <> operator
2124
2125(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
2126Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
2127filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
2128variable and glob that.
2129
ed9aa3b7
SG
2130=item exec? I'm not *that* kind of operating system
2131
af8bb25a 2132(F) The C<exec> function is not implemented on some systems, e.g., Symbian
6903afa2 2133OS. See L<perlport>.
ed9aa3b7 2134
fe13d51d 2135=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors.
a0d0e21e
LW
2136
2137(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
2138
0ffcbc25
FC
2139=item exists argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or a subroutine
2140
4a0af295 2141(F) The argument to C<exists> must be a hash or array element or a
0ffcbc25
FC
2142subroutine with an ampersand, such as:
2143
2144 $foo{$bar}
2145 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
2146 &do_something
2147
2148=item exists argument is not a subroutine name
2149
ccfc2567
FC
2150(F) The argument to C<exists> for C<exists &sub> must be a subroutine name,
2151and not a subroutine call. C<exists &sub()> will generate this error.
0ffcbc25 2152
a0d0e21e
LW
2153=item Exiting eval via %s
2154
be771a83
GS
2155(W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as a
2156goto, or a loop control statement.
e476b1b5
GS
2157
2158=item Exiting format via %s
2159
9a2ff54b 2160(W exiting) You are exiting a format by unconventional means, such as a
be771a83 2161goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 2162
0a753a76 2163=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
2164
be771a83
GS
2165(W exiting) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a
2166sort block or subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a
2167loop control statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
0a753a76 2168
a0d0e21e
LW
2169=item Exiting subroutine via %s
2170
be771a83
GS
2171(W exiting) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such
2172as a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
2173
2174=item Exiting substitution via %s
2175
be771a83
GS
2176(W exiting) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such
2177as a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 2178
e0e4a6e3 2179=item Expecting close bracket in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
c608e803 2180
675fa9ff 2181(F) You wrote something like
c608e803
KW
2182
2183 (?13
2184
2185to denote a capturing group of the form
2186L<C<(?I<PARNO>)>|perlre/(?PARNO) (?-PARNO) (?+PARNO) (?R) (?0)>,
2187but omitted the C<")">.
2188
e0e4a6e3 2189=item Expecting '(?flags:(?[...' in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
27350048 2190
8b6fbf55
FC
2191(F) The C<(?[...])> extended character class regular expression construct
2192only allows character classes (including character class escapes like
2193C<\d>), operators, and parentheses. The one exception is C<(?flags:...)>
2194containing at least one flag and exactly one C<(?[...])> construct.
27350048
FC
2195This allows a regular expression containing just C<(?[...])> to be
2196interpolated. If you see this error message, then you probably
2197have some other C<(?...)> construct inside your character class. See
2198L<perlrecharclass/Extended Bracketed Character Classes>.
2199
baabe3fb 2200=item Experimental aliasing via reference not enabled
1f8155a2 2201
baabe3fb 2202(F) To do aliasing via references, you must first enable the feature:
1f8155a2 2203
baabe3fb
FC
2204 no warnings "experimental::refaliasing";
2205 use feature "refaliasing";
1f8155a2
FC
2206 \$x = \$y;
2207
74d1b2e4
FC
2208=item Experimental %s on scalar is now forbidden
2209
2210(F) An experimental feature added in Perl 5.14 allowed C<each>, C<keys>,
2211C<push>, C<pop>, C<shift>, C<splice>, C<unshift>, and C<values> to be called with a
2212scalar argument. This experiment is considered unsuccessful, and
2213has been removed. The C<postderef> feature may meet your needs better.
2214
30d9c59b
Z
2215=item Experimental subroutine signatures not enabled
2216
2217(F) To use subroutine signatures, you must first enable them:
2218
caa35032 2219 no warnings "experimental::signatures";
30d9c59b
Z
2220 use feature "signatures";
2221 sub foo ($left, $right) { ... }
2222
7b8d334a
GS
2223=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
2224
be771a83
GS
2225(W misc) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
2226the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
2227usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target package,
2228e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');
7b8d334a 2229
6df41af2
GS
2230=item %s: Expression syntax
2231
be771a83
GS
2232(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
2233Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2
GS
2234
2235=item %s failed--call queue aborted
2236
3c10abe3
AG
2237(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a UNITCHECK,
2238CHECK, INIT, or END subroutine. Processing of the remainder of the
2239queue of such routines has been prematurely ended.
6df41af2 2240
502aca56
TC
2241=item Failed to close in-place edit file %s: %s
2242
2243(F) Closing an output file from in-place editing, as with the C<-i>
2244command-line switch, failed.
2245
e0e4a6e3 2246=item False [] range "%s" in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
73b437c8 2247
98d31c73 2248(W regexp)(F) A character class range must start and end at a literal
7253e4e3 2249character, not another character class like C<\d> or C<[:alpha:]>. The "-"
3c6ca74a
FC
2250in your false range is interpreted as a literal "-". In a C<(?[...])>
2251construct, this is an error, rather than a warning. Consider quoting
e0e4a6e3 2252the "-", "\-". The S<<-- HERE> shows whereabouts in the regular expression
3c6ca74a 2253the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
73b437c8 2254
1b1ee2ef 2255=item Fatal VMS error (status=%d) at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 2256
be771a83
GS
2257(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS
2258system service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more
2259details. The filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell
2260you which section of the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
2261
2262=item fcntl is not implemented
2263
2264(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
2265PDP-11 or something?
2266
22846ab4
AB
2267=item FETCHSIZE returned a negative value
2268
2269(F) A tied array claimed to have a negative number of elements, which
2270is not possible.
2271
f337b084
TH
2272=item Field too wide in 'u' format in pack
2273
d8b5cc61 2274(W pack) Each line in an uuencoded string starts with a length indicator
6903afa2
FC
2275which can't encode values above 63. So there is no point in asking for
2276a line length bigger than that. Perl will behave as if you specified
5c96f6f7 2277C<u63> as the format.
f337b084 2278
af8c498a 2279=item Filehandle %s opened only for input
a0d0e21e 2280
6c8d78fb
HS
2281(W io) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you intended
2282it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with "+<" or
2283"+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you intended only to
2284write the file, use ">" or ">>". See L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 2285
af8c498a 2286=item Filehandle %s opened only for output
a0d0e21e 2287
6c8d78fb
HS
2288(W io) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing, If
2289you intended it to be a read/write filehandle, you needed to open it
89a1bda8
FC
2290with "+<" or "+>" or "+>>" instead of with ">". If you intended only to
2291read from the file, use "<". See L<perlfunc/open>. Another possibility
2292is that you attempted to open filedescriptor 0 (also known as STDIN) for
2293output (maybe you closed STDIN earlier?).
97828cef
RGS
2294
2295=item Filehandle %s reopened as %s only for input
2296
2297(W io) You opened for reading a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
6903afa2 2298as STDOUT or STDERR. This occurred because you closed STDOUT or STDERR
97828cef
RGS
2299previously.
2300
2301=item Filehandle STDIN reopened as %s only for output
2302
2303(W io) You opened for writing a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
fa816bf3 2304as STDIN. This occurred because you closed STDIN previously.
a0d0e21e
LW
2305
2306=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
2307
2308(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
be771a83
GS
2309a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name that
2310happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or the
2311name.
a0d0e21e 2312
56e90b21
GS
2313=item flock() on closed filehandle %s
2314
be771a83 2315(W closed) The filehandle you're attempting to flock() got itself closed
c289d2f7 2316some time before now. Check your control flow. flock() operates on
be771a83
GS
2317filehandles. Are you attempting to call flock() on a dirhandle by the
2318same name?
56e90b21 2319
6df41af2
GS
2320=item Format not terminated
2321
2322(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
2323to the end of your file without finding such a line.
2324
a0d0e21e
LW
2325=item Format %s redefined
2326
e476b1b5 2327(W redefine) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
a0d0e21e
LW
2328
2329 {
271595cc 2330 no warnings 'redefine';
a0d0e21e
LW
2331 eval "format NAME =...";
2332 }
2333
a0d0e21e
LW
2334=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
2335
e476b1b5 2336(W syntax) You said
a0d0e21e
LW
2337
2338 if ($foo = 123)
2339
2340when you meant
2341
2342 if ($foo == 123)
2343
2344(or something like that).
2345
6df41af2
GS
2346=item %s found where operator expected
2347
56da5a46
RGS
2348(S syntax) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator.
2349If it sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an
be771a83
GS
2350operator, it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an
2351operator or delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
6df41af2 2352
a0d0e21e
LW
2353=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
2354
2355(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
2356
2357=item gethostent not implemented
2358
2359(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
2360because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
2361on the Internet.
2362
69282e91 2363=item get%sname() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2364
be771a83
GS
2365(W closed) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed
2366socket. Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
a0d0e21e 2367
748a9306
LW
2368=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
2369
2370(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
2371C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
2372
6df41af2
GS
2373=item getsockopt() on closed socket %s
2374
be771a83
GS
2375(W closed) You tried to get a socket option on a closed socket. Did you
2376forget to check the return value of your socket() call? See
6df41af2
GS
2377L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
2378
0f539b13
BF
2379=item given is experimental
2380
675fa9ff
FC
2381(S experimental::smartmatch) C<given> depends on smartmatch, which
2382is experimental, so its behavior may change or even be removed
2383in any future release of perl. See the explanation under
2384L<perlsyn/Experimental Details on given and when>.
0f539b13 2385
68567d27
FC
2386=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name (did you forget to
2387declare "my %s"?)
6df41af2 2388
a4edf47d 2389(F) You've said "use strict" or "use strict vars", which indicates
30c282f6 2390that all variables must either be lexically scoped (using "my" or "state"),
a4edf47d
GS
2391declared beforehand using "our", or explicitly qualified to say
2392which package the global variable is in (using "::").
6df41af2 2393
e476b1b5
GS
2394=item glob failed (%s)
2395
5ead438e 2396(S glob) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used
73c4e9dc
FC
2397for C<glob> and C<< <*.c> >>. Usually, this means that you supplied a C<glob>
2398pattern that caused the external program to fail and exit with a
be771a83 2399nonzero status. If the message indicates that the abnormal exit
73c4e9dc
FC
2400resulted in a coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C shell)
2401is broken. If so, you should change all of the csh-related variables
2402in config.sh: If you have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as
2403if it were csh (e.g. C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them
2404all empty (except that C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will
be771a83 2405think csh is missing. In either case, after editing config.sh, run
75b44862 2406C<./Configure -S> and rebuild Perl.
e476b1b5 2407
a0d0e21e
LW
2408=item Glob not terminated
2409
2410(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
be771a83
GS
2411a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and
2412not finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out
2413earlier in the line, and you really meant a "less than".
a0d0e21e 2414
b35b96b6
JH
2415=item gmtime(%f) failed
2416
2417(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with a number that it could not handle:
2418too large, too small, or NaN. The returned value is C<undef>.
2419
bcd05b94 2420=item gmtime(%f) too large
8b56d6ff 2421
e9200be3 2422(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with a number that was larger than
fc003d4b 2423it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong
6903afa2 2424date. This warning is also triggered with NaN (the special
fc003d4b
MS
2425not-a-number value).
2426
bcd05b94 2427=item gmtime(%f) too small
fc003d4b 2428
e9200be3 2429(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with a number that was smaller than
e7a1a147 2430it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong date.
8b56d6ff 2431
6df41af2 2432=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
a0d0e21e 2433
6df41af2
GS
2434(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
2435version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
a0d0e21e
LW
2436
2437=item goto must have label
2438
2439(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
2440unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2441
6651ba0b
FC
2442=item Goto undefined subroutine%s
2443
2444(F) You tried to call a subroutine with C<goto &sub> syntax, but
2445the indicated subroutine hasn't been defined, or if it was, it
2446has since been undefined.
2447
6fbc9859 2448=item Group name must start with a non-digit word character in regex; marked by
e0e4a6e3 2449S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
1f4f6bf1
YO
2450
2451(F) Group names must follow the rules for perl identifiers, meaning
f26c79ba
FC
2452they must start with a non-digit word character. A common cause of
2453this error is using (?&0) instead of (?0). See L<perlre>.
1f4f6bf1 2454
5a25739d
FC
2455=item ()-group starts with a count
2456
2457(F) A ()-group started with a count. A count is supposed to follow
2458something: a template character or a ()-group. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2459
fe13d51d 2460=item %s had compilation errors.
6df41af2
GS
2461
2462(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
2463
a0d0e21e
LW
2464=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
2465
be771a83
GS
2466(S internal) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought
2467to have existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be
2468created on an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
a0d0e21e 2469
6df41af2
GS
2470=item %s has too many errors
2471
2472(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
2473Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
2474
61e61fbc
JH
2475=item Hexadecimal float: exponent overflow
2476
d8f2b442 2477(W overflow) The hexadecimal floating point has a larger exponent
61e61fbc
JH
2478than the floating point supports.
2479
2480=item Hexadecimal float: exponent underflow
2481
d8f2b442 2482(W overflow) The hexadecimal floating point has a smaller exponent
61e61fbc
JH
2483than the floating point supports.
2484
5488d373 2485=item Hexadecimal float: internal error (%s)
cf4f6003
JH
2486
2487(F) Something went horribly bad in hexadecimal float handling.
2488
61e61fbc
JH
2489=item Hexadecimal float: mantissa overflow
2490
2491(W overflow) The hexadecimal floating point literal had more bits in
2492the mantissa (the part between the 0x and the exponent, also known as
2493the fraction or the significand) than the floating point supports.
2494
40bca5ae
JH
2495=item Hexadecimal float: precision loss
2496
2497(W overflow) The hexadecimal floating point had internally more
2498digits than could be output. This can be caused by unsupported
2499long double formats, or by 64-bit integers not being available
2500(needed to retrieve the digits under some configurations).
2501
2502=item Hexadecimal float: unsupported long double format
2503
2504(F) You have configured Perl to use long doubles but
d8f2b442 2505the internals of the long double format are unknown;
40bca5ae
JH
2506therefore the hexadecimal float output is impossible.
2507
252aa082
JH
2508=item Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
2509
e476b1b5 2510(W portable) The hexadecimal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
2511(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
2512L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 2513
8903cb82 2514=item Identifier too long
2515
2516(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e 2517about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
be771a83
GS
2518names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future versions
2519of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 2520
e0e4a6e3
FC
2521=item Ignoring zero length \N{} in character class in regex; marked by
2522S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
fc8cd66c 2523
f3ba6905 2524(W regexp) Named Unicode character escapes (C<\N{...}>) may return a
0f44b2a5
FC
2525zero-length sequence. When such an escape is used in a character
2526class its behavior is not well defined. Check that the correct
2527escape has been used, and the correct charname handler is in scope.
fc8cd66c 2528
6df41af2 2529=item Illegal binary digit %s
f675dbe5 2530
6df41af2 2531(F) You used a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
f675dbe5 2532
6df41af2 2533=item Illegal binary digit %s ignored
a0d0e21e 2534
be771a83
GS
2535(W digit) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a
2536binary number. Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the
2537offending digit.
a0d0e21e 2538
6597eb22
FC
2539=item Illegal character after '_' in prototype for %s : %s
2540
e4d150f1
FC
2541(W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype
2542declaration. The '_' in a prototype must be followed by a ';',
2543indicating the rest of the parameters are optional, or one of '@'
2544or '%', since those two will accept 0 or more final parameters.
6597eb22 2545
78d0fecf 2546=item Illegal character \%o (carriage return)
4fdae800 2547
d5898338 2548(F) Perl normally treats carriage returns in the program text as it
be771a83
GS
2549would any other whitespace, which means you should never see this error
2550when Perl was built using standard options. For some reason, your
2551version of Perl appears to have been built without this support. Talk
2552to your Perl administrator.
4fdae800 2553
d37a9538
ST
2554=item Illegal character in prototype for %s : %s
2555
197afce1 2556(W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype declaration.
2e9cc7ef 2557Legal characters in prototypes are $, @, %, *, ;, [, ], &, \, and +.
30d9c59b
Z
2558Perhaps you were trying to write a subroutine signature but didn't enable
2559that feature first (C<use feature 'signatures'>), so your signature was
2560instead interpreted as a bad prototype.
d37a9538 2561
904d85c5
RGS
2562=item Illegal declaration of anonymous subroutine
2563
2564(F) When using the C<sub> keyword to construct an anonymous subroutine,
6903afa2 2565you must always specify a block of code. See L<perlsub>.
904d85c5 2566
8e742a20
MHM
2567=item Illegal declaration of subroutine %s
2568
6903afa2 2569(F) A subroutine was not declared correctly. See L<perlsub>.
8e742a20 2570
a0d0e21e
LW
2571=item Illegal division by zero
2572
be771a83
GS
2573(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in
2574your logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against
2575meaningless input.
a0d0e21e 2576
6df41af2
GS
2577=item Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
2578
be771a83
GS
2579(W digit) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or
2580A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal
2581number stopped before the illegal character.
6df41af2 2582
a0d0e21e
LW
2583=item Illegal modulus zero
2584
be771a83
GS
2585(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most
2586numbers don't take to this kindly.
a0d0e21e 2587
6df41af2 2588=item Illegal number of bits in vec
399388f4 2589
6df41af2
GS
2590(F) The number of bits in vec() (the third argument) must be a power of
2591two from 1 to 32 (or 64, if your platform supports that).
399388f4
GS
2592
2593=item Illegal octal digit %s
a0d0e21e 2594
d1be9408 2595(F) You used an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
a0d0e21e 2596
399388f4 2597=item Illegal octal digit %s ignored
748a9306 2598
d1be9408 2599(W digit) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
75b44862 2600Interpretation of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
748a9306 2601
e0e4a6e3 2602=item Illegal pattern in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
c608e803 2603
675fa9ff 2604(F) You wrote something like
c608e803
KW
2605
2606 (?+foo)
2607
2608The C<"+"> is valid only when followed by digits, indicating a
2609capturing group. See
2610L<C<(?I<PARNO>)>|perlre/(?PARNO) (?-PARNO) (?+PARNO) (?R) (?0)>.
2611
375ed12a
JH
2612=item Illegal suidscript
2613
2614(F) The script run under suidperl was somehow illegal.
2615
fe13d51d 2616=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: -%c
6ff81951 2617
6df41af2 2618(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
646ca9b2 2619following switches: B<-[CDIMUdmtw]>.
6ff81951 2620
4003ea29
KW
2621=item Illegal user-defined property name
2622
2623(F) You specified a Unicode-like property name in a regular expression
2624pattern (using C<\p{}> or C<\P{}>) that Perl knows isn't an official
2625Unicode property, and was likely meant to be a user-defined property
2626name, but it can't be one of those, as they must begin with either C<In>
2627or C<Is>. Check the spelling. See also
2628L</Can't find Unicode property definition "%s">.
2629
6df41af2 2630=item Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
81e118e0 2631
75b44862 2632(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the CRTL's
be771a83
GS
2633internal environ array, and encountered an element without the C<=>
2634delimiter used to separate keys from values. The element is ignored.
09bef843 2635
6df41af2 2636=item Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
54310121 2637
be771a83
GS
2638(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read a logical
2639name or CLI symbol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and
2640didn't see the expected delimiter between key and value, so the line was
2641ignored.
54310121 2642
6df41af2 2643=item (in cleanup) %s
9607fc9c 2644
be771a83
GS
2645(W misc) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised
2646the indicated exception. Since destructors are usually called by the
2647system at arbitrary points during execution, and often a vast number of
2648times, the warning is issued only once for any number of failures that
2649would otherwise result in the same message being repeated.
6df41af2 2650
be771a83
GS
2651Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the C<G_KEEPERR> flag could
2652also result in this warning. See L<perlcall/G_KEEPERR>.
9607fc9c 2653
e0e4a6e3
FC
2654=item Incomplete expression within '(?[ ])' in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE>
2655in m/%s/
0d0b4b3b 2656
675fa9ff 2657(F) There was a syntax error within the C<(?[ ])>. This can happen if the
0d0b4b3b
KW
2658expression inside the construct was completely empty, or if there are
2659too many or few operands for the number of operators. Perl is not smart
2660enough to give you a more precise indication as to what is wrong.
2661
6fbc9859
MH
2662=item Inconsistent hierarchy during C3 merge of class '%s': merging failed on
2663parent '%s'
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2664
2665(F) The method resolution order (MRO) of the given class is not
2666C3-consistent, and you have enabled the C3 MRO for this class. See the C3
2667documentation in L<mro> for more information.
2668
6a2ed79a 2669=item Infinite recursion in regex
1a147d38
YO
2670
2671(F) You used a pattern that references itself without consuming any input
6903afa2 2672text. You should check the pattern to ensure that recursive patterns
1a147d38
YO
2673either consume text or fail.
2674
6dbe9451
NC
2675=item Initialization of state variables in list context currently forbidden
2676
6903afa2
FC
2677(F) Currently the implementation of "state" only permits the
2678initialization of scalar variables in scalar context. Re-write
2679C<state ($a) = 42> as C<state $a = 42> to change from list to scalar
2680context. Constructions such as C<state (@a) = foo()> will be
2681supported in a future perl release.
6dbe9451 2682
2186f873
FC
2683=item %%s[%s] in scalar context better written as $%s[%s]
2684
2685(W syntax) In scalar context, you've used an array index/value slice
2686(indicated by %) to select a single element of an array. Generally
2687it's better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by $). The difference
2688is that C<$foo[&bar]> always behaves like a scalar, both in the value it
2689returns and when evaluating its argument, while C<%foo[&bar]> provides
2690a list context to its subscript, which can do weird things if you're
2691expecting only one subscript. When called in list context, it also
2692returns the index (what C<&bar> returns) in addition to the value.
2693
2694=item %%s{%s} in scalar context better written as $%s{%s}
2695
2696(W syntax) In scalar context, you've used a hash key/value slice
2697(indicated by %) to select a single element of a hash. Generally it's
2698better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by $). The difference
2699is that C<$foo{&bar}> always behaves like a scalar, both in the value
2700it returns and when evaluating its argument, while C<@foo{&bar}> and
2701provides a list context to its subscript, which can do weird things
2702if you're expecting only one subscript. When called in list context,
2703it also returns the key in addition to the value.
2704
a0d0e21e
LW
2705=item Insecure dependency in %s
2706
8b1a09fc 2707(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
be771a83
GS
2708The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or
2709setgid, or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The
2710tainting mechanism labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly
2711from the user, who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any
2712such data is used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See
2713L<perlsec> for more information.
a0d0e21e
LW
2714
2715=item Insecure directory in %s
2716
be771a83
GS
2717(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
2718setgid script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by
df98f984
RGS
2719the world. Also, the PATH must not contain any relative directory.
2720See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2721
62f468fc 2722=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2723
2724(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc 2725setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
332d5f78
SR
2726C<$ENV{ENV}>, C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> or C<$ENV{TERM}> are derived from data
2727supplied (or potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set
2728the path to a known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2729
0e9be77f
DM
2730=item Insecure user-defined property %s
2731
2732(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
2733expression that contains a call to a user-defined character property
2734function, i.e. C<\p{IsFoo}> or C<\p{InFoo}>.
2735See L<perlunicode/User-Defined Character Properties> and L<perlsec>.
2736
b9ef414d
FC
2737=item Integer overflow in format string for %s
2738
2739(F) The indexes and widths specified in the format string of C<printf()>
2740or C<sprintf()> are too large. The numbers must not overflow the size of
2741integers for your architecture.
2742
a7ae9550
GS
2743=item Integer overflow in %s number
2744
35928bc5 2745(S overflow) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have specified
be771a83
GS
2746either as a literal or as an argument to hex() or oct() is too big for
2747your architecture, and has been converted to a floating point number.
2748On a 32-bit architecture the largest hexadecimal, octal or binary number
9e24b6e2
JH
2749representable without overflow is 0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or
27500b11111111111111111111111111111111 respectively. Note that Perl
2751transparently promotes all numbers to a floating point representation
2752internally--subject to loss of precision errors in subsequent
2753operations.
bbce6d69 2754
fc89ca81
FC
2755=item Integer overflow in srand
2756
2757(S overflow) The number you have passed to srand is too big to fit
2758in your architecture's integer representation. The number has been
2759replaced with the largest integer supported (0xFFFFFFFF on 32-bit
2760architectures). This means you may be getting less randomness than
2761you expect, because different random seeds above the maximum will
2762return the same sequence of random numbers.
2763
46314c13
JP
2764=item Integer overflow in version
2765
18da5252
FC
2766=item Integer overflow in version %d
2767
784d71ed
FC
2768(W overflow) Some portion of a version initialization is too large for
2769the size of integers for your architecture. This is not a warning
f084e84f 2770because there is no rational reason for a version to try and use an
784d71ed
FC
2771element larger than typically 2**32. This is usually caused by trying
2772to use some odd mathematical operation as a version, like 100/9.
46314c13 2773
e0e4a6e3 2774=item Internal disaster in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2775
2776(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
e0e4a6e3 2777The S<<-- HERE> shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
b45f050a
JF
2778discovered.
2779
748a9306
LW
2780=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
2781
be771a83
GS
2782(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number of times
2783you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine whether the current call
2784to C<exec> should affect the current script or a subprocess (see
2785L<perlvms/"exec LIST">). Somehow, this count has become scrambled, so
2786Perl is making a guess and treating this C<exec> as a request to
2787terminate the Perl script and execute the specified command.
748a9306 2788
870978ae
FC
2789=item internal %<num>p might conflict with future printf extensions
2790
2791(S internal) Perl's internal routine that handles C<printf> and C<sprintf>
2792formatting follows a slightly different set of rules when called from
2793C or XS code. Specifically, formats consisting of digits followed
2794by "p" (e.g., "%7p") are reserved for future use. If you see this
2795message, then an XS module tried to call that routine with one such
2796reserved format.
2797
e0e4a6e3 2798=item Internal urp in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
b45f050a 2799
fa816bf3 2800(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser. The
e0e4a6e3 2801S<<-- HERE> shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
7253e4e3 2802discovered.
a0d0e21e 2803
6df41af2
GS
2804=item %s (...) interpreted as function
2805
75b44862 2806(W syntax) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator
be771a83 2807followed by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list
64977eb6 2808operators arguments found inside the parentheses. See
13a2d996 2809L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
6df41af2 2810
f51551f7
FC
2811=item In '(?...)', the '(' and '?' must be adjacent in regex;
2812marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
2813
2814(F) The two-character sequence C<"(?"> in this context in a regular
2815expression pattern should be an indivisible token, with nothing
2816intervening between the C<"("> and the C<"?">, but you separated them
2817with whitespace.
2818
09bef843
SB
2819=item Invalid %s attribute: %s
2820
a4a4c9e2 2821(F) The indicated attribute for a subroutine or variable was not recognized
09bef843
SB
2822by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
2823
2824=item Invalid %s attributes: %s
2825
a4a4c9e2 2826(F) The indicated attributes for a subroutine or variable were not
be771a83 2827recognized by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2828
e0e4a6e3
FC
2829=item Invalid character in charnames alias definition; marked by
2830S<<-- HERE> in '%s
225fb84f
KW
2831
2832(F) You tried to create a custom alias for a character name, with
2833the C<:alias> option to C<use charnames> and the specified character in
2834the indicated name isn't valid. See L<charnames/CUSTOM ALIASES>.
2835
c8028aa6
TC
2836=item Invalid \0 character in %s for %s: %s\0%s
2837
fa3234e3
FC
2838(W syscalls) Embedded \0 characters in pathnames or other system call
2839arguments produce a warning as of 5.20. The parts after the \0 were
2840formerly ignored by system calls.
c8028aa6 2841
e0e4a6e3 2842=item Invalid character in \N{...}; marked by S<<-- HERE> in \N{%s}
a690c7c4
FC
2843
2844(F) Only certain characters are valid for character names. The
2845indicated one isn't. See L<charnames/CUSTOM ALIASES>.
2846
c635e13b 2847=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
2848
be771a83
GS
2849(W printf) Perl does not understand the given format conversion. See
2850L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
c635e13b 2851
e0e4a6e3
FC
2852=item Invalid escape in the specified encoding in regex; marked by
2853S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
9e08bc66 2854
98d31c73 2855(W regexp)(F) The numeric escape (for example C<\xHH>) of value < 256
9e08bc66
TS
2856didn't correspond to a single character through the conversion
2857from the encoding specified by the encoding pragma.
98d31c73
FC
2858The escape was replaced with REPLACEMENT CHARACTER (U+FFFD)
2859instead, except within S<C<(?[ ])>>, where it is a fatal error.
e0e4a6e3 2860The S<<-- HERE> shows whereabouts in the regular expression the
9e08bc66
TS
2861escape was discovered.
2862
8149aa9f
FC
2863=item Invalid hexadecimal number in \N{U+...}
2864
e0e4a6e3
FC
2865=item Invalid hexadecimal number in \N{U+...} in regex; marked by
2866S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
aec0ef10 2867
8149aa9f 2868(F) The character constant represented by C<...> is not a valid hexadecimal
74f8e9e3
FC
2869number. Either it is empty, or you tried to use a character other than
28700 - 9 or A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number.
8149aa9f 2871
6651ba0b
FC
2872=item Invalid module name %s with -%c option: contains single ':'
2873
2874(F) The module argument to perl's B<-m> and B<-M> command-line options
2875cannot contain single colons in the module name, but only in the
2876arguments after "=". In other words, B<-MFoo::Bar=:baz> is ok, but
2877B<-MFoo:Bar=baz> is not.
2878
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2879=item Invalid mro name: '%s'
2880
162a3e34
FC
2881(F) You tried to C<mro::set_mro("classname", "foo")> or C<use mro 'foo'>,
2882where C<foo> is not a valid method resolution order (MRO). Currently,
2883the only valid ones supported are C<dfs> and C<c3>, unless you have loaded
2884a module that is a MRO plugin. See L<mro> and L<perlmroapi>.
2c7d6b9c 2885
40e4140b
FC
2886=item Invalid negative number (%s) in chr
2887
2888(W utf8) You passed a negative number to C<chr>. Negative numbers are
abc0aa9d 2889not valid character numbers, so it returns the Unicode replacement
40e4140b
FC
2890character (U+FFFD).
2891
74d1b2e4
FC
2892=item Invalid number '%s' for -C option.
2893
2894(F) You supplied a number to the -C option that either has extra leading
2895zeroes or overflows perl's unsigned integer representation.
2896
6651ba0b
FC
2897=item invalid option -D%c, use -D'' to see choices
2898
8ff21bfe
FC
2899(S debugging) Perl was called with invalid debugger flags. Call perl
2900with the B<-D> option with no flags to see the list of acceptable values.
982c4ecb 2901See also L<perlrun/-Dletters>.
6651ba0b 2902
6e8a73f2 2903=item Invalid quantifier in {,} in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
35cd12d1
HS
2904
2905(F) The pattern looks like a {min,max} quantifier, but the min or max
2906could not be parsed as a valid number - either it has leading zeroes,
2907or it represents too big a number to cope with. The S<<-- HERE> shows
2908where in the regular expression the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
2909
e0e4a6e3 2910=item Invalid [] range "%s" in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2911
2912(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
7253e4e3
RK
2913greater than the maximum character. One possibility is that you forgot the
2914C<{}> from your ending C<\x{}> - C<\x> without the curly braces can go only
e0e4a6e3 2915up to C<ff>. The S<<-- HERE> shows whereabouts in the regular expression the
7253e4e3 2916problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 2917
d1573ac7 2918=item Invalid range "%s" in transliteration operator
c2e66d9e
GS
2919
2920(F) The range specified in the tr/// or y/// operator had a minimum
2921character greater than the maximum character. See L<perlop>.
2922
09bef843
SB
2923=item Invalid separator character %s in attribute list
2924
0120eecf 2925(F) Something other than a colon or whitespace was seen between the
be771a83
GS
2926elements of an attribute list. If the previous attribute had a
2927parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that list was terminated too soon.
2928See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2929
b4581f09
JH
2930=item Invalid separator character %s in PerlIO layer specification %s
2931
2bfc5f71
FC
2932(W layer) When pushing layers onto the Perl I/O system, something other
2933than a colon or whitespace was seen between the elements of a layer list.
b4581f09
JH
2934If the previous attribute had a parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that
2935list was terminated too soon.
2936
2c86d456
DG
2937=item Invalid strict version format (%s)
2938
fa816bf3 2939(F) A version number did not meet the "strict" criteria for versions.
2c86d456
DG
2940A "strict" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2941decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
2942v-string with a leading 'v' character and at least three components.
a6485a24 2943The parenthesized text indicates which criteria were not met.
2c86d456
DG
2944See the L<version> module for more details on allowed version formats.
2945
49704364 2946=item Invalid type '%s' in %s
96e4d5b1 2947
49704364
WL
2948(F) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type.
2949See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6728c851 2950
49704364 2951(W) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type but used to be
75b44862 2952silently ignored.
96e4d5b1 2953
2c86d456
DG
2954=item Invalid version format (%s)
2955
fa816bf3 2956(F) A version number did not meet the "lax" criteria for versions.
2c86d456
DG
2957A "lax" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2958decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
fa816bf3
FC
2959v-string. If the v-string has fewer than three components, it
2960must have a leading 'v' character. Otherwise, the leading 'v' is
2961optional. Both decimal and dotted-decimal versions may have a
2962trailing "alpha" component separated by an underscore character
2963after a fractional or dotted-decimal component. The parenthesized
2964text indicates which criteria were not met. See the L<version> module
2965for more details on allowed version formats.
46314c13 2966
798ae1b7
DG
2967=item Invalid version object
2968
fa816bf3
FC
2969(F) The internal structure of the version object was invalid.
2970Perhaps the internals were modified directly in some way or
2971an arbitrary reference was blessed into the "version" class.
798ae1b7 2972
cd209d9d 2973=item In '(*VERB...)', the '(' and '*' must be adjacent in regex;
e0e4a6e3 2974marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
675fa9ff 2975
cd209d9d 2976(F) The two-character sequence C<"(*"> in
675fa9ff
FC
2977this context in a regular expression pattern should be an
2978indivisible token, with nothing intervening between the C<"(">
cd209d9d 2979and the C<"*">, but you separated them.
675fa9ff 2980
a0d0e21e
LW
2981=item ioctl is not implemented
2982
2983(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
2984strange for a machine that supports C.
2985
c289d2f7
JH
2986=item ioctl() on unopened %s
2987
2988(W unopened) You tried ioctl() on a filehandle that was never opened.
34b6fd5e 2989Check your control flow and number of arguments.
c289d2f7 2990
fe13d51d 2991=item IO layers (like '%s') unavailable
363c40c4
SB
2992
2993(F) Your Perl has not been configured to have PerlIO, and therefore
34b6fd5e 2994you cannot use IO layers. To have PerlIO, Perl must be configured
363c40c4
SB
2995with 'useperlio'.
2996
80cbd5ad
JH
2997=item IO::Socket::atmark not implemented on this architecture
2998
2999(F) Your machine doesn't implement the sockatmark() functionality,
34b6fd5e 3000neither as a system call nor an ioctl call (SIOCATMARK).
80cbd5ad 3001
6e8a73f2 3002=item '%s' is an unknown bound type in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
64935bc6
KW
3003
3004(F) You used C<\b{...}> or C<\B{...}> and the C<...> is not known to
3005Perl. The current valid ones are given in
3006L<perlrebackslash/\b{}, \b, \B{}, \B>.
3007
74d1b2e4
FC
3008=item %s() is deprecated on :utf8 handles
3009
3010(W deprecated) The sysread(), recv(), syswrite() and send() operators are
3011deprecated on handles that have the C<:utf8> layer, either explicitly, or
3012implicitly, eg., with the C<:encoding(UTF-16LE)> layer.
3013
3014Both sysread() and recv() currently use only the C<:utf8> flag for the stream,
3015ignoring the actual layers. Since sysread() and recv() do no UTF-8
3016validation they can end up creating invalidly encoded scalars.
3017
3018Similarly, syswrite() and send() use only the C<:utf8> flag, otherwise ignoring
3019any layers. If the flag is set, both write the value UTF-8 encoded, even if
3020the layer is some different encoding, such as the example above.
3021
3022Ideally, all of these operators would completely ignore the C<:utf8> state,
3023working only with bytes, but this would result in silently breaking existing
3024code. To avoid this a future version of perl will throw an exception when
3025any of sysread(), recv(), syswrite() or send() are called on handle with the
3026C<:utf8> layer.
3027
6e8a73f2 3028=item "%s" is more clearly written simply as "%s" in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
acdfc3b6
KW
3029
3030(W regexp) (only under C<S<use re 'strict'>> or within C<(?[...])>)
3031
3032You specified a character that has the given plainer way of writing it,
3033and which is also portable to platforms running with different character
3034sets.
3035
4f650b80 3036=item $* is no longer supported
b4581f09 3037
4f650b80 3038(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$*>, deprecated in older
ea9d9ebc 3039perls, has been removed as of 5.10.0 and is no longer supported. In
4f650b80
NC
3040previous versions of perl the use of C<$*> enabled or disabled multi-line
3041matching within a string.
4fd19576
B
3042
3043Instead of using C<$*> you should use the C</m> (and maybe C</s>) regexp
6903afa2
FC
3044modifiers. You can enable C</m> for a lexical scope (even a whole file)
3045with C<use re '/m'>. (In older versions: when C<$*> was set to a true value
570dedd4 3046then all regular expressions behaved as if they were written using C</m>.)
b4581f09 3047
8ae1fe26
RGS
3048=item $# is no longer supported
3049
a58ac25e 3050(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$#>, deprecated in older
ea9d9ebc 3051perls, has been removed as of 5.10.0 and is no longer supported. You
a58ac25e 3052should use the printf/sprintf functions instead.
8ae1fe26 3053
ccf3535a 3054=item '%s' is not a code reference
6ad11d81 3055
6903afa2
FC
3056(W overload) The second (fourth, sixth, ...) argument of
3057overload::constant needs to be a code reference. Either
3058an anonymous subroutine, or a reference to a subroutine.
6ad11d81 3059
ccf3535a 3060=item '%s' is not an overloadable type
6ad11d81 3061
04a80ee0
RGS
3062(W overload) You tried to overload a constant type the overload package is
3063unaware of.
6ad11d81 3064
5a25739d
FC
3065=item -i used with no filenames on the command line, reading from STDIN
3066
3067(S inplace) The C<-i> option was passed on the command line, indicating
3068that the script is intended to edit files in place, but no files were
3069given. This is usually a mistake, since editing STDIN in place doesn't
3070make sense, and can be confusing because it can make perl look like
3071it is hanging when it is really just trying to read from STDIN. You
3072should either pass a filename to edit, or remove C<-i> from the command
3073line. See L<perlrun> for more details.
3074
aec0ef10 3075=item Junk on end of regexp in regex m/%s/
a0d0e21e
LW
3076
3077(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
3078
3079=item Label not found for "last %s"
3080
be771a83
GS
3081(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a loop
3082of that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
3083L<perlfunc/last>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3084
3085=item Label not found for "next %s"
3086
3087(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
3088that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
3089L<perlfunc/last>.
3090
3091=item Label not found for "redo %s"
3092
3093(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
3094that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
3095L<perlfunc/last>.
3096
85ab1d1d 3097=item leaving effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 3098
85ab1d1d 3099(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
3100effective uids or gids failed.
3101
49704364
WL
3102=item length/code after end of string in unpack
3103
d7f8936a 3104(F) While unpacking, the string buffer was already used up when an unpack
6903afa2
FC
3105length/code combination tried to obtain more data. This results in
3106an undefined value for the length. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
49704364 3107
25e26107 3108=item length() used on %s (did you mean "scalar(%s)"?)
e508c8a4 3109
0d46a4e7
FC
3110(W syntax) You used length() on either an array or a hash when you
3111probably wanted a count of the items.
e508c8a4
MH
3112
3113Array size can be obtained by doing:
3114
3115 scalar(@array);
3116
3117The number of items in a hash can be obtained by doing:
3118
3119 scalar(keys %hash);
3120
f0e67a1d
Z
3121=item Lexing code attempted to stuff non-Latin-1 character into Latin-1 input
3122
d4fe7078
RS
3123(F) An extension is attempting to insert text into the current parse
3124(using L<lex_stuff_pvn|perlapi/lex_stuff_pvn> or similar), but tried to insert a character that
3125couldn't be part of the current input. This is an inherent pitfall
3126of the stuffing mechanism, and one of the reasons to avoid it. Where
6903afa2 3127it is necessary to stuff, stuffing only plain ASCII is recommended.
f0e67a1d
Z
3128
3129=item Lexing code internal error (%s)
3130
3131(F) Lexing code supplied by an extension violated the lexer's API in a
3132detectable way.
3133
69282e91 3134=item listen() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 3135
be771a83
GS
3136(W closed) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget
3137to check the return value of your socket() call? See
3138L<perlfunc/listen>.
a0d0e21e 3139
6651ba0b
FC
3140=item List form of piped open not implemented
3141
3142(F) On some platforms, notably Windows, the three-or-more-arguments
3143form of C<open> does not support pipes, such as C<open($pipe, '|-', @args)>.
3144Use the two-argument C<open($pipe, '|prog arg1 arg2...')> form instead.
3145
dc6bb7ba
FC
3146=item %s: loadable library and perl binaries are mismatched (got handshake key %p, needed %p)
3147
3148(P) A dynamic loading library C<.so> or C<.dll> was being loaded into the
3149process that was built against a different build of perl than the
3150said library was compiled against. Reinstalling the XS module will
3151likely fix this error.
3152
8c6180a9
KW
3153=item Locale '%s' may not work well.%s
3154
780fcc9f 3155(W locale) You are using the named locale, which is a non-UTF-8 one, and
dae67c56
KW
3156which perl has determined is not fully compatible with what it can
3157handle. The second C<%s> gives a reason.
8c6180a9
KW
3158
3159By far the most common reason is that the locale has characters in it
3160that are represented by more than one byte. The only such locales that
3161Perl can handle are the UTF-8 locales. Most likely the specified locale
3162is a non-UTF-8 one for an East Asian language such as Chinese or
3163Japanese. If the locale is a superset of ASCII, the ASCII portion of it
780fcc9f 3164may work in Perl.
8c6180a9
KW
3165
3166Some essentially obsolete locales that aren't supersets of ASCII, mainly
3167those in ISO 646 or other 7-bit locales, such as ASMO 449, can also have
3168problems, depending on what portions of the ASCII character set get
3169changed by the locale and are also used by the program.
3170The warning message lists the determinable conflicting characters.
3171
780fcc9f
KW
3172Note that not all incompatibilities are found.
3173
3174If this happens to you, there's not much you can do except switch to use a
3175different locale or use L<Encode> to translate from the locale into
3176UTF-8; if that's impracticable, you have been warned that some things
3177may break.
3178
3179This message is output once each time a bad locale is switched into
3180within the scope of C<S<use locale>>, or on the first possibly-affected
3181operation if the C<S<use locale>> inherits a bad one. It is not raised
3182for any operations from the L<POSIX> module.
3183
a2162cd9
FC
3184=item localtime(%f) failed
3185
3186(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with a number that it could not handle:
3187too large, too small, or NaN. The returned value is C<undef>.
3188
3189=item localtime(%f) too large
3190
3191(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with a number that was larger
3192than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
3193wrong date. This warning is also triggered with NaN (the special
3194not-a-number value).
3195
3196=item localtime(%f) too small
3197
3198(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with a number that was smaller
3199than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
3200wrong date.
3201
58e23c8d 3202=item Lookbehind longer than %d not implemented in regex m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
3203
3204(F) There is currently a limit on the length of string which lookbehind can
6903afa2 3205handle. This restriction may be eased in a future release.
2e50fd82 3206
b88df990
NC
3207=item Lost precision when %s %f by 1
3208
e63e8a91
FC
3209(W imprecision) The value you attempted to increment or decrement by one
3210is too large for the underlying floating point representation to store
3211accurately, hence the target of C<++> or C<--> is unchanged. Perl issues this
3212warning because it has already switched from integers to floating point
3213when values are too large for integers, and now even floating point is
3214insufficient. You may wish to switch to using L<Math::BigInt> explicitly.
b88df990 3215
93fad930 3216=item lstat() on filehandle%s
2f7da168
RK
3217
3218(W io) You tried to do an lstat on a filehandle. What did you mean
3219by that? lstat() makes sense only on filenames. (Perl did a fstat()
3220instead on the filehandle.)
3221
345d70e3 3222=item lvalue attribute %s already-defined subroutine
bb3abb05 3223
345d70e3
FC
3224(W misc) Although L<attributes.pm|attributes> allows this, turning the lvalue
3225attribute on or off on a Perl subroutine that is already defined
3226does not always work properly. It may or may not do what you
3227want, depending on what code is inside the subroutine, with exact
3228details subject to change between Perl versions. Only do this
3229if you really know what you are doing.
bb3abb05 3230
885ef6f5
GG
3231=item lvalue attribute ignored after the subroutine has been defined
3232
345d70e3
FC
3233(W misc) Using the C<:lvalue> declarative syntax to make a Perl
3234subroutine an lvalue subroutine after it has been defined is
3235not permitted. To make the subroutine an lvalue subroutine,
3236add the lvalue attribute to the definition, or put the C<sub
3237foo :lvalue;> declaration before the definition.
3238
3239See also L<attributes.pm|attributes>.
885ef6f5 3240
6f1b3ab0
FC
3241=item Magical list constants are not supported
3242
3243(F) You assigned a magical array to a stash element, and then tried
3244to use the subroutine from the same slot. You are asking Perl to do
3245something it cannot do, details subject to change between Perl versions.
3246
2db62bbc 3247=item Malformed integer in [] in pack
49704364 3248
2db62bbc 3249(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
49704364
WL
3250are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3251
3252=item Malformed integer in [] in unpack
3253
2db62bbc 3254(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
49704364
WL
3255are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3256
6df41af2
GS
3257=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
3258
3259(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
3260
3261 prefix1;prefix2
3262
3263or
6df41af2
GS
3264 prefix1 prefix2
3265
be771a83
GS
3266with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix of
3267a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error may
3268appear if components are not found, or are too long. See
fecfaeb8 3269"PERLLIB_PREFIX" in L<perlos2>.
6df41af2 3270
2f758a16
ST
3271=item Malformed prototype for %s: %s
3272
d37a9538
ST
3273(F) You tried to use a function with a malformed prototype. The
3274syntax of function prototypes is given a brief compile-time check for
3275obvious errors like invalid characters. A more rigorous check is run
3276when the function is called.
30d9c59b
Z
3277Perhaps the function's author was trying to write a subroutine signature
3278but didn't enable that feature first (C<use feature 'signatures'>),
3279so the signature was instead interpreted as a bad prototype.
2f758a16 3280
ba210ebe
JH
3281=item Malformed UTF-8 character (%s)
3282
4d6f11e5 3283(S utf8)(F) Perl detected a string that didn't comply with UTF-8
2575c402 3284encoding rules, even though it had the UTF8 flag on.
ba210ebe 3285
2575c402
JW
3286One possible cause is that you set the UTF8 flag yourself for data that
3287you thought to be in UTF-8 but it wasn't (it was for example legacy
6903afa2 32888-bit data). To guard against this, you can use Encode::decode_utf8.
2575c402
JW
3289
3290If you use the C<:encoding(UTF-8)> PerlIO layer for input, invalid byte
3291sequences are handled gracefully, but if you use C<:utf8>, the flag is
3292set without validating the data, possibly resulting in this error
3293message.
3294
3295See also L<Encode/"Handling Malformed Data">.
901b21bf 3296
107160e2
KW
3297=item Malformed UTF-8 character immediately after '%s'
3298
3299(F) You said C<use utf8>, but the program file doesn't comply with UTF-8
3300encoding rules. The message prints out the properly encoded characters
3301just before the first bad one. If C<utf8> warnings are enabled, a
3302warning is generated that gives more details about the type of
3303malformation.
3304
bde9e88d 3305=item Malformed UTF-8 returned by \N{%s} immediately after '%s'
ff3f963a
KW
3306
3307(F) The charnames handler returned malformed UTF-8.
3308
4a5d3a93
FC
3309=item Malformed UTF-8 string in '%c' format in unpack
3310
3311(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
3312rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
3313
f337b084
TH
3314=item Malformed UTF-8 string in pack
3315
3316(F) You tried to pack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
3317rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
3318
3319=item Malformed UTF-8 string in unpack
3320
3321(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
3322rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
3323
4a5d3a93 3324=item Malformed UTF-16 surrogate
f337b084 3325
4a5d3a93
FC
3326(F) Perl thought it was reading UTF-16 encoded character data but while
3327doing it Perl met a malformed Unicode surrogate.
3328
30d9c59b
Z
3329=item Mandatory parameter follows optional parameter
3330
3331(F) In a subroutine signature, you wrote something like "$a = undef,
3332$b", making an earlier parameter optional and a later one mandatory.
3333Parameters are filled from left to right, so it's impossible for the
3334caller to omit an earlier one and pass a later one. If you want to act
3335as if the parameters are filled from right to left, declare the rightmost
3336optional and then shuffle the parameters around in the subroutine's body.
3337
2d88a86a
KW
3338=item Matched non-Unicode code point 0x%X against Unicode property; may
3339not be portable
3340
3341(S non_unicode) Perl allows strings to contain a superset of
3342Unicode code points; each code point may be as large as what is storable
3343in an unsigned integer on your system, but these may not be accepted by
3344other languages/systems. This message occurs when you matched a string
3345containing such a code point against a regular expression pattern, and
3346the code point was matched against a Unicode property, C<\p{...}> or
3347C<\P{...}>. Unicode properties are only defined on Unicode code points,
3348so the result of this match is undefined by Unicode, but Perl (starting
3349in v5.20) treats non-Unicode code points as if they were typical
3350unassigned Unicode ones, and matched this one accordingly. Whether a
3351given property matches these code points or not is specified in
3352L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>.
3353
3354This message is suppressed (unless it has been made fatal) if it is
3355immaterial to the results of the match if the code point is Unicode or
3356not. For example, the property C<\p{ASCII_Hex_Digit}> only can match
3357the 22 characters C<[0-9A-Fa-f]>, so obviously all other code points,
3358Unicode or not, won't match it. (And C<\P{ASCII_Hex_Digit}> will match
3359every code point except these 22.)
3360
3361Getting this message indicates that the outcome of the match arguably
3362should have been the opposite of what actually happened. If you think
3363that is the case, you may wish to make the C<non_unicode> warnings
3364category fatal; if you agree with Perl's decision, you may wish to turn
3365off this category.
3366
3367See L<perlunicode/Beyond Unicode code points> for more information.
3368
e0e4a6e3
FC
3369=item %s matches null string many times in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in
3370m/%s/
4a5d3a93
FC
3371
3372(W regexp) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
e0e4a6e3 3373regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. The S<<-- HERE>
9e3ec65c 3374shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was discovered.
4a5d3a93 3375See L<perlre>.
f337b084 3376
de42a5a9 3377=item Maximal count of pending signals (%u) exceeded
2563cec5 3378
6903afa2 3379(F) Perl aborted due to too high a number of signals pending. This
2563cec5
IZ
3380usually indicates that your operating system tried to deliver signals
3381too fast (with a very high priority), starving the perl process from
3382resources it would need to reach a point where it can process signals
6903afa2 3383safely. (See L<perlipc/"Deferred Signals (Safe Signals)">.)
2563cec5 3384
25f58aea
PN