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1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
d1d15184 11 (D) A deprecation (enabled by default).
00eb3f2b 12 (S) A severe warning (enabled by default).
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13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
75b44862 18The majority of messages from the first three classifications above
64977eb6 19(W, D & S) can be controlled using the C<warnings> pragma.
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20
21If a message can be controlled by the C<warnings> pragma, its warning
22category is included with the classification letter in the description
23below.
24
25Optional warnings are enabled by using the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-w>
26and B<-W> switches. Warnings may be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}>
27to a reference to a routine that will be called on each warning instead
28of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
29
b7eceb5b 30Severe warnings are always enabled, unless they are explicitly disabled
e476b1b5 31with the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-X> switch.
4438c4b7 32
748a9306 33Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
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34L<perlfunc/eval>. In almost all cases, warnings may be selectively
35disabled or promoted to fatal errors using the C<warnings> pragma.
36See L<warnings>.
a0d0e21e 37
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38The messages are in alphabetical order, without regard to upper or
39lower-case. Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are
40denoted with a %s or other printf-style escape. These escapes are
41ignored by the alphabetical order, as are all characters other than
42letters. To look up your message, just ignore anything that is not a
43letter.
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44
45=over 4
46
6df41af2 47=item accept() on closed socket %s
33633739 48
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49(W closed) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget
50to check the return value of your socket() call? See
51L<perlfunc/accept>.
33633739 52
de42a5a9 53=item Allocation too large: %x
a0d0e21e 54
6df41af2 55(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e 56
1109a392 57=item '%c' allowed only after types %s
ef54e1a4 58
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59(F) The modifiers '!', '<' and '>' are allowed in pack() or unpack() only
60after certain types. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
ef54e1a4 61
6df41af2 62=item Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
43192e07 63
75b44862 64(W ambiguous) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl
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65keyword, and you have used the name without qualification for calling
66one or the other. Perl decided to call the builtin because the
67subroutine is not imported.
43192e07 68
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69To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand
70before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.
71Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's
72imported with the C<use subs> pragma).
43192e07 73
6df41af2 74To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the C<CORE::> prefix
496a33f5 75on the operator (e.g. C<CORE::log($x)>) or declare the subroutine
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76to be an object method (see L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes"> or
77L<attributes>).
43192e07 78
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79=item Ambiguous overloaded argument to %s resolved as %s
80
81(W ambiguous) You called C<keys>, C<values> or C<each> on an object that had
82overloading of C<%{}> or C<@{}> or both. In such a case, the object is
83dereferenced according to its overloading, not its underlying reference type.
84The warning is issued when C<%{}> overloading exists on a blessed arrayref,
85when C<@{}> overloading exists on a blessed hashref, or when both overloadings
86are defined (in which case C<%{}> is used). You can force the interpretation
c69ca1d4 87of the object by explicitly dereferencing it as an array or hash instead of
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88passing the object itself to C<keys>, C<values> or C<each>.
89
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90=item Ambiguous range in transliteration operator
91
92(F) You wrote something like C<tr/a-z-0//> which doesn't mean anything at
93all. To include a C<-> character in a transliteration, put it either
94first or last. (In the past, C<tr/a-z-0//> was synonymous with
95C<tr/a-y//>, which was probably not what you would have expected.)
96
6df41af2 97=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
43192e07 98
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99(W ambiguous)(S) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
100you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
101a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
a0d0e21e 102
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103=item Ambiguous use of %c resolved as operator %c
104
105(W ambiguous) C<%>, C<&>, and C<*> are both infix operators (modulus,
106bitwise and, and multpication), and you said something like C<*foo *
107foo> that might be interpreted as either of them. We assumed you
108meant the infix operator, but please try to make it more clear -- in
109the example given, you might write C<*foo * foo()> if you really meant
110to multiply a glob by the result of calling a function.
111
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112=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s} resolved to %c%s
113
114(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<@{foo}>, which might be
115asking for the variable C<@foo>, or it might be calling a function
116named foo, and dereferencing it as an array reference. If you wanted
117the varable, you can just write C<@foo>. If you wanted to call the
118function, write C<@{foo()}> ... or you could just not have a variable
119and a function with the same name, and save yourself a lot of trouble.
120
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121=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s%s} resolved to %c%s%s
122
123(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<${foo[2]}>, which might be
124looking for element number 2 of the array named C<@foo>, in which case
125please write C<$foo[2]>, or you might have meant to pass an anonymous
126arrayref to the function named foo, then do a scalar deref on the
127value it returns. If you meant that, write C<${foo([2])}>.
128
bdac9d71 129=item Ambiguous use of -%s resolved as -&%s()
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130
131(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<-foo>, which might be the
132string C<"-foo"> (outside of C<use strict 'subs'>), or a call to the
133function C<foo>, negated. If you meant the string, just write
134C<"-foo">, and please use strict. If you meant the function call,
135write C<-foo()>.
136
6df41af2 137=item '|' and '<' may not both be specified on command line
a0d0e21e 138
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139(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
140redirection, and found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to
141redirect STDIN using '<'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
c9f97d15 142
6df41af2 143=item '|' and '>' may not both be specified on command line
1028017a 144
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145(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
146redirection, and thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and
147into a pipe to another command. You need to choose one or the other,
148though nothing's stopping you from piping into a program or Perl script
149which 'splits' output into two streams, such as
1028017a 150
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151 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
152 while (<STDIN>) {
153 print;
154 print OUT;
155 }
156 close OUT;
c9f97d15 157
6df41af2 158=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
eb6e2d6f 159
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160(W misc) The pattern match (C<//>), substitution (C<s///>), and
161transliteration (C<tr///>) operators work on scalar values. If you apply
be771a83 162one of them to an array or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to
ac036724 163a scalar value (the length of an array, or the population info of a
164hash) and then work on that scalar value. This is probably not what
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165you meant to do. See L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for
166alternatives.
eb6e2d6f 167
6df41af2 168=item Args must match #! line
a0d0e21e 169
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170(F) The setuid emulator requires that the arguments Perl was invoked
171with match the arguments specified on the #! line. Since some systems
172impose a one-argument limit on the #! line, try combining switches;
173for example, turn C<-w -U> into C<-wU>.
a0d0e21e 174
6df41af2 175=item Arg too short for msgsnd
76cd736e 176
6df41af2 177(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
76cd736e 178
b0fdf69e 179=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or a subroutine
a0d0e21e 180
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181(F) The argument to exists() must be a hash or array element or a
182subroutine with an ampersand, such as:
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183
184 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 185 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
cc1c2e42 186 &do_something
a0d0e21e 187
8ea97a1e 188=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice
5f05dabc 189
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190(F) The argument to delete() must be either a hash or array element,
191such as:
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192
193 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 194 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
5f05dabc 195
8ea97a1e 196or a hash or array slice, such as:
5f05dabc 197
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198 @foo[$bar, $baz, $xyzzy]
199 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
5315574d 200
6df41af2 201=item %s argument is not a subroutine name
a0d0e21e 202
6df41af2 203(F) The argument to exists() for C<exists &sub> must be a subroutine
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204name, and not a subroutine call. C<exists &sub()> will generate this
205error.
a0d0e21e 206
f86702cc 207=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
a0d0e21e 208
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209(W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator
210that expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
211will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
a0d0e21e 212
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213=item Argument list not closed for PerlIO layer "%s"
214
215(W layer) When pushing a layer with arguments onto the Perl I/O system you
216forgot the ) that closes the argument list. (Layers take care of transforming
217data between external and internal representations.) Perl stopped parsing
218the layer list at this point and did not attempt to push this layer.
219If your program didn't explicitly request the failing operation, it may be
220the result of the value of the environment variable PERLIO.
221
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222=item Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
223
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224(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some
225spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
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226
227=item assertion botched: %s
228
229(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
230
231=item Assertion failed: file "%s"
232
233(P) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
234
235=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
236
237(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
238must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
239know which context to supply to the right side.
240
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241=item A thread exited while %d threads were running
242
4447dfc1 243(W threads)(S) When using threaded Perl, a thread (not necessarily the main
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244thread) exited while there were still other threads running.
245Usually it's a good idea to first collect the return values of the
246created threads by joining them, and only then exit from the main
247thread. See L<threads>.
248
2393f1b9 249=item Attempt to access disallowed key '%s' in a restricted hash
1b1f1335 250
49293501 251(F) The failing code has attempted to get or set a key which is not in
2393f1b9 252the current set of allowed keys of a restricted hash.
49293501 253
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254=item Attempt to bless into a reference
255
256(F) The CLASSNAME argument to the bless() operator is expected to be
257the name of the package to bless the resulting object into. You've
258supplied instead a reference to something: perhaps you wrote
259
260 bless $self, $proto;
261
262when you intended
263
264 bless $self, ref($proto) || $proto;
265
266If you actually want to bless into the stringified version
267of the reference supplied, you need to stringify it yourself, for
268example by:
269
270 bless $self, "$proto";
271
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272=item Attempt to delete disallowed key '%s' from a restricted hash
273
274(F) The failing code attempted to delete from a restricted hash a key
275which is not in its key set.
276
277=item Attempt to delete readonly key '%s' from a restricted hash
278
279(F) The failing code attempted to delete a key whose value has been
280declared readonly from a restricted hash.
281
de42a5a9 282=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%x
a0d0e21e 283
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284(P internal) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas
285that will be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be
286outside any of those arenas.
a0d0e21e 287
54310121 288=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string
bbce6d69 289
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290(P internal) Perl maintains a reference counted internal table of
291strings to optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other
292strings. This indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count
293of a string that can no longer be found in the table.
bbce6d69 294
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295=item Attempt to free temp prematurely
296
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297(W debugging) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the
298free_tmps() routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the
299SV before the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the
300free_tmps() routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does
301try to free it.
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302
303=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
304
e476b1b5 305(P internal) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
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306
307=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar
308
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309(W internal) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to
310see if it would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0
311earlier, and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed.
312This could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or
313that SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was
314mortalized when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been
315corrupted.
a0d0e21e 316
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317=item Attempt to join self
318
319(F) You tried to join a thread from within itself, which is an
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320impossible task. You may be joining the wrong thread, or you may need
321to move the join() to some other thread.
dcdda58d 322
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323=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
324
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325(W pack) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
326function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
327means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
328invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
329literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
330avoid this warning.
84902520 331
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332=item Attempt to reload %s aborted.
333
334(F) You tried to load a file with C<use> or C<require> that failed to
335compile once already. Perl will not try to compile this file again
336unless you delete its entry from %INC. See L<perlfunc/require> and
337L<perlvar/%INC>.
338
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339=item Attempt to set length of freed array
340
341(W) You tried to set the length of an array which has been freed. You
342can do this by storing a reference to the scalar representing the last index
343of an array and later assigning through that reference. For example
344
345 $r = do {my @a; \$#a};
346 $$r = 503
347
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348=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
349
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350(W substr) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr()
351used as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
352dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
b7a902f4 353
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354=item Attribute "locked" is deprecated
355
356(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragam to modify the "locked"
357attribute on a code reference. The :locked attribute is obsolete, has had no
358effect since 5005 threads were removed, and will be removed in the next major
359release of Perl 5.
360
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361=item Attribute "unique" is deprecated
362
363(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragam to modify the "unique"
b7a2910f 364attribute on an array, hash or scalar reference. The :unique attribute has
259976bd 365had no effect since Perl 5.8.8, and will be removed in the next major
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366release of Perl 5.
367
de42a5a9 368=item Bad arg length for %s, is %u, should be %d
a0d0e21e 369
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370(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl()
371or shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 372S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
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373S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
374
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375=item Bad evalled substitution pattern
376
496a33f5 377(F) You've used the C</e> switch to evaluate the replacement for a
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378substitution, but perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate,
379most likely an unexpected right brace '}'.
380
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381=item Bad filehandle: %s
382
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383(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the
384symbol has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an
385open(), or did it in another package.
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386
387=item Bad free() ignored
388
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389(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had never
390been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
9ea8bc6d 391setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 0.
33c8a3fe 392
9ea8bc6d 393This message can be seen quite often with DB_File on systems with "hard"
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394dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of C<Berkeley DB>
395which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving> system malloc().
a0d0e21e 396
aa689395
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397=item Bad hash
398
399(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
400
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401=item Badly placed ()'s
402
403(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
404of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
405Perl yourself.
406
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407=item Bad name after %s::
408
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409(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then
410didn't finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside
411of quotes, so
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412
413 $var = 'myvar';
414 $sym = mypack::$var;
415
416is not the same as
417
418 $var = 'myvar';
419 $sym = "mypack::$var";
420
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421=item Bad plugin affecting keyword '%s'
422
423(F) An extension using the keyword plugin mechanism violated the
424plugin API.
425
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426=item Bad realloc() ignored
427
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428(S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that had
429never been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled
430by setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
4ad56ec9 431
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432=item Bad symbol for array
433
434(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
435wasn't a symbol table entry.
436
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437=item Bad symbol for dirhandle
438
439(P) An internal request asked to add a dirhandle entry to something
440that wasn't a symbol table entry.
441
442
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443=item Bad symbol for filehandle
444
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445(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something
446that wasn't a symbol table entry.
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447
448=item Bad symbol for hash
449
450(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
451wasn't a symbol table entry.
452
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453=item Bareword found in conditional
454
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455(W bareword) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a
456conditional, which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part
457of the last argument of the previous construct, for example:
34d09196
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458
459 open FOO || die;
460
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461It may also indicate a misspelled constant that has been interpreted as
462a bareword:
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463
464 use constant TYPO => 1;
465 if (TYOP) { print "foo" }
466
467The C<strict> pragma is useful in avoiding such errors.
468
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469=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
470
471(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
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472subroutine identifier, in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>"
473symbol. Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
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474
475=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
476
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477(W bareword) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but the
478compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point. Perhaps
479you need to predeclare a package?
6df41af2 480
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481=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
482
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483(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN
484subroutine. Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is
485exited.
a0d0e21e 486
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487=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
488
489(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
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490implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had already
491occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}> could not
492be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code likely
493depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
68dc0745 494
6df41af2
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495=item \1 better written as $1
496
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497(W syntax) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables.
498The use of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
499substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
500because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better if
501there are more than 9 backreferences.
6df41af2 502
252aa082
JH
503=item Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable
504
e476b1b5 505(W portable) The binary number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
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JH
506(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
507L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 508
69282e91 509=item bind() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 510
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511(W closed) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to
512check the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
a0d0e21e 513
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514=item binmode() on closed filehandle %s
515
516(W unopened) You tried binmode() on a filehandle that was never opened.
517Check you control flow and number of arguments.
518
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519=item Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
520
e476b1b5 521(W portable) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is non-portable.
c5a0f51a 522
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523=item Bizarre copy of %s in %s
524
be771a83 525(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not
b45f050a 526copyable.
4633a7c4 527
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528=item Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
529
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530(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. While Perl was preparing to
531iterate over %ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition
532which was too long, so it was truncated to the string shown.
f675dbe5 533
a0d0e21e
LW
534=item Callback called exit
535
4929bf7b 536(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via call_sv()
a0d0e21e
LW
537exited by calling exit.
538
6df41af2 539=item %s() called too early to check prototype
f675dbe5 540
be771a83
GS
541(W prototype) You've called a function that has a prototype before the
542parser saw a definition or declaration for it, and Perl could not check
543that the call conforms to the prototype. You need to either add an
544early prototype declaration for the subroutine in question, or move the
545subroutine definition ahead of the call to get proper prototype
546checking. Alternatively, if you are certain that you're calling the
547function correctly, you may put an ampersand before the name to avoid
548the warning. See L<perlsub>.
f675dbe5 549
49704364 550=item Cannot compress integer in pack
0258719b
NC
551
552(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was too large to compress. The BER
553compressed integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you
554attempted to compress Infinity or a very large number (> 1e308).
555See L<perlfunc/pack>.
556
49704364 557=item Cannot compress negative numbers in pack
0258719b
NC
558
559(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was negative. The BER compressed integer
560format can only be used with positive integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
561
5c1f4d79
NC
562=item Cannot convert a reference to %s to typeglob
563
564(F) You manipulated Perl's symbol table directly, stored a reference in it,
565then tried to access that symbol via conventional Perl syntax. The access
566triggers Perl to autovivify that typeglob, but it there is no legal conversion
567from that type of reference to a typeglob.
568
ba2fdce6
NC
569=item Cannot copy to %s in %s
570
571(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy a value to an internal type that cannot
572be directly assigned not.
573
b5d97229
RGS
574=item Cannot find encoding "%s"
575
576(S io) You tried to apply an encoding that did not exist to a filehandle,
577either with open() or binmode().
578
96ebfdd7
RK
579=item Can only compress unsigned integers in pack
580
581(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was not an integer. The BER compressed
582integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you attempted
583to compress something else. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
584
a0d0e21e
LW
585=item Can't bless non-reference value
586
587(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
588encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
589
dc57907a
RGS
590=item Can't "break" in a loop topicalizer
591
0d863452
RH
592(F) You called C<break>, but you're in a C<foreach> block rather than
593a C<given> block. You probably meant to use C<next> or C<last>.
594
595=item Can't "break" outside a given block
dc57907a 596
0d863452
RH
597(F) You called C<break>, but you're not inside a C<given> block.
598
a0d0e21e
LW
599=item Can't call method "%s" in empty package "%s"
600
601(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
602functioning as a class, but that package doesn't have ANYTHING defined
603in it, let alone methods. See L<perlobj>.
604
6df41af2
GS
605=item Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
606
607(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
608object reference or package name contains an undefined value. Something
609like this will reproduce the error:
6df41af2
GS
610
611 $BADREF = undef;
612 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
613 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
614
a0d0e21e
LW
615=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
616
54310121 617(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
be771a83
GS
618ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but you
619didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't an
620object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
621
622=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
623
624(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
625object reference or package name contains an expression that returns a
626defined value which is neither an object reference nor a package name.
72b5445b
GS
627Something like this will reproduce the error:
628
629 $BADREF = 42;
630 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
631 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
632
a0d0e21e
LW
633=item Can't chdir to %s
634
635(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but C</foo/bar> is not a directory
636that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
637
0545a864 638=item Can't check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid
104d25b7 639
be771a83
GS
640(P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for
641nosuid.
104d25b7 642
6df41af2
GS
643=item Can't coerce array into hash
644
645(F) You used an array where a hash was expected, but the array has no
646information on how to map from keys to array indices. You can do that
647only with arrays that have a hash reference at index 0.
648
a0d0e21e
LW
649=item Can't coerce %s to integer in %s
650
651(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 652(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
a0d0e21e
LW
653say things like:
654
655 *foo += 1;
656
657You CAN say
658
659 $foo = *foo;
660 $foo += 1;
661
662but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
663
664=item Can't coerce %s to number in %s
665
666(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 667(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
a0d0e21e
LW
668
669=item Can't coerce %s to string in %s
670
671(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 672(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
a0d0e21e 673
0d863452 674=item Can't "continue" outside a when block
dc57907a 675
0d863452
RH
676(F) You called C<continue>, but you're not inside a C<when>
677or C<default> block.
678
a0d0e21e
LW
679=item Can't create pipe mailbox
680
be771a83
GS
681(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted
682quotas or other plumbing problems.
a0d0e21e 683
eb64745e 684=item Can't declare class for non-scalar %s in "%s"
a0d0e21e 685
2f7e735d 686(F) Currently, only scalar variables can be declared with a specific
30c282f6 687class qualifier in a "my", "our" or "state" declaration. The semantics may be
2f7e735d 688extended for other types of variables in future.
eb64745e
GS
689
690=item Can't declare %s in "%s"
691
30c282f6
NC
692(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as "my", "our" or
693"state" variables. They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
a0d0e21e 694
6df41af2
GS
695=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
696
be771a83
GS
697(S inplace) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as
698a file in /dev, or a FIFO. The file was ignored.
6df41af2 699
a0d0e21e
LW
700=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
701
be771a83
GS
702(S inplace) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated
703reason.
a0d0e21e 704
54310121 705=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
a0d0e21e 706
be771a83
GS
707(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try
708reading from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say
709C<-i.bak>, or some such.
a0d0e21e 710
10f9c03d 711=item Can't do inplace edit: %s would not be unique
a0d0e21e 712
e476b1b5 713(S inplace) Your filesystem does not support filenames longer than 14
10f9c03d
CK
714characters and Perl was unable to create a unique filename during
715inplace editing with the B<-i> switch. The file was ignored.
a0d0e21e 716
7253e4e3 717=item Can't do {n,m} with n > m in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 718
b45f050a 719(F) Minima must be less than or equal to maxima. If you really want your
7253e4e3 720regexp to match something 0 times, just put {0}. The <-- HERE shows in the
b45f050a 721regular expression about where the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 722
a0d0e21e
LW
723=item Can't do waitpid with flags
724
be771a83
GS
725(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only
726waitpid() without flags is emulated.
a0d0e21e 727
a0d0e21e
LW
728=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
729
be771a83
GS
730(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this
731point. For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #!
732line.
a0d0e21e 733
1109a392
MHM
734=item Can't %s %s-endian %ss on this platform
735
736(F) Your platform's byte-order is neither big-endian nor little-endian,
737or it has a very strange pointer size. Packing and unpacking big- or
738little-endian floating point values and pointers may not be possible.
739See L<perlfunc/pack>.
740
a0d0e21e
LW
741=item Can't exec "%s": %s
742
d1be9408 743(W exec) A system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the
be771a83
GS
744named program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the
745permissions were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in
746C<$ENV{PATH}>, the executable in question was compiled for another
747architecture, or the #! line in a script points to an interpreter that
748can't be run for similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support
749#! at all.)
a0d0e21e
LW
750
751=item Can't exec %s
752
be771a83
GS
753(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because
754that's what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may
755need to mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
a0d0e21e
LW
756
757=item Can't execute %s
758
be771a83
GS
759(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute
760found in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
2a92aaa0 761
6df41af2 762=item Can't find an opnumber for "%s"
2a92aaa0 763
be771a83
GS
764(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but there
765is no builtin with the name C<word>.
6df41af2 766
56ca2fc0
JH
767=item Can't find %s character property "%s"
768
769(F) You used C<\p{}> or C<\P{}> but the character property by that name
e1b711da
KW
770could not be found. Maybe you misspelled the name of the property?
771See L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
772for a complete list of available properties.
56ca2fc0 773
6df41af2
GS
774=item Can't find label %s
775
be771a83
GS
776(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's
777possible for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2a92aaa0
GS
778
779=item Can't find %s on PATH
780
be771a83
GS
781(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
782found in the PATH.
a0d0e21e 783
6df41af2 784=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
a0d0e21e 785
be771a83
GS
786(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
787found in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The
788script exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
a0d0e21e
LW
789
790=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
791
be771a83
GS
792(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means
793that the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count
794nesting levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
a0d0e21e 795
fb73857a
PP
796 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
797
be771a83
GS
798If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have included
799unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag. A good programmer's
800editor will have a way to help you find these characters.
a0d0e21e 801
660a4616
ST
802=item Can't find Unicode property definition "%s"
803
804(F) You may have tried to use C<\p> which means a Unicode property (for
e1b711da
KW
805example C<\p{Lu}> matches all uppercase letters). If you did mean to use a
806Unicode property, see
807L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
808for a complete list of available properties.
660a4616
ST
809If you didn't mean to use a Unicode property, escape the C<\p>, either
810by C<\\p> (just the C<\p>) or by C<\Q\p> (the rest of the string, until
811possible C<\E>).
812
b3647a36 813=item Can't fork: %s
a0d0e21e 814
be771a83
GS
815(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a
816pipeline.
a0d0e21e 817
b3647a36
SR
818=item Can't fork, trying again in 5 seconds
819
c973c02e 820(W pipe) A fork in a piped open failed with EAGAIN and will be retried
b3647a36
SR
821after five seconds.
822
748a9306
LW
823=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
824
be771a83
GS
825(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference
826between access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes.
827Under VMS, access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in
828the stat buffer, so that ACLs and other protections can be taken into
829account. Unfortunately, Perl assumes that the stat buffer contains all
830the necessary information, and passes it, instead of the filespec, to
831the access checking routine. It will try to retrieve the filespec using
832the device name and FID present in the stat buffer, but this works only
833if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat() routine,
834because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
835appears, the name lookup failed, and the access checking routine gave up
836and returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access checking
837routine knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you
838shouldn't ever see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises
839only if some internal code takes stat buffers lightly.)
748a9306 840
a0d0e21e
LW
841=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
842
be771a83
GS
843(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a
844pipe, Perl can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
845
846=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
847
748a9306
LW
848(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
849mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e 850
6df41af2 851=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
a0d0e21e 852
be771a83
GS
853(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a foreach
854loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2
GS
855
856=item Can't "goto" out of a pseudo block
857
be771a83
GS
858(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look like
859a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually occurs if
860you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which is a no-no.
861See L<perlfunc/goto>.
a0d0e21e 862
9850bf21 863=item Can't goto subroutine from a sort sub (or similar callback)
cd299c6e 864
9850bf21
RH
865(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of the
866comparison sub for a sort(), or from a similar callback (such
867as the reduce() function in List::Util).
868
c74ace89 869=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-%s
b150fb22 870
be771a83 871(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval
c74ace89 872"string" or block.
b150fb22 873
6df41af2
GS
874=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
875
be771a83
GS
876(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one
877subroutine call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole
878cloth. In general you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD
879routine anyway. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2 880
0b5b802d
GS
881=item Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default
882
be771a83
GS
883(W signal) Perl has detected that it is being run with the SIGCHLD
884signal (sometimes known as SIGCLD) disabled. Since disabling this
885signal will interfere with proper determination of exit status of child
886processes, Perl has reset the signal to its default value. This
887situation typically indicates that the parent program under which Perl
888may be running (e.g. cron) is being very careless.
0b5b802d 889
e2c0f81f
DG
890=item Can't kill a non-numeric process ID
891
892(F) Process identifiers must be (signed) integers. It is a fatal error to
893attempt to kill() an undefined, empty-string or otherwise non-numeric
894process identifier.
895
6df41af2 896=item Can't "last" outside a loop block
4633a7c4 897
6df41af2 898(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
be771a83
GS
899except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a current
900block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a "loopish"
901block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or grep(). You can
902usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the
903inner curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See
904L<perlfunc/last>.
4633a7c4 905
2c7d6b9c
RGS
906=item Can't linearize anonymous symbol table
907
908(F) Perl tried to calculate the method resolution order (MRO) of a
909package, but failed because the package stash has no name.
910
b8170e59
JB
911=item Can't load '%s' for module %s
912
913(F) The module you tried to load failed to load a dynamic extension. This
914may either mean that you upgraded your version of perl to one that is
915incompatible with your old dynamic extensions (which is known to happen
916between major versions of perl), or (more likely) that your dynamic
16d98ec5 917extension was built against an older version of the library that is
b8170e59
JB
918installed on your system. You may need to rebuild your old dynamic
919extensions.
920
748a9306
LW
921=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
922
2ba9eb46 923(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
30c282f6 924lexical variable using "my" or "state". This is not allowed. If you want to
748a9306
LW
925localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with the
926package name.
927
6df41af2 928=item Can't localize through a reference
4727527e 929
6df41af2
GS
930(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
931handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
be771a83 932pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be sure
64977eb6 933that $ref will still be a reference.
4727527e 934
ea071790 935=item Can't locate %s
ec889f3a
GS
936
937(F) You said to C<do> (or C<require>, or C<use>) a file that couldn't be
938found. Perl looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in @INC,
be771a83
GS
939unless the file name included the full path to the file. Perhaps you
940need to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where
941the extra library is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name
942to @INC. Or maybe you just misspelled the name of the file. See
943L<perlfunc/require> and L<lib>.
a0d0e21e 944
6df41af2
GS
945=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
946
be771a83
GS
947(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows
948autoload, but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes
949are a misprint in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit>
950the file, say, by doing C<make install>.
6df41af2 951
b8170e59
JB
952=item Can't locate loadable object for module %s in @INC
953
954(F) The module you loaded is trying to load an external library, like
955for example, C<foo.so> or C<bar.dll>, but the L<DynaLoader> module was
956unable to locate this library. See L<DynaLoader>.
957
a0d0e21e
LW
958=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
959
960(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
961functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 962method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
963
964=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
965
be771a83
GS
966(W syntax) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that
967doesn't seem to exist.
a0d0e21e 968
2f7da168
RK
969=item Can't locate PerlIO%s
970
971(F) You tried to use in open() a PerlIO layer that does not exist,
972e.g. open(FH, ">:nosuchlayer", "somefile").
973
3e3baf6d
TB
974=item Can't make list assignment to \%ENV on this system
975
be771a83
GS
976(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably
977VMS.
3e3baf6d 978
a0d0e21e
LW
979=item Can't modify %s in %s
980
be771a83
GS
981(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try
982to change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 983
54310121 984=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
985
986(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
987a NULL.
988
6df41af2
GS
989=item Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call
990
991(F) Subroutines meant to be used in lvalue context should be declared as
992such, see L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
993
5f05dabc 994=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 995
5f05dabc 996(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
997buffer.
998
6df41af2
GS
999=item Can't "next" outside a loop block
1000
1001(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
1002there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
be771a83
GS
1003count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or
1004grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1005though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that loops
1006once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
6df41af2 1007
a0d0e21e
LW
1008=item Can't open %s: %s
1009
c47ff5f1 1010(S inplace) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<< <> >>
08e9d68e
DD
1011filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
1012switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually this
be771a83
GS
1013is because you don't have read permission for a file which you named on
1014the command line.
a0d0e21e 1015
9a869a14
RGS
1016=item Can't open a reference
1017
1018(W io) You tried to open a scalar reference for reading or writing,
1019using the 3-arg open() syntax :
1020
1021 open FH, '>', $ref;
1022
1023but your version of perl is compiled without perlio, and this form of
1024open is not supported.
1025
a0d0e21e
LW
1026=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
1027
be771a83
GS
1028(W pipe) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported.
1029You can try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such
1030as IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using
1031">", and then read it in under a different file handle.
a0d0e21e 1032
748a9306
LW
1033=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
1034
be771a83
GS
1035(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1036redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '2>' or '2>>' on
1037the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1038
1039=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
1040
be771a83
GS
1041(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1042redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '<' on the
1043command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
1044
1045=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
1046
be771a83
GS
1047(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1048redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '>' or '>>' on
1049the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1050
1051=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
1052
be771a83
GS
1053(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1054redirection, and couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined
1055for stdout.
748a9306 1056
2b8ca739 1057=item Can't open perl script%s
a0d0e21e
LW
1058
1059(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
1060
fa3aa65a
JC
1061If you're debugging a script that uses #!, and normally relies on the
1062shell's $PATH search, the -S option causes perl to do that search, so
1063you don't have to type the path or C<`which $scriptname`>.
1064
6df41af2
GS
1065=item Can't read CRTL environ
1066
1067(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read an element of %ENV
1068from the CRTL's internal environment array and discovered the array was
1069missing. You need to figure out where your CRTL misplaced its environ
be771a83
GS
1070or define F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that environ is not
1071searched.
6df41af2 1072
6df41af2
GS
1073=item Can't "redo" outside a loop block
1074
1075(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
1076there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
1077count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map()
1078or grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1079though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that
1080loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
1081
64977eb6 1082=item Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file
10f9c03d 1083
be771a83
GS
1084(S inplace) You requested an inplace edit without creating a backup
1085file. Perl was unable to remove the original file to replace it with
1086the modified file. The file was left unmodified.
10f9c03d 1087
a0d0e21e
LW
1088=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
1089
e476b1b5 1090(S inplace) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason,
10f9c03d 1091probably because you don't have write permission to the directory.
a0d0e21e 1092
748a9306
LW
1093=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
1094
be771a83
GS
1095(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried
1096to reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
748a9306 1097
fe13d51d 1098=item Can't resolve method "%s" overloading "%s" in package "%s"
6df41af2 1099
be771a83
GS
1100(F|P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as opposed
1101to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the package. If
1102method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
6df41af2 1103
cd06dffe
GS
1104=item Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine
1105
be771a83
GS
1106(F) Perl detected an attempt to return illegal lvalues (such as
1107temporary or readonly values) from a subroutine used as an lvalue. This
1108is not allowed.
cd06dffe 1109
96ebfdd7
RK
1110=item Can't return outside a subroutine
1111
1112(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
1113there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
1114
78f9721b
SM
1115=item Can't return %s to lvalue scalar context
1116
1117(F) You tried to return a complete array or hash from an lvalue subroutine,
1118but you called the subroutine in a way that made Perl think you meant
1119to return only one value. You probably meant to write parentheses around
1120the call to the subroutine, which tell Perl that the call should be in
1121list context.
1122
a0d0e21e
LW
1123=item Can't stat script "%s"
1124
be771a83
GS
1125(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have it
1126open already. Bizarre.
a0d0e21e 1127
a0d0e21e
LW
1128=item Can't take log of %g
1129
fb73857a
PP
1130(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
1131negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
be771a83
GS
1132standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for the
1133negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
1134
1135=item Can't take sqrt of %g
1136
1137(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a
PP
1138negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
1139with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
1140
1141=item Can't undef active subroutine
1142
1143(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
1144however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
1145redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
1146
1147=item Can't unshift
1148
1149(F) You tried to unshift an "unreal" array that can't be unshifted, such
1150as the main Perl stack.
1151
c81225bc 1152=item Can't upgrade %s (%d) to %d
a0d0e21e 1153
be771a83
GS
1154(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making it
1155into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are so
1156specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This message
1157indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
a0d0e21e 1158
1db89ea5
BS
1159=item Can't use anonymous symbol table for method lookup
1160
e27ad1f2 1161(F) The internal routine that does method lookup was handed a symbol
1db89ea5
BS
1162table that doesn't have a name. Symbol tables can become anonymous
1163for example by undefining stashes: C<undef %Some::Package::>.
1164
96ebfdd7
RK
1165=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
1166
1167(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
1168be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
1169
6df41af2
GS
1170=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
1171
be771a83
GS
1172(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1173references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 1174
90b75b61 1175=item Can't use %! because Errno.pm is not available
1d2dff63
GS
1176
1177(F) The first time the %! hash is used, perl automatically loads the
1178Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
1179provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
1180
1109a392
MHM
1181=item Can't use both '<' and '>' after type '%c' in %s
1182
1183(F) A type cannot be forced to have both big-endian and little-endian
1184byte-order at the same time, so this combination of modifiers is not
1185allowed. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1186
6df41af2
GS
1187=item Can't use %s for loop variable
1188
be771a83
GS
1189(F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a
1190foreach.
6df41af2 1191
aab6a793 1192=item Can't use global %s in "%s"
6df41af2 1193
be771a83
GS
1194(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This
1195is not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location
1196(namely the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to
1197have variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
6df41af2
GS
1198weren't.
1199
6d3b25aa
RGS
1200=item Can't use '%c' in a group with different byte-order in %s
1201
1202(F) You attempted to force a different byte-order on a type
1203that is already inside a group with a byte-order modifier.
1204For example you cannot force little-endianness on a type that
1205is inside a big-endian group.
1206
c07a80fd
PP
1207=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
1208
1209(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
c47ff5f1 1210You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the <=> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd
PP
1211and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
1212Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
1213lexical variable.
1214
a0d0e21e
LW
1215=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
1216
1217(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
1218reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
1219test the type of the reference, if need be.
1220
748a9306 1221=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e 1222
be771a83
GS
1223(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1224references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 1225
748a9306
LW
1226=item Can't use subscript on %s
1227
1228(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
1229subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
209e7cf1 1230didn't look like a hash or array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
748a9306 1231
6df41af2
GS
1232=item Can't use \%c to mean $%c in expression
1233
75b44862
GS
1234(W syntax) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that
1235creates a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a
1236backreference to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular
be771a83
GS
1237expression pattern. Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a
1238value that prints out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form
1239instead.
6df41af2 1240
0d863452 1241=item Can't use "when" outside a topicalizer
dc57907a 1242
0d863452
RH
1243(F) You have used a when() block that is neither inside a C<foreach>
1244loop nor a C<given> block. (Note that this error is issued on exit
1245from the C<when> block, so you won't get the error if the match fails,
1246or if you use an explicit C<continue>.)
1247
810b8aa5
GS
1248=item Can't weaken a nonreference
1249
1250(F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference. Only
1251references can be weakened.
1252
5f05dabc 1253=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e 1254
be771a83
GS
1255(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value)
1256with an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
a0d0e21e
LW
1257Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
1258
4a68bf9d 1259=item Character following "\c" must be ASCII
f9d13529
KW
1260
1261(F) In C<\cI<X>>, I<X> must be an ASCII character.
1262
f337b084 1263=item Character in 'C' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1264
1265(W pack) You said
1266
1267 pack("C", $x)
1268
1269where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255; the C<"C"> format is
1270only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1271and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1272
1273 pack("C", $x & 255)
1274
1275If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1276instead.
1277
f337b084
TH
1278=item Character in 'W' format wrapped in pack
1279
1280(W pack) You said
1281
1282 pack("U0W", $x)
1283
1284where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255. However, C<U0>-mode expects
1285all values to fall in the interval [0, 255], so Perl behaved as if you
1286meant:
1287
1288 pack("U0W", $x & 255)
1289
1290=item Character in 'c' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1291
1292(W pack) You said
1293
1294 pack("c", $x)
1295
1296where $x is either less than -128 or more than 127; the C<"c"> format
1297is only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1298and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1299
1300 pack("c", $x & 255);
1301
1302If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1303instead.
1304
f337b084
TH
1305=item Character in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1306
1307(W unpack) You tried something like
1308
1309 unpack("H", "\x{2a1}")
1310
1a147d38 1311where the format expects to process a byte (a character with a value
f337b084
TH
1312below 256), but a higher value was provided instead. Perl uses the value
1313modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1314
1315 unpack("H", "\x{a1}")
1316
1317=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in pack
1318
1319(W pack) You tried something like
1320
1321 pack("u", "\x{1f3}b")
1322
1a147d38
YO
1323where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
1324value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1325uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1326
1327 pack("u", "\x{f3}b")
1328
1329=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1330
1331(W unpack) You tried something like
1332
1333 unpack("s", "\x{1f3}b")
1334
1a147d38
YO
1335where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
1336value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1337uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1338
1339 unpack("s", "\x{f3}b")
1340
96ebfdd7
RK
1341=item close() on unopened filehandle %s
1342
1343(W unopened) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
1344
abc7ecad
SP
1345=item closedir() attempted on invalid dirhandle %s
1346
1347(W io) The dirhandle you tried to close is either closed or not really
1348a dirhandle. Check your control flow.
1349
541ed3a9
FC
1350=item Closure prototype called
1351
1352(F) If a closure has attributes, the subroutine passed to an attribute
1353handler is the prototype that is cloned when a new closure is created.
1354This subroutine cannot be called.
1355
49704364
LW
1356=item Code missing after '/'
1357
1358(F) You had a (sub-)template that ends with a '/'. There must be another
1359template code following the slash. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1360
0876b9a0
KW
1361=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, may not be portable
1362
1363(W utf8) You had a code point above the Unicode maximum of U+10FFFF.
1364
1365Perl allows strings to contain a superset of Unicode code
1366points, up to the limit of what is storable in an unsigned integer on
1367your system, but these may not be accepted by other languages/systems.
1368At one time, it was legal in some standards to have code points up to
13690x7FFF_FFFF, but not higher. Code points above 0xFFFF_FFFF require
1370larger than a 32 bit word.
1371
6df41af2
GS
1372=item %s: Command not found
1373
be771a83
GS
1374(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1375Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2 1376
7a2e2cd6
PP
1377=item Compilation failed in require
1378
1379(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
be771a83
GS
1380Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it
1381encountered were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
7a2e2cd6 1382
c3464db5
DD
1383=item Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
1384
be771a83
GS
1385(W regexp) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex
1386situations where back-tracking is required. Recursion depth is limited
1387to 32766, or perhaps less in architectures where the stack cannot grow
1388arbitrarily. ("Simple" and "medium" situations are handled without
1389recursion and are not subject to a limit.) Try shortening the string
1390under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with C<while>) rather than
1391in the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular expression so
c2e66d9e 1392that it is simpler or backtracks less. (See L<perlfaq2> for information
be771a83 1393on I<Mastering Regular Expressions>.)
c3464db5 1394
38875929
DM
1395=item cond_broadcast() called on unlocked variable
1396
1397(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to call
1398cond_broadcast() on a variable which wasn't locked. The cond_broadcast()
1399function is used to wake up another thread that is waiting in a
1400cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't sent before the other thread
1401has a chance to enter the wait, it is usual for the signaling thread to
1402first wait for a lock on variable. This lock attempt will only succeed
1403after the other thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the
1404lock.
1405
38875929
DM
1406=item cond_signal() called on unlocked variable
1407
1408(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to call
1409cond_signal() on a variable which wasn't locked. The cond_signal()
1410function is used to wake up another thread that is waiting in a
1411cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't sent before the other thread
1412has a chance to enter the wait, it is usual for the signaling thread to
1413first wait for a lock on variable. This lock attempt will only succeed
1414after the other thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the
1415lock.
1416
69282e91 1417=item connect() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1418
be771a83
GS
1419(W closed) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget
1420to check the return value of your socket() call? See
1421L<perlfunc/connect>.
a0d0e21e 1422
41ab332f 1423=item Constant(%s)%s: %s
6df41af2 1424
be771a83
GS
1425(F) The parser found inconsistencies either while attempting to define
1426an overloaded constant, or when trying to find the character name
1427specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you forgot to load the
1428corresponding C<overload> or C<charnames> pragma? See L<charnames> and
1429L<overload>.
6df41af2 1430
fc8cd66c
YO
1431=item Constant(%s)%s: %s in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1432
1a147d38
YO
1433(F) The parser found inconsistencies while attempting to find
1434the character name specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you
1435forgot to load the corresponding C<charnames> pragma?
fc8cd66c
YO
1436See L<charnames>.
1437
1438
779c5bc9
GS
1439=item Constant is not %s reference
1440
1441(F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the C<use constant> pragma)
be771a83
GS
1442is being dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference.
1443The message indicates the type of reference that was expected. This
1444usually indicates a syntax error in dereferencing the constant value.
779c5bc9
GS
1445See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> and L<constant>.
1446
4cee8e80
CS
1447=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
1448
bb028877 1449(S) You redefined a subroutine which had previously been
be771a83
GS
1450eligible for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for
1451commentary and workarounds.
4cee8e80 1452
9607fc9c
PP
1453=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
1454
be771a83
GS
1455(W misc) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible
1456for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1457workarounds.
9607fc9c 1458
e7ea3e70
IZ
1459=item Copy method did not return a reference
1460
64977eb6 1461(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See
13a2d996 1462L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
e7ea3e70 1463
6798c92b
GS
1464=item CORE::%s is not a keyword
1465
1466(F) The CORE:: namespace is reserved for Perl keywords.
1467
a0d0e21e
LW
1468=item corrupted regexp pointers
1469
1470(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1471expression compiler gave it.
1472
1473=item corrupted regexp program
1474
be771a83
GS
1475(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without a
1476valid magic number.
a0d0e21e 1477
de42a5a9 1478=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%x at 0x%x
6df41af2
GS
1479
1480(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
1481
49704364
LW
1482=item Count after length/code in unpack
1483
1484(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string, but
1485you have also specified an explicit size for the string. See
1486L<perlfunc/pack>.
1487
1408fb84 1488=item "\c%c" more clearly written simply as "%s"
f9d13529
KW
1489
1490(D deprecated) The C<\cI<X>> construct is intended to be a way to specify
1491non-printable characters. You used it for a printable one, which is better
1408fb84
KW
1492written as simply itself, perhaps preceded by a backslash for non-word
1493characters. This message may not remain as Deprecated beyond 5.13.
f9d13529 1494
a0d0e21e
LW
1495=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
1496
be771a83
GS
1497(W recursion) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly)
1498100 times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an
1499infinite recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in
1500which case it indicates something else.
a0d0e21e 1501
aad1d01f
NC
1502This threshold can be changed from 100, by recompiling the F<perl> binary,
1503setting the C pre-processor macro C<PERL_SUB_DEPTH_WARN> to the desired value.
1504
f10b0346 1505=item defined(@array) is deprecated
69794302 1506
be771a83
GS
1507(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on arrays because it
1508checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the
64977eb6 1509array is empty, just use C<if (@array) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1510
f10b0346 1511=item defined(%hash) is deprecated
69794302 1512
be771a83
GS
1513(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on hashes because it
1514checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the hash
64977eb6 1515is empty, just use C<if (%hash) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1516
62658f4d
PM
1517=item %s defines neither package nor VERSION--version check failed
1518
1519(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but in the Module file
1520there are neither package declarations nor a C<$VERSION>.
1521
fc36a67e
PP
1522=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1523
be771a83
GS
1524(F) In a here document construct like C<<<FOO>, the label C<FOO> is too
1525long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously twisted to write code
1526that triggers this error.
fc36a67e 1527
4a68bf9d 1528=item Deprecated character in \N{...}; marked by <-- HERE in \N{%s<-- HERE %s
cb233ae3
KW
1529
1530(D deprecated) Just about anything is legal for the C<...> in C<\N{...}>.
1531But starting in 5.12, non-reasonable ones that don't look like names are
1532deprecated. A reasonable name begins with an alphabetic character and
1533continues with any combination of alphanumerics, dashes, spaces, parentheses or
1534colons.
1535
6d3b25aa
RGS
1536=item Deprecated use of my() in false conditional
1537
1538(D deprecated) You used a declaration similar to C<my $x if 0>.
1539There has been a long-standing bug in Perl that causes a lexical variable
1540not to be cleared at scope exit when its declaration includes a false
1541conditional. Some people have exploited this bug to achieve a kind of
1542static variable. Since we intend to fix this bug, we don't want people
1543relying on this behavior. You can achieve a similar static effect by
1544declaring the variable in a separate block outside the function, eg
36fb85f3 1545
6d3b25aa
RGS
1546 sub f { my $x if 0; return $x++ }
1547
1548becomes
1549
1550 { my $x; sub f { return $x++ } }
1551
36fb85f3
RGS
1552Beginning with perl 5.9.4, you can also use C<state> variables to
1553have lexicals that are initialized only once (see L<feature>):
1554
1555 sub f { state $x; return $x++ }
1556
500ab966
RGS
1557=item DESTROY created new reference to dead object '%s'
1558
1559(F) A DESTROY() method created a new reference to the object which is
1560just being DESTROYed. Perl is confused, and prefers to abort rather than
1561to create a dangling reference.
1562
3cdd684c
TP
1563=item Did not produce a valid header
1564
1565See Server error.
1566
6df41af2
GS
1567=item %s did not return a true value
1568
1569(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
1570it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
1571traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
1572do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
1573
cc507455 1574=item (Did you mean &%s instead?)
4633a7c4 1575
413ff9f6
FC
1576(W misc) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or
1577some such.
4633a7c4 1578
cc507455 1579=item (Did you mean "local" instead of "our"?)
33633739 1580
be771a83
GS
1581(W misc) Remember that "our" does not localize the declared global
1582variable. You have declared it again in the same lexical scope, which
1583seems superfluous.
33633739 1584
cc507455 1585=item (Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?)
a0d0e21e 1586
be771a83
GS
1587(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or
1588@hash{@keys}. On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got
1589carried away.
748a9306 1590
7e1af8bc 1591=item Died
5f05dabc
PP
1592
1593(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
1594you called it with no args and both C<$@> and C<$_> were empty.
1595
3cdd684c
TP
1596=item Document contains no data
1597
1598See Server error.
1599
62658f4d
PM
1600=item %s does not define %s::VERSION--version check failed
1601
1602(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but the Module did not
1603define a C<$VERSION.>
1604
49704364
LW
1605=item '/' does not take a repeat count
1606
1607(F) You cannot put a repeat count of any kind right after the '/' code.
1608See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1609
a0d0e21e
LW
1610=item Don't know how to handle magic of type '%s'
1611
1612(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
1613
1614=item do_study: out of memory
1615
1616(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
1617
6df41af2
GS
1618=item (Do you need to predeclare %s?)
1619
56da5a46
RGS
1620(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
1621"%s found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
6df41af2
GS
1622name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
1623because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
be771a83
GS
1624"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're referencing
1625something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have to define the
1626subroutine or package before the current location. You can use an empty
1627"sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward" declaration.
6df41af2 1628
ac206dc8
RGS
1629=item dump() better written as CORE::dump()
1630
1631(W misc) You used the obsolescent C<dump()> built-in function, without fully
1632qualifying it as C<CORE::dump()>. Maybe it's a typo. See L<perlfunc/dump>.
1633
84d78eb7
YO
1634=item dump is not supported
1635
1636(F) Your machine doesn't support dump/undump.
1637
a0d0e21e
LW
1638=item Duplicate free() ignored
1639
be771a83
GS
1640(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had
1641already been freed.
a0d0e21e 1642
1109a392
MHM
1643=item Duplicate modifier '%c' after '%c' in %s
1644
1645(W) You have applied the same modifier more than once after a type
1646in a pack template. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1647
4633a7c4
LW
1648=item elseif should be elsif
1649
56da5a46
RGS
1650(S syntax) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks it's
1651ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method named
be771a83 1652"elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
4633a7c4
LW
1653unlikely to be what you want.
1654
ab13f0c7
JH
1655=item Empty %s
1656
af6f566e
HS
1657(F) C<\p> and C<\P> are used to introduce a named Unicode property, as
1658described in L<perlunicode> and L<perlre>. You used C<\p> or C<\P> in
1659a regular expression without specifying the property name.
ab13f0c7 1660
85ab1d1d 1661=item entering effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1662
85ab1d1d 1663(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1664effective uids or gids failed.
1665
c038024b
RGS
1666=item %ENV is aliased to %s
1667
1668(F) You're running under taint mode, and the C<%ENV> variable has been
1669aliased to another hash, so it doesn't reflect anymore the state of the
1670program's environment. This is potentially insecure.
1671
748a9306
LW
1672=item Error converting file specification %s
1673
5f05dabc 1674(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306 1675specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
be771a83
GS
1676single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've passed
1677an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a case the
1678conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
748a9306 1679
e4d48cc9
GS
1680=item %s: Eval-group in insecure regular expression
1681
be771a83
GS
1682(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
1683expression that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which
1684is unsafe. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
e4d48cc9 1685
fc8f615e 1686=item %s: Eval-group not allowed at runtime, use re 'eval'
e4d48cc9 1687
be771a83
GS
1688(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the
1689C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the
1690pattern contains interpolated values. Since that is a security risk, it
1691is not allowed. If you insist, you may still do this by explicitly
1692building the pattern from an interpolated string at run time and using
1693that in an eval(). See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
e4d48cc9 1694
6df41af2
GS
1695=item %s: Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval'
1696
be771a83
GS
1697(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width
1698assertion, but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'>
1699pragma is in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
6df41af2 1700
1a147d38
YO
1701=item EVAL without pos change exceeded limit in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1702
1703(F) You used a pattern that nested too many EVAL calls without consuming
1704any text. Restructure the pattern so that text is consumed.
1705
1706The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
1707discovered.
1708
fc36a67e
PP
1709=item Excessively long <> operator
1710
1711(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
1712Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
1713filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
1714variable and glob that.
1715
ed9aa3b7
SG
1716=item exec? I'm not *that* kind of operating system
1717
1718(F) The C<exec> function is not implemented in MacPerl. See L<perlport>.
1719
fe13d51d 1720=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors.
a0d0e21e
LW
1721
1722(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
1723
1724=item Exiting eval via %s
1725
be771a83
GS
1726(W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as a
1727goto, or a loop control statement.
e476b1b5
GS
1728
1729=item Exiting format via %s
1730
9a2ff54b 1731(W exiting) You are exiting a format by unconventional means, such as a
be771a83 1732goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1733
0a753a76
PP
1734=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
1735
be771a83
GS
1736(W exiting) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a
1737sort block or subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a
1738loop control statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
0a753a76 1739
a0d0e21e
LW
1740=item Exiting subroutine via %s
1741
be771a83
GS
1742(W exiting) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such
1743as a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
1744
1745=item Exiting substitution via %s
1746
be771a83
GS
1747(W exiting) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such
1748as a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1749
7b8d334a
GS
1750=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
1751
be771a83
GS
1752(W misc) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
1753the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
1754usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target package,
1755e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');
7b8d334a 1756
6df41af2
GS
1757=item %s: Expression syntax
1758
be771a83
GS
1759(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1760Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2
GS
1761
1762=item %s failed--call queue aborted
1763
3c10abe3
AG
1764(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a UNITCHECK,
1765CHECK, INIT, or END subroutine. Processing of the remainder of the
1766queue of such routines has been prematurely ended.
6df41af2 1767
7253e4e3 1768=item False [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
73b437c8 1769
be771a83 1770(W regexp) A character class range must start and end at a literal
7253e4e3
RK
1771character, not another character class like C<\d> or C<[:alpha:]>. The "-"
1772in your false range is interpreted as a literal "-". Consider quoting the
1773"-", "\-". The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
1774problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
73b437c8 1775
1b1ee2ef 1776=item Fatal VMS error (status=%d) at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 1777
be771a83
GS
1778(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS
1779system service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more
1780details. The filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell
1781you which section of the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
1782
1783=item fcntl is not implemented
1784
1785(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
1786PDP-11 or something?
1787
22846ab4
AB
1788=item FETCHSIZE returned a negative value
1789
1790(F) A tied array claimed to have a negative number of elements, which
1791is not possible.
1792
f337b084
TH
1793=item Field too wide in 'u' format in pack
1794
1795(W pack) Each line in an uuencoded string start with a length indicator
1796which can't encode values above 63. So there is no point in asking for
1797a line length bigger than that. Perl will behave as if you specified
1798C<u63> as format.
1799
af8c498a 1800=item Filehandle %s opened only for input
a0d0e21e 1801
6c8d78fb
HS
1802(W io) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you intended
1803it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with "+<" or
1804"+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you intended only to
1805write the file, use ">" or ">>". See L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 1806
af8c498a 1807=item Filehandle %s opened only for output
a0d0e21e 1808
6c8d78fb
HS
1809(W io) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing, If
1810you intended it to be a read/write filehandle, you needed to open it
be771a83
GS
1811with "+<" or "+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you
1812intended only to read from the file, use "<". See L<perlfunc/open>.
6c8d78fb
HS
1813Another possibility is that you attempted to open filedescriptor 0
1814(also known as STDIN) for output (maybe you closed STDIN earlier?).
97828cef
RGS
1815
1816=item Filehandle %s reopened as %s only for input
1817
1818(W io) You opened for reading a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
d7f8936a 1819as STDOUT or STDERR. This occurred because you closed STDOUT or STDERR
97828cef
RGS
1820previously.
1821
1822=item Filehandle STDIN reopened as %s only for output
1823
1824(W io) You opened for writing a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
d7f8936a 1825as STDIN. This occurred because you closed STDIN previously.
a0d0e21e
LW
1826
1827=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
1828
1829(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
be771a83
GS
1830a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name that
1831happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or the
1832name.
a0d0e21e 1833
56e90b21
GS
1834=item flock() on closed filehandle %s
1835
be771a83 1836(W closed) The filehandle you're attempting to flock() got itself closed
c289d2f7 1837some time before now. Check your control flow. flock() operates on
be771a83
GS
1838filehandles. Are you attempting to call flock() on a dirhandle by the
1839same name?
56e90b21 1840
6df41af2
GS
1841=item Format not terminated
1842
1843(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
1844to the end of your file without finding such a line.
1845
a0d0e21e
LW
1846=item Format %s redefined
1847
e476b1b5 1848(W redefine) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
a0d0e21e
LW
1849
1850 {
271595cc 1851 no warnings 'redefine';
a0d0e21e
LW
1852 eval "format NAME =...";
1853 }
1854
a0d0e21e
LW
1855=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
1856
e476b1b5 1857(W syntax) You said
a0d0e21e
LW
1858
1859 if ($foo = 123)
1860
1861when you meant
1862
1863 if ($foo == 123)
1864
1865(or something like that).
1866
6df41af2
GS
1867=item %s found where operator expected
1868
56da5a46
RGS
1869(S syntax) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator.
1870If it sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an
be771a83
GS
1871operator, it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an
1872operator or delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
6df41af2 1873
a0d0e21e
LW
1874=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
1875
1876(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
1877
1878=item gethostent not implemented
1879
1880(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
1881because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
1882on the Internet.
1883
69282e91 1884=item get%sname() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1885
be771a83
GS
1886(W closed) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed
1887socket. Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
a0d0e21e 1888
748a9306
LW
1889=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
1890
1891(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
1892C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
1893
6df41af2
GS
1894=item getsockopt() on closed socket %s
1895
be771a83
GS
1896(W closed) You tried to get a socket option on a closed socket. Did you
1897forget to check the return value of your socket() call? See
6df41af2
GS
1898L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
1899
1900=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
1901
a4edf47d 1902(F) You've said "use strict" or "use strict vars", which indicates
30c282f6 1903that all variables must either be lexically scoped (using "my" or "state"),
a4edf47d
GS
1904declared beforehand using "our", or explicitly qualified to say
1905which package the global variable is in (using "::").
6df41af2 1906
e476b1b5
GS
1907=item glob failed (%s)
1908
be771a83
GS
1909(W glob) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used for
1910C<glob> and C<< <*.c> >>. Usually, this means that you supplied a
1911C<glob> pattern that caused the external program to fail and exit with a
1912nonzero status. If the message indicates that the abnormal exit
1913resulted in a coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C shell) is
1914broken. If so, you should change all of the csh-related variables in
1915config.sh: If you have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as if it
1916were csh (e.g. C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them all
1917empty (except that C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will
1918think csh is missing. In either case, after editing config.sh, run
75b44862 1919C<./Configure -S> and rebuild Perl.
e476b1b5 1920
a0d0e21e
LW
1921=item Glob not terminated
1922
1923(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
be771a83
GS
1924a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and
1925not finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out
1926earlier in the line, and you really meant a "less than".
a0d0e21e 1927
bcd05b94 1928=item gmtime(%f) too large
8b56d6ff 1929
fc003d4b
MS
1930(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with an number that was larger than
1931it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong
1932date. This warning is also triggered with nan (the special
1933not-a-number value).
1934
bcd05b94 1935=item gmtime(%f) too small
fc003d4b
MS
1936
1937(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with an number that was smaller than
1938it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong
1939date. This warning is also triggered with nan (the special
1940not-a-number value).
8b56d6ff 1941
6df41af2 1942=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
a0d0e21e 1943
6df41af2
GS
1944(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
1945version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
a0d0e21e
LW
1946
1947=item goto must have label
1948
1949(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
1950unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
1951
49704364 1952=item ()-group starts with a count
18529408 1953
49704364 1954(F) A ()-group started with a count. A count is
18529408 1955supposed to follow something: a template character or a ()-group.
49704364 1956 See L<perlfunc/pack>.
18529408 1957
fe13d51d 1958=item %s had compilation errors.
6df41af2
GS
1959
1960(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
1961
a0d0e21e
LW
1962=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
1963
be771a83
GS
1964(S internal) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought
1965to have existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be
1966created on an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
a0d0e21e
LW
1967
1968=item Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
1969
be771a83
GS
1970(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some
1971spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
a0d0e21e 1972
6df41af2
GS
1973=item %s has too many errors
1974
1975(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
1976Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
1977
e6897b1a
KW
1978=item Having no space between pattern and following word is deprecated
1979
1980(D syntax)
1981
1982You had a word that isn't a regex modifier immediately following a pattern
1983without an intervening space. For example, the two constructs:
1984
1985 $a =~ m/$foo/sand $bar
1986 $a =~ m/$foo/s and $bar
1987
1988both currently mean the same thing, but it is planned to disallow the first form
1989in Perl 5.16. And,
1990
1991 $a =~ m/$foo/and $bar
1992
1993will be disallowed too.
1994
252aa082
JH
1995=item Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
1996
e476b1b5 1997(W portable) The hexadecimal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
1998(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
1999L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 2000
8903cb82
PP
2001=item Identifier too long
2002
2003(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e 2004about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
be771a83
GS
2005names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future versions
2006of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 2007
c3c41406 2008=item Ignoring zero length \N{} in character class
fc8cd66c 2009
ff3f963a
KW
2010(W) Named Unicode character escapes (\N{...}) may return a
2011zero length sequence. When such an escape is used in a character class
1a147d38 2012its behaviour is not well defined. Check that the correct escape has
fc8cd66c
YO
2013been used, and the correct charname handler is in scope.
2014
6df41af2 2015=item Illegal binary digit %s
f675dbe5 2016
6df41af2 2017(F) You used a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
f675dbe5 2018
6df41af2 2019=item Illegal binary digit %s ignored
a0d0e21e 2020
be771a83
GS
2021(W digit) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a
2022binary number. Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the
2023offending digit.
a0d0e21e 2024
78d0fecf 2025=item Illegal character \%o (carriage return)
4fdae800 2026
d5898338 2027(F) Perl normally treats carriage returns in the program text as it
be771a83
GS
2028would any other whitespace, which means you should never see this error
2029when Perl was built using standard options. For some reason, your
2030version of Perl appears to have been built without this support. Talk
2031to your Perl administrator.
4fdae800 2032
d37a9538
ST
2033=item Illegal character in prototype for %s : %s
2034
197afce1
MT
2035(W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype declaration.
2036Legal characters in prototypes are $, @, %, *, ;, [, ], &, and \.
d37a9538 2037
904d85c5
RGS
2038=item Illegal declaration of anonymous subroutine
2039
2040(F) When using the C<sub> keyword to construct an anonymous subroutine,
2041you must always specify a block of code. See L<perlsub>.
2042
8e742a20
MHM
2043=item Illegal declaration of subroutine %s
2044
2045(F) A subroutine was not declared correctly. See L<perlsub>.
2046
a0d0e21e
LW
2047=item Illegal division by zero
2048
be771a83
GS
2049(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in
2050your logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against
2051meaningless input.
a0d0e21e 2052
6df41af2
GS
2053=item Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
2054
be771a83
GS
2055(W digit) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or
2056A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal
2057number stopped before the illegal character.
6df41af2 2058
a0d0e21e
LW
2059=item Illegal modulus zero
2060
be771a83
GS
2061(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most
2062numbers don't take to this kindly.
a0d0e21e 2063
6df41af2 2064=item Illegal number of bits in vec
399388f4 2065
6df41af2
GS
2066(F) The number of bits in vec() (the third argument) must be a power of
2067two from 1 to 32 (or 64, if your platform supports that).
399388f4
GS
2068
2069=item Illegal octal digit %s
a0d0e21e 2070
d1be9408 2071(F) You used an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
a0d0e21e 2072
399388f4 2073=item Illegal octal digit %s ignored
748a9306 2074
d1be9408 2075(W digit) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
75b44862 2076Interpretation of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
748a9306 2077
fe13d51d 2078=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: -%c
6ff81951 2079
6df41af2 2080(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
646ca9b2 2081following switches: B<-[CDIMUdmtw]>.
6ff81951 2082
6df41af2 2083=item Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
81e118e0 2084
75b44862 2085(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the CRTL's
be771a83
GS
2086internal environ array, and encountered an element without the C<=>
2087delimiter used to separate keys from values. The element is ignored.
09bef843 2088
6df41af2 2089=item Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
54310121 2090
be771a83
GS
2091(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read a logical
2092name or CLI symbol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and
2093didn't see the expected delimiter between key and value, so the line was
2094ignored.
54310121 2095
6df41af2 2096=item (in cleanup) %s
9607fc9c 2097
be771a83
GS
2098(W misc) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised
2099the indicated exception. Since destructors are usually called by the
2100system at arbitrary points during execution, and often a vast number of
2101times, the warning is issued only once for any number of failures that
2102would otherwise result in the same message being repeated.
6df41af2 2103
be771a83
GS
2104Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the C<G_KEEPERR> flag could
2105also result in this warning. See L<perlcall/G_KEEPERR>.
9607fc9c 2106
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2107=item Inconsistent hierarchy during C3 merge of class '%s': merging failed on parent '%s'
2108
2109(F) The method resolution order (MRO) of the given class is not
2110C3-consistent, and you have enabled the C3 MRO for this class. See the C3
2111documentation in L<mro> for more information.
2112
979699d9
JH
2113=item In EBCDIC the v-string components cannot exceed 2147483647
2114
2115(F) An error peculiar to EBCDIC. Internally, v-strings are stored as
2116Unicode code points, and encoded in EBCDIC as UTF-EBCDIC. The UTF-EBCDIC
2117encoding is limited to code points no larger than 2147483647 (0x7FFFFFFF).
2118
1a147d38
YO
2119=item Infinite recursion in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2120
2121(F) You used a pattern that references itself without consuming any input
2122text. You should check the pattern to ensure that recursive patterns
2123either consume text or fail.
2124
2125The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
2126discovered.
2127
6dbe9451
NC
2128=item Initialization of state variables in list context currently forbidden
2129
2130(F) Currently the implementation of "state" only permits the initialization
2131of scalar variables in scalar context. Re-write C<state ($a) = 42> as
2132C<state $a = 42> to change from list to scalar context. Constructions such
2133as C<state (@a) = foo()> will be supported in a future perl release.
2134
a0d0e21e
LW
2135=item Insecure dependency in %s
2136
8b1a09fc 2137(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
be771a83
GS
2138The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or
2139setgid, or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The
2140tainting mechanism labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly
2141from the user, who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any
2142such data is used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See
2143L<perlsec> for more information.
a0d0e21e
LW
2144
2145=item Insecure directory in %s
2146
be771a83
GS
2147(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
2148setgid script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by
df98f984
RGS
2149the world. Also, the PATH must not contain any relative directory.
2150See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2151
62f468fc 2152=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2153
2154(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc 2155setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
332d5f78
SR
2156C<$ENV{ENV}>, C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> or C<$ENV{TERM}> are derived from data
2157supplied (or potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set
2158the path to a known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2159
a7ae9550
GS
2160=item Integer overflow in %s number
2161
75b44862 2162(W overflow) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have specified
be771a83
GS
2163either as a literal or as an argument to hex() or oct() is too big for
2164your architecture, and has been converted to a floating point number.
2165On a 32-bit architecture the largest hexadecimal, octal or binary number
9e24b6e2
JH
2166representable without overflow is 0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or
21670b11111111111111111111111111111111 respectively. Note that Perl
2168transparently promotes all numbers to a floating point representation
2169internally--subject to loss of precision errors in subsequent
2170operations.
bbce6d69 2171
2fba7546
GA
2172=item Integer overflow in format string for %s
2173
0be96356
AL
2174(F) The indexes and widths specified in the format string of C<printf()>
2175or C<sprintf()> are too large. The numbers must not overflow the size of
2fba7546
GA
2176integers for your architecture.
2177
46314c13
JP
2178=item Integer overflow in version
2179
2180(F) Some portion of a version initialization is too large for the
2181size of integers for your architecture. This is not a warning
2182because there is no rational reason for a version to try and use a
2183element larger than typically 2**32. This is usually caused by
2184trying to use some odd mathematical operation as a version, like
2185100/9.
2186
7253e4e3 2187=item Internal disaster in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2188
2189(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
7253e4e3 2190The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
b45f050a
JF
2191discovered.
2192
748a9306
LW
2193=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
2194
be771a83
GS
2195(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number of times
2196you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine whether the current call
2197to C<exec> should affect the current script or a subprocess (see
2198L<perlvms/"exec LIST">). Somehow, this count has become scrambled, so
2199Perl is making a guess and treating this C<exec> as a request to
2200terminate the Perl script and execute the specified command.
748a9306 2201
7253e4e3 2202=item Internal urp in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a 2203
7253e4e3
RK
2204(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser. The
2205<-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
2206discovered.
a0d0e21e 2207
6df41af2
GS
2208=item %s (...) interpreted as function
2209
75b44862 2210(W syntax) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator
be771a83 2211followed by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list
64977eb6 2212operators arguments found inside the parentheses. See
13a2d996 2213L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
6df41af2 2214
09bef843
SB
2215=item Invalid %s attribute: %s
2216
a4a4c9e2 2217(F) The indicated attribute for a subroutine or variable was not recognized
09bef843
SB
2218by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
2219
2220=item Invalid %s attributes: %s
2221
a4a4c9e2 2222(F) The indicated attributes for a subroutine or variable were not
be771a83 2223recognized by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2224
c635e13b
PP
2225=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
2226
be771a83
GS
2227(W printf) Perl does not understand the given format conversion. See
2228L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
c635e13b 2229
9e08bc66
ST
2230=item Invalid escape in the specified encoding in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2231
2232(W regexp) The numeric escape (for example C<\xHH>) of value < 256
2233didn't correspond to a single character through the conversion
2234from the encoding specified by the encoding pragma.
2235The escape was replaced with REPLACEMENT CHARACTER (U+FFFD) instead.
2236The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
2237escape was discovered.
2238
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2239=item Invalid mro name: '%s'
2240
2241(F) You tried to C<mro::set_mro("classname", "foo")>
2242or C<use mro 'foo'>, where C<foo> is not a valid method resolution order (MRO).
2243(Currently, the only valid ones are C<dfs> and C<c3>). See L<mro>.
2244
7253e4e3 2245=item Invalid [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2246
2247(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
7253e4e3
RK
2248greater than the maximum character. One possibility is that you forgot the
2249C<{}> from your ending C<\x{}> - C<\x> without the curly braces can go only
2250up to C<ff>. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
2251problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 2252
d1573ac7 2253=item Invalid range "%s" in transliteration operator
c2e66d9e
GS
2254
2255(F) The range specified in the tr/// or y/// operator had a minimum
2256character greater than the maximum character. See L<perlop>.
2257
09bef843
SB
2258=item Invalid separator character %s in attribute list
2259
0120eecf 2260(F) Something other than a colon or whitespace was seen between the
be771a83
GS
2261elements of an attribute list. If the previous attribute had a
2262parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that list was terminated too soon.
2263See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2264
b4581f09
JH
2265=item Invalid separator character %s in PerlIO layer specification %s
2266
2267(W layer) When pushing layers onto the Perl I/O system, something other than a
2268colon or whitespace was seen between the elements of a layer list.
2269If the previous attribute had a parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that
2270list was terminated too soon.
2271
2c86d456
DG
2272=item Invalid strict version format (%s)
2273
2274(F) A version number did not meet the "strict" criteria for versions.
2275A "strict" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2276decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
2277v-string with a leading 'v' character and at least three components.
a6485a24 2278The parenthesized text indicates which criteria were not met.
2c86d456
DG
2279See the L<version> module for more details on allowed version formats.
2280
49704364 2281=item Invalid type '%s' in %s
96e4d5b1 2282
49704364
LW
2283(F) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type.
2284See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2285(W) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type but used to be
75b44862 2286silently ignored.
96e4d5b1 2287
2c86d456
DG
2288=item Invalid version format (%s)
2289
2290(F) A version number did not meet the "lax" criteria for versions.
2291A "lax" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2292decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
2293v-string. If the v-string has less than three components, it must have a
2294leading 'v' character. Otherwise, the leading 'v' is optional. Both
2295decimal and dotted-decimal versions may have a trailing "alpha"
2296component separated by an underscore character after a fractional or
2297dotted-decimal component. The parenthesized text indicates which
a6485a24 2298criteria were not met. See the L<version> module for more details on
2c86d456 2299allowed version formats.
46314c13 2300
798ae1b7
DG
2301=item Invalid version object
2302
2303(F) The internal structure of the version object was invalid. Perhaps
2304the internals were modified directly in some way or an arbitrary reference
2305was blessed into the "version" class.
2306
a0d0e21e
LW
2307=item ioctl is not implemented
2308
2309(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
2310strange for a machine that supports C.
2311
c289d2f7
JH
2312=item ioctl() on unopened %s
2313
2314(W unopened) You tried ioctl() on a filehandle that was never opened.
2315Check you control flow and number of arguments.
2316
fe13d51d 2317=item IO layers (like '%s') unavailable
363c40c4
SB
2318
2319(F) Your Perl has not been configured to have PerlIO, and therefore
2320you cannot use IO layers. To have PerlIO Perl must be configured
2321with 'useperlio'.
2322
80cbd5ad
JH
2323=item IO::Socket::atmark not implemented on this architecture
2324
2325(F) Your machine doesn't implement the sockatmark() functionality,
2326neither as a system call or an ioctl call (SIOCATMARK).
2327
b4581f09
JH
2328=item $* is no longer supported
2329
d1d15184 2330(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$*>, deprecated in older perls, has
4fd19576
B
2331been removed as of 5.9.0 and is no longer supported. In previous versions of perl the use of
2332C<$*> enabled or disabled multi-line matching within a string.
2333
2334Instead of using C<$*> you should use the C</m> (and maybe C</s>) regexp
2335modifiers. (In older versions: when C<$*> was set to a true value then all regular
2336expressions behaved as if they were written using C</m>.)
b4581f09 2337
8ae1fe26
RGS
2338=item $# is no longer supported
2339
d1d15184 2340(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$#>, deprecated in older perls, has
8ae1fe26
RGS
2341been removed as of 5.9.3 and is no longer supported. You should use the
2342printf/sprintf functions instead.
2343
6ad11d81
JH
2344=item `%s' is not a code reference
2345
04a80ee0
RGS
2346(W overload) The second (fourth, sixth, ...) argument of overload::constant
2347needs to be a code reference. Either an anonymous subroutine, or a reference
6ad11d81
JH
2348to a subroutine.
2349
2350=item `%s' is not an overloadable type
2351
04a80ee0
RGS
2352(W overload) You tried to overload a constant type the overload package is
2353unaware of.
6ad11d81 2354
a0d0e21e
LW
2355=item junk on end of regexp
2356
2357(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
2358
2359=item Label not found for "last %s"
2360
be771a83
GS
2361(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a loop
2362of that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2363L<perlfunc/last>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2364
2365=item Label not found for "next %s"
2366
2367(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
2368that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2369L<perlfunc/last>.
2370
2371=item Label not found for "redo %s"
2372
2373(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
2374that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2375L<perlfunc/last>.
2376
85ab1d1d 2377=item leaving effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 2378
85ab1d1d 2379(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
2380effective uids or gids failed.
2381
49704364
LW
2382=item length/code after end of string in unpack
2383
d7f8936a 2384(F) While unpacking, the string buffer was already used up when an unpack
49704364
LW
2385length/code combination tried to obtain more data. This results in
2386an undefined value for the length. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2387
f0e67a1d
Z
2388=item Lexing code attempted to stuff non-Latin-1 character into Latin-1 input
2389
2390(F) An extension is attempting to insert text into the current parse
2391(using L<lex_stuff_pvn_flags|perlapi/lex_stuff_pvn_flags> or similar), but
2392tried to insert a character that couldn't be part of the current input.
2393This is an inherent pitfall of the stuffing mechanism, and one of the
2394reasons to avoid it. Where it is necessary to stuff, stuffing only
2395plain ASCII is recommended.
2396
2397=item Lexing code internal error (%s)
2398
2399(F) Lexing code supplied by an extension violated the lexer's API in a
2400detectable way.
2401
69282e91 2402=item listen() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2403
be771a83
GS
2404(W closed) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget
2405to check the return value of your socket() call? See
2406L<perlfunc/listen>.
a0d0e21e 2407
bcd05b94 2408=item localtime(%f) too large
8b56d6ff 2409
fc003d4b
MS
2410(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with an number that was larger
2411than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
2412wrong date. This warning is also triggered with nan (the special
2413not-a-number value).
2414
bcd05b94 2415=item localtime(%f) too small
fc003d4b
MS
2416
2417(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with an number that was smaller
2418than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
2419wrong date. This warning is also triggered with nan (the special
2420not-a-number value).
8b56d6ff 2421
58e23c8d 2422=item Lookbehind longer than %d not implemented in regex m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
2423
2424(F) There is currently a limit on the length of string which lookbehind can
58e23c8d 2425handle. This restriction may be eased in a future release.
2e50fd82 2426
b88df990
NC
2427=item Lost precision when %s %f by 1
2428
2429(W) The value you attempted to increment or decrement by one is too large
2430for the underlying floating point representation to store accurately,
2431hence the target of C<++> or C<--> is unchanged. Perl issues this warning
2432because it has already switched from integers to floating point when values
2433are too large for integers, and now even floating point is insufficient.
2434You may wish to switch to using L<Math::BigInt> explicitly.
2435
2f7da168
RK
2436=item lstat() on filehandle %s
2437
2438(W io) You tried to do an lstat on a filehandle. What did you mean
2439by that? lstat() makes sense only on filenames. (Perl did a fstat()
2440instead on the filehandle.)
2441
885ef6f5
GG
2442=item lvalue attribute ignored after the subroutine has been defined
2443
963d9ce9 2444(W misc) Making a subroutine an lvalue subroutine after it has been defined
d9159685
RS
2445by declaring the subroutine with an lvalue attribute is not
2446possible. To make the subroutine an lvalue subroutine add the
e2bd2e2b 2447lvalue attribute to the definition, or put the declaration before
885ef6f5
GG
2448the definition.
2449
96ebfdd7
RK
2450=item Lvalue subs returning %s not implemented yet
2451
2452(F) Due to limitations in the current implementation, array and hash
2453values cannot be returned in subroutines used in lvalue context. See
2454L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
2455
49704364
LW
2456=item Malformed integer in [] in pack
2457
2458(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
2459are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2460
2461=item Malformed integer in [] in unpack
2462
2463(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
2464are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2465
6df41af2
GS
2466=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
2467
2468(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
2469
2470 prefix1;prefix2
2471
2472or
6df41af2
GS
2473 prefix1 prefix2
2474
be771a83
GS
2475with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix of
2476a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error may
2477appear if components are not found, or are too long. See
fecfaeb8 2478"PERLLIB_PREFIX" in L<perlos2>.
6df41af2 2479
2f758a16
ST
2480=item Malformed prototype for %s: %s
2481
d37a9538
ST
2482(F) You tried to use a function with a malformed prototype. The
2483syntax of function prototypes is given a brief compile-time check for
2484obvious errors like invalid characters. A more rigorous check is run
2485when the function is called.
2f758a16 2486
ba210ebe
JH
2487=item Malformed UTF-8 character (%s)
2488
2575c402
JW
2489(S utf8) (F) Perl detected a string that didn't comply with UTF-8
2490encoding rules, even though it had the UTF8 flag on.
ba210ebe 2491
2575c402
JW
2492One possible cause is that you set the UTF8 flag yourself for data that
2493you thought to be in UTF-8 but it wasn't (it was for example legacy
24948-bit data). To guard against this, you can use Encode::decode_utf8.
2495
2496If you use the C<:encoding(UTF-8)> PerlIO layer for input, invalid byte
2497sequences are handled gracefully, but if you use C<:utf8>, the flag is
2498set without validating the data, possibly resulting in this error
2499message.
2500
2501See also L<Encode/"Handling Malformed Data">.
901b21bf 2502
dea0fc0b
JH
2503=item Malformed UTF-16 surrogate
2504
183097aa 2505(F) Perl thought it was reading UTF-16 encoded character data but while
dea0fc0b
JH
2506doing it Perl met a malformed Unicode surrogate.
2507
ff3f963a
KW
2508=item Malformed UTF-8 returned by \N
2509
2510(F) The charnames handler returned malformed UTF-8.
2511
f337b084
TH
2512=item Malformed UTF-8 string in pack
2513
2514(F) You tried to pack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2515rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2516
2517=item Malformed UTF-8 string in unpack
2518
2519(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2520rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2521
2522=item Malformed UTF-8 string in '%c' format in unpack
2523
2524(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2525rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2526
de42a5a9 2527=item Maximal count of pending signals (%u) exceeded
2563cec5 2528
fe13d51d 2529(F) Perl aborted due to a too high number of signals pending. This
2563cec5
IZ
2530usually indicates that your operating system tried to deliver signals
2531too fast (with a very high priority), starving the perl process from
2532resources it would need to reach a point where it can process signals
2533safely. (See L<perlipc/"Deferred Signals (Safe Signals)">.)
2534
49704364 2535=item %s matches null string many times in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2536
2537(W regexp) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
7253e4e3
RK
2538regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. The <-- HERE
2539shows in the regular expression about where the problem was discovered.
2540See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 2541
25f58aea
PN
2542=item "%s" may clash with future reserved word
2543
2544(W) This warning may be due to running a perl5 script through a perl4
2545interpreter, especially if the word that is being warned about is
2546"use" or "my".
2547
49704364 2548=item % may not be used in pack
6df41af2
GS
2549
2550(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
be771a83
GS
2551checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other way.
2552See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
6df41af2 2553
a0d0e21e
LW
2554=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
2555
2556(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
e7ea3e70 2557doesn't resolve to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 2558
3cdd684c
TP
2559=item Method %s not permitted
2560
2561See Server error.
2562
a0d0e21e
LW
2563=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
2564
2565(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
2566by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
2567ended earlier on the current line.
2568
2569=item Misplaced _ in number
2570
d4ced10d
JH
2571(W syntax) An underscore (underbar) in a numeric constant did not
2572separate two digits.
a0d0e21e 2573
7baa4690
HS
2574=item Missing argument in %s
2575
2576(W uninitialized) A printf-type format required more arguments than were
2577supplied.
2578
9e81e6a1
RGS
2579=item Missing argument to -%c
2580
2581(F) The argument to the indicated command line switch must follow
2582immediately after the switch, without intervening spaces.
2583
ff3f963a 2584=item Missing braces on \N{}
423cee85 2585
4a2d328f 2586(F) Wrong syntax of character name literal C<\N{charname}> within
c3c41406
KW
2587double-quotish context. This can also happen when there is a space (or
2588comment) between the C<\N> and the C<{> in a regex with the C</x> modifier.
2589This modifier does not change the requirement that the brace immediately follow
2590the C<\N>.
423cee85 2591
f0a2b745
KW
2592=item Missing braces on \o{}
2593
2594(F) A C<\o> must be followed immediately by a C<{> in double-quotish context.
2595
a0d0e21e
LW
2596=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
2597
2598(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
2599"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
2600
06eaf0bc
GS
2601=item Missing command in piped open
2602
be771a83
GS
2603(W pipe) You used the C<open(FH, "| command")> or
2604C<open(FH, "command |")> construction, but the command was missing or
2605blank.
06eaf0bc 2606
961ce445
RGS
2607=item Missing control char name in \c
2608
2609(F) A double-quoted string ended with "\c", without the required control
2610character name.
2611
6df41af2
GS
2612=item Missing name in "my sub"
2613
be771a83
GS
2614(F) The reserved syntax for lexically scoped subroutines requires that
2615they have a name with which they can be found.
6df41af2
GS
2616
2617=item Missing $ on loop variable
2618
be771a83
GS
2619(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables
2620are always mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it
2621can vary from one line to the next.
6df41af2 2622
cc507455 2623=item (Missing operator before %s?)
748a9306 2624
56da5a46
RGS
2625(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2626"%s found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
748a9306 2627
ab13f0c7
JH
2628=item Missing right brace on %s
2629
ff3f963a
KW
2630(F) Missing right brace in C<\x{...}>, C<\p{...}>, C<\P{...}>, or C<\N{...}>.
2631
4a68bf9d 2632=item Missing right brace on \N{} or unescaped left brace after \N
ff3f963a 2633
0a96133f
KW
2634(F)
2635C<\N> has two meanings.
2636
2637The traditional one has it followed by a name enclosed
2638in braces, meaning the character (or sequence of characters) given by that name.
ff3f963a 2639Thus C<\N{ASTERISK}> is another way of writing C<*>, valid in both
0a96133f
KW
2640double-quoted strings and regular expression patterns. In patterns, it doesn't
2641have the meaning an unescaped C<*> does.
ff3f963a 2642
0a96133f 2643Starting in Perl 5.12.0, C<\N> also can have an additional meaning (only) in
c3c41406
KW
2644patterns, namely to match a non-newline character. (This is short for
2645C<[^\n]>, and like C<.> but is not affected by the C</s> regex modifier.)
ff3f963a
KW
2646
2647This can lead to some ambiguities. When C<\N> is not followed immediately by a
c3c41406 2648left brace, Perl assumes the C<[^\n]> meaning. Also, if
ff3f963a
KW
2649the braces form a valid quantifier such as C<\N{3}> or C<\N{5,}>, Perl assumes
2650that this means to match the given quantity of non-newlines (in these examples,
0a96133f 26513; and 5 or more, respectively). In all other case, where there is a C<\N{>
ff3f963a
KW
2652and a matching C<}>, Perl assumes that a character name is desired.
2653
2654However, if there is no matching C<}>, Perl doesn't know if it was mistakenly
c3c41406 2655omitted, or if C<[^\n]{> was desired, and
0a96133f
KW
2656raises this error. If you meant the former, add the right brace; if you meant
2657the latter, escape the brace with a backslash, like so: C<\N\{>
ab13f0c7 2658
d98d5fff 2659=item Missing right curly or square bracket
a0d0e21e 2660
be771a83
GS
2661(F) The lexer counted more opening curly or square brackets than closing
2662ones. As a general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place you
2663were last editing.
a0d0e21e 2664
6df41af2
GS
2665=item (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
2666
56da5a46
RGS
2667(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2668"%s found where operator expected". Don't automatically put a semicolon on
6df41af2
GS
2669the previous line just because you saw this message.
2670
a0d0e21e
LW
2671=item Modification of a read-only value attempted
2672
2673(F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
5f05dabc 2674constant. You didn't, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
a0d0e21e
LW
2675catches that. But an easy way to do the same thing is:
2676
2677 sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
2678 mod(2);
2679
2680Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.
2681
c5674021
PDF
2682Yet another way is to assign to a C<foreach> loop I<VAR> when I<VAR>
2683is aliased to a constant in the look I<LIST>:
2684
2685 $x = 1;
2686 foreach my $n ($x, 2) {
2687 $n *= 2; # modifies the $x, but fails on attempt to modify the 2
64977eb6 2688 }
c5674021 2689
7a4340ed 2690=item Modification of non-creatable array value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2691
2692(F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
2693subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the array
2694backwards.
2695
7a4340ed 2696=item Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e 2697
be771a83
GS
2698(P) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it
2699couldn't be created for some peculiar reason.
a0d0e21e
LW
2700
2701=item Module name must be constant
2702
2703(F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".
2704
be98fb35 2705=item Module name required with -%c option
6df41af2 2706
be98fb35
GS
2707(F) The C<-M> or C<-m> options say that Perl should load some module, but
2708you omitted the name of the module. Consult L<perlrun> for full details
2709about C<-M> and C<-m>.
6df41af2 2710
fe13d51d 2711=item More than one argument to '%s' open
ed9aa3b7
SG
2712
2713(F) The C<open> function has been asked to open multiple files. This
2714can happen if you are trying to open a pipe to a command that takes a
2715list of arguments, but have forgotten to specify a piped open mode.
2716See L<perlfunc/open> for details.
2717
a0d0e21e
LW
2718=item msg%s not implemented
2719
2720(F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.
2721
2722=item Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
2723
75b44862
GS
2724(W syntax) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like C<$foo[1,2,3]>.
2725They're written like C<$foo[1][2][3]>, as in C.
8b1a09fc 2726
49704364 2727=item '/' must follow a numeric type in unpack
6df41af2 2728
49704364
LW
2729(F) You had an unpack template that contained a '/', but this did not
2730follow some unpack specification producing a numeric value.
2731See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6df41af2
GS
2732
2733=item "my sub" not yet implemented
2734
be771a83
GS
2735(F) Lexically scoped subroutines are not yet implemented. Don't try
2736that yet.
6df41af2 2737
30c282f6 2738=item "%s" variable %s can't be in a package
6df41af2 2739
be771a83
GS
2740(F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make
2741sense to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the front. Use
2742local() if you want to localize a package variable.
09bef843 2743
4a68bf9d 2744=item \N in a character class must be a named character: \N{...}
ff3f963a 2745
c3c41406
KW
2746(F) The new (5.12) meaning of C<\N> as C<[^\n]> is not valid in a bracketed
2747character class, for the same reason that C<.> in a character class loses its
2748specialness: it matches almost everything, which is probably not what you want.
2749
4a68bf9d 2750=item \N{NAME} must be resolved by the lexer
c3c41406
KW
2751
2752(F) When compiling a regex pattern, an unresolved named character or sequence
2753was encountered. This can happen in any of several ways that bypass the lexer,
b09c05e6 2754such as using single-quotish context, or an extra backslash in double quotish:
c3c41406
KW
2755
2756 $re = '\N{SPACE}'; # Wrong!
b09c05e6 2757 $re = "\\N{SPACE}"; # Wrong!
c3c41406
KW
2758 /$re/;
2759
b09c05e6 2760Instead, use double-quotes with a single backslash:
c3c41406
KW
2761
2762 $re = "\N{SPACE}"; # ok
2763 /$re/;
2764
2765The lexer can be bypassed as well by creating the pattern from smaller
2766components:
2767
2768 $re = '\N';
2769 /${re}{SPACE}/; # Wrong!
2770
2771It's not a good idea to split a construct in the middle like this, and it
2772doesn't work here. Instead use the solution above.
2773
2774Finally, the message also can happen under the C</x> regex modifier when the
2775C<\N> is separated by spaces from the C<{>, in which case, remove the spaces.
2776
2777 /\N {SPACE}/x; # Wrong!
2778 /\N{SPACE}/x; # ok
ff3f963a 2779
8b1a09fc
PP
2780=item Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
2781
e476b1b5 2782(W once) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable names.
be771a83
GS
2783If you had a good reason for having a unique name, then just mention it
2784again somehow to suppress the message. The C<our> declaration is
77ca0c92 2785provided for this purpose.
a0d0e21e 2786
64b374f4
FD
2787NOTE: This warning detects symbols that have been used only once so $c, @c,
2788%c, *c, &c, sub c{}, c(), and c (the filehandle or format) are considered
2789the same; if a program uses $c only once but also uses any of the others it
2790will not trigger this warning.
2791
4a68bf9d 2792=item Invalid hexadecimal number in \N{U+...}
ff3f963a
KW
2793
2794(F) The character constant represented by C<...> is not a valid hexadecimal
c3c41406
KW
2795number. Either it is empty, or you tried to use a character other than 0 - 9
2796or A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number.
ff3f963a 2797
49704364
LW
2798=item Negative '/' count in unpack
2799
2800(F) The length count obtained from a length/code unpack operation was
2801negative. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2802
a0d0e21e
LW
2803=item Negative length
2804
be771a83
GS
2805(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer
2806length that is less than 0. This is difficult to imagine.
a0d0e21e 2807
ed9aa3b7
SG
2808=item Negative offset to vec in lvalue context
2809
2810(F) When C<vec> is called in an lvalue context, the second argument must be
2811greater than or equal to zero.
2812
7253e4e3 2813=item Nested quantifiers in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 2814
b45f050a 2815(F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses. So
7253e4e3 2816things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal. The <-- HERE shows in the regular
b45f050a 2817expression about where the problem was discovered.
a0d0e21e 2818
7253e4e3 2819Note that the minimal matching quantifiers, C<*?>, C<+?>, and
be771a83 2820C<??> appear to be nested quantifiers, but aren't. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 2821
6df41af2 2822=item %s never introduced
a0d0e21e 2823
be771a83
GS
2824(S internal) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of
2825scope before it could possibly have been used.
a0d0e21e 2826
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2827=item next::method/next::can/maybe::next::method cannot find enclosing method
2828
2829(F) C<next::method> needs to be called within the context of a
2830real method in a real package, and it could not find such a context.
2831See L<mro>.
2832
a0d0e21e
LW
2833=item No %s allowed while running setuid
2834
be771a83
GS
2835(F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or
2836setgid script to even be allowed to attempt. Generally speaking there
2837will be another way to do what you want that is, if not secure, at least
2838securable. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2839
a0d0e21e
LW
2840=item No comma allowed after %s
2841
2842(F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is not
2843allowed to have a comma between that and the following arguments.
2844Otherwise it'd be just another one of the arguments.
2845
0a753a76
PP
2846One possible cause for this is that you expected to have imported a
2847constant to your name space with B<use> or B<import> while no such
2848importing took place, it may for example be that your operating system
2849does not support that particular constant. Hopefully you did use an
2850explicit import list for the constants you expect to see, please see
2851L<perlfunc/use> and L<perlfunc/import>. While an explicit import list
2852would probably have caught this error earlier it naturally does not
2853remedy the fact that your operating system still does not support that
2854constant. Maybe you have a typo in the constants of the symbol import
2855list of B<use> or B<import> or in the constant name at the line where
2856this error was triggered?
2857
748a9306
LW
2858=item No command into which to pipe on command line
2859
be771a83
GS
2860(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2861redirection, and found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it
2862doesn't know where you want to pipe the output from this command.
748a9306 2863
a0d0e21e
LW
2864=item No DB::DB routine defined
2865
be771a83 2866(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
ccafdc96
RGS
2867for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
2868module) didn't define a routine to be called at the beginning of each
2869statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
2870
2871=item No dbm on this machine
2872
2873(P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine should
5f05dabc 2874supply dbm nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM. See L<SDBM_File>.
a0d0e21e 2875
ccafdc96 2876=item No DB::sub routine defined
a0d0e21e 2877
ccafdc96
RGS
2878(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
2879for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
2880module) didn't define a C<DB::sub> routine to be called at the beginning
2881of each ordinary subroutine call.
a0d0e21e 2882
96ebfdd7
RK
2883=item No B<-e> allowed in setuid scripts
2884
2885(F) A setuid script can't be specified by the user.
2886
c47ff5f1 2887=item No error file after 2> or 2>> on command line
748a9306 2888
be771a83
GS
2889(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2890redirection, and found a '2>' or a '2>>' on the command line, but can't
2891find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stderr.
748a9306 2892
49704364
LW
2893=item No group ending character '%c' found in template
2894
2895(F) A pack or unpack template has an opening '(' or '[' without its
2896matching counterpart. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2897
c47ff5f1 2898=item No input file after < on command line
748a9306 2899
be771a83
GS
2900(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2901redirection, and found a '<' on the command line, but can't find the
2902name of the file from which to read data for stdin.
748a9306 2903
6df41af2
GS
2904=item No #! line
2905
2906(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
2907even on machines that don't support the #! construct.
2908
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2909=item No next::method '%s' found for %s
2910
2911(F) C<next::method> found no further instances of this method name
2912in the remaining packages of the MRO of this class. If you don't want
2913it throwing an exception, use C<maybe::next::method>
2914or C<next::can>. See L<mro>.
2915
6df41af2
GS
2916=item "no" not allowed in expression
2917
be771a83
GS
2918(F) The "no" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and
2919returns no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
6df41af2 2920
c47ff5f1 2921=item No output file after > on command line
748a9306 2922
be771a83
GS
2923(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2924redirection, and found a lone '>' at the end of the command line, so it
2925doesn't know where you wanted to redirect stdout.
748a9306 2926
c47ff5f1 2927=item No output file after > or >> on command line
748a9306 2928
be771a83
GS
2929(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2930redirection, and found a '>' or a '>>' on the command line, but can't
2931find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stdout.
748a9306 2932
1ec3e8de
GS
2933=item No package name allowed for variable %s in "our"
2934
be771a83
GS
2935(F) Fully qualified variable names are not allowed in "our"
2936declarations, because that doesn't make much sense under existing
2937semantics. Such syntax is reserved for future extensions.
1ec3e8de 2938
a0d0e21e
LW
2939=item No Perl script found in input
2940
2941(F) You called C<perl -x>, but no line was found in the file beginning
2942with #! and containing the word "perl".
2943
2944=item No setregid available
2945
2946(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setregid() call for
2947your system.
2948
2949=item No setreuid available
2950
2951(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setreuid() call for
2952your system.
2953
6df41af2
GS
2954=item No %s specified for -%c
2955
2956(F) The indicated command line switch needs a mandatory argument, but
2957you haven't specified one.
e75d1f10
RD
2958=item No such class field "%s" in variable %s of type %s
2959
2960(F) You tried to access a key from a hash through the indicated typed variable
2961but that key is not allowed by the package of the same type. The indicated
2962package has restricted the set of allowed keys using the L<fields> pragma.
2963
2c692339
RGS
2964=item No such class %s
2965
30c282f6 2966(F) You provided a class qualifier in a "my", "our" or "state" declaration, but
2c692339
RGS
2967this class doesn't exist at this point in your program.
2968
3c20a832
SP
2969=item No such hook: %s
2970
2971(F) You specified a signal hook that was not recognized by Perl. Currently, Perl
2972accepts C<__DIE__> and C<__WARN__> as valid signal hooks
2973
6df41af2
GS
2974=item No such pipe open
2975
2976(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The internal routine my_pclose() tried to
be771a83
GS
2977close a pipe which hadn't been opened. This should have been caught
2978earlier as an attempt to close an unopened filehandle.
6df41af2 2979
a0d0e21e
LW
2980=item No such signal: SIG%s
2981
be771a83
GS
2982(W signal) You specified a signal name as a subscript to %SIG that was
2983not recognized. Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal
2984names on your system.
a0d0e21e
LW
2985
2986=item Not a CODE reference
2987
2988(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
2989subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
2990use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
2991also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2992
2993=item Not a format reference
2994
2995(F) I'm not sure how you managed to generate a reference to an anonymous
2996format, but this indicates you did, and that it didn't exist.
2997
2998=item Not a GLOB reference
2999
be771a83
GS
3000(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a "typeglob" (that is, a
3001symbol table entry that looks like C<*foo>), but found a reference to
3002something else instead. You can use the ref() function to find out what
3003kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3004
3005=item Not a HASH reference
3006
be771a83
GS
3007(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a hash value, but found a
3008reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function to
3009find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 3010
6df41af2
GS
3011=item Not an ARRAY reference
3012
be771a83
GS
3013(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to an array value, but found
3014a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
3015to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 3016
a0d0e21e
LW
3017=item Not a perl script
3018
3019(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
3020even on machines that don't support the #! construct. The line must
3021mention perl.
3022
3023=item Not a SCALAR reference
3024
be771a83
GS
3025(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a scalar value, but found
3026a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
3027to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3028
3029=item Not a subroutine reference
3030
3031(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
3032subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
3033use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
3034also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 3035
e7ea3e70 3036=item Not a subroutine reference in overload table
a0d0e21e
LW
3037
3038(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
8b1a09fc 3039doesn't somehow point to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 3040
a0d0e21e
LW
3041=item Not enough arguments for %s
3042
3043(F) The function requires more arguments than you specified.
3044
6df41af2
GS
3045=item Not enough format arguments
3046
be771a83
GS
3047(W syntax) A format specified more picture fields than the next line
3048supplied. See L<perlform>.
6df41af2
GS
3049
3050=item %s: not found
3051
be771a83
GS
3052(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell instead
3053of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl
3054yourself.
6df41af2
GS
3055
3056=item no UTC offset information; assuming local time is UTC
a0d0e21e 3057
6df41af2
GS
3058(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl was unable to find the local
3059timezone offset, so it's assuming that local system time is equivalent
be771a83
GS
3060to UTC. If it's not, define the logical name
3061F<SYS$TIMEZONE_DIFFERENTIAL> to translate to the number of seconds which
3062need to be added to UTC to get local time.
a0d0e21e 3063
f0a2b745
KW
3064=item Non-octal character '%c'. Resolved as "%s"
3065
3066(W digit) In parsing an octal numeric constant, a character was unexpectedly
3067encountered that isn't octal. The resulting value is as indicated.
3068
4ef2275c
GA
3069=item Non-string passed as bitmask
3070
3071(W misc) A number has been passed as a bitmask argument to select().
3072Use the vec() function to construct the file descriptor bitmasks for
3073select. See L<perlfunc/select>
3074
a0d0e21e
LW
3075=item Null filename used
3076
be771a83
GS
3077(F) You can't require the null filename, especially because on many
3078machines that means the current directory! See L<perlfunc/require>.
a0d0e21e 3079
6df41af2
GS
3080=item NULL OP IN RUN
3081
be771a83
GS
3082(P debugging) Some internal routine called run() with a null opcode
3083pointer.
6df41af2 3084
55497cff
PP
3085=item Null picture in formline
3086
3087(F) The first argument to formline must be a valid format picture
3088specification. It was found to be empty, which probably means you
3089supplied it an uninitialized value. See L<perlform>.
3090
a0d0e21e
LW
3091=item Null realloc
3092
3093(P) An attempt was made to realloc NULL.
3094
3095=item NULL regexp argument
3096
5f05dabc 3097(P) The internal pattern matching routines blew it big time.
a0d0e21e
LW
3098
3099=item NULL regexp parameter
3100
3101(P) The internal pattern matching routines are out of their gourd.
3102
fc36a67e
PP
3103=item Number too long
3104
be771a83 3105(F) Perl limits the representation of decimal numbers in programs to
da75cd15 3106about 250 characters. You've exceeded that length. Future
be771a83
GS
3107versions of Perl are likely to eliminate this arbitrary limitation. In
3108the meantime, try using scientific notation (e.g. "1e6" instead of
3109"1_000_000").
fc36a67e 3110
f0a2b745
KW
3111=item Number with no digits
3112
3113(F) Perl was looking for a number but found nothing that looked like a number.
3114This happens, for example with C<\o{}>, with no number between the braces.
3115
6df41af2
GS
3116=item Octal number in vector unsupported
3117
be771a83
GS
3118(F) Numbers with a leading C<0> are not currently allowed in vectors.
3119The octal number interpretation of such numbers may be supported in a
3120future version.
6df41af2 3121
252aa082
JH
3122=item Octal number > 037777777777 non-portable
3123
75b44862 3124(W portable) The octal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
be771a83
GS
3125(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
3126L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082
JH
3127
3128See also L<perlport> for writing portable code.
3129
6ad11d81
JH
3130=item Odd number of arguments for overload::constant
3131
04a80ee0
RGS
3132(W overload) The call to overload::constant contained an odd number of
3133arguments. The arguments should come in pairs.
6ad11d81 3134
b21befc1
MG
3135=item Odd number of elements in anonymous hash
3136
3137(W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash,
3138which is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
3139
1930e939 3140=item Odd number of elements in hash assignment
a0d0e21e 3141
be771a83
GS
3142(W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash,
3143which is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
a0d0e21e 3144
bbce6d69
PP
3145=item Offset outside string
3146
a4a4c9e2 3147(F|W layer) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv/seek operation
42bc49da 3148with an offset pointing outside the buffer. This is difficult to
f5a7294f
JH
3149imagine. The sole exceptions to this are that zero padding will
3150take place when going past the end of the string when either
3151C<sysread()>ing a file, or when seeking past the end of a scalar opened
1a7a2554
MB
3152for I/O (in anticipation of future reads and to imitate the behaviour
3153with real files).
bbce6d69 3154
c289d2f7 3155=item %s() on unopened %s
2dd78f96
JH
3156
3157(W unopened) An I/O operation was attempted on a filehandle that was
3158never initialized. You need to do an open(), a sysopen(), or a socket()
3159call, or call a constructor from the FileHandle package.
3160
96ebfdd7
RK
3161=item -%s on unopened filehandle %s
3162
3163(W unopened) You tried to invoke a file test operator on a filehandle
3164that isn't open. Check your control flow. See also L<perlfunc/-X>.
3165
a0d0e21e
LW
3166=item oops: oopsAV
3167
e476b1b5 3168(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e
LW
3169
3170=item oops: oopsHV
3171
e476b1b5 3172(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e 3173
abc718f2
RGS
3174=item Opening dirhandle %s also as a file
3175
a4a4c9e2 3176(W io, deprecated) You used open() to associate a filehandle to
abc718f2
RGS
3177a symbol (glob or scalar) that already holds a dirhandle.
3178Although legal, this idiom might render your code confusing
3179and is deprecated.
3180
3181=item Opening filehandle %s also as a directory
3182
a4a4c9e2 3183(W io, deprecated) You used opendir() to associate a dirhandle to
abc718f2
RGS
3184a symbol (glob or scalar) that already holds a filehandle.
3185Although legal, this idiom might render your code confusing
3186and is deprecated.
3187
a0288114 3188=item Operation "%s": no method found, %s
44a8e56a 3189
be771a83
GS
3190(F) An attempt was made to perform an overloaded operation for which no
3191handler was defined. While some handlers can be autogenerated in terms
3192of other handlers, there is no default handler for any operation, unless
3193C<fallback> overloading key is specified to be true. See L<overload>.
44a8e56a 3194
748a9306
LW
3195=item Operator or semicolon missing before %s
3196
be771a83
GS
3197(S ambiguous) You used a variable or subroutine call where the parser
3198was expecting an operator. The parser has assumed you really meant to
3199use an operator, but this is highly likely to be incorrect. For
3200example, if you say "*foo *foo" it will be interpreted as if you said
3201"*foo * 'foo'".
748a9306 3202
6df41af2
GS
3203=item "our" variable %s redeclared
3204
be771a83
GS
3205(W misc) You seem to have already declared the same global once before
3206in the current lexical scope.
6df41af2 3207
a80b8354
GS
3208=item Out of memory!
3209
3210(X) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
be771a83
GS
3211remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. Perl has
3212no option but to exit immediately.
a80b8354 3213
19a52907
JH
3214At least in Unix you may be able to get past this by increasing your
3215process datasize limits: in csh/tcsh use C<limit> and
3216C<limit datasize n> (where C<n> is the number of kilobytes) to check
3217the current limits and change them, and in ksh/bash/zsh use C<ulimit -a>
3218and C<ulimit -d n>, respectively.
3219
6d3b25aa
RGS
3220=item Out of memory during %s extend
3221
3222(X) An attempt was made to extend an array, a list, or a string beyond
3223the largest possible memory allocation.
3224
6df41af2 3225=item Out of memory during "large" request for %s
a0d0e21e 3226
6df41af2
GS
3227(F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
3228remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. However,
be771a83
GS
3229the request was judged large enough (compile-time default is 64K), so a
3230possibility to shut down by trapping this error is granted.
a0d0e21e 3231
1b979e0a 3232=item Out of memory during request for %s
a0d0e21e 3233
be771a83
GS
3234(X|F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was
3235insufficient remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the
3236request.
eff9c6e2
CS
3237
3238The request was judged to be small, so the possibility to trap it
3239depends on the way perl was compiled. By default it is not trappable.
be771a83
GS
3240However, if compiled for this, Perl may use the contents of C<$^M> as an
3241emergency pool after die()ing with this message. In this case the error
b022d2d2
IZ
3242is trappable I<once>, and the error message will include the line and file
3243where the failed request happened.
55497cff 3244
1b979e0a
IZ
3245=item Out of memory during ridiculously large request
3246
3247(F) You can't allocate more than 2^31+"small amount" bytes. This error
be771a83
GS
3248is most likely to be caused by a typo in the Perl program. e.g.,
3249C<$arr[time]> instead of C<$arr[$time]>.
1b979e0a 3250
6df41af2
GS
3251=item Out of memory for yacc stack
3252
be771a83
GS
3253(F) The yacc parser wanted to grow its stack so it could continue
3254parsing, but realloc() wouldn't give it more memory, virtual or
3255otherwise.
6df41af2 3256
28be1210
TH
3257=item '.' outside of string in pack
3258
3259(F) The argument to a '.' in your template tried to move the working
3260position to before the start of the packed string being built.
3261
49704364 3262=item '@' outside of string in unpack
6df41af2 3263
49704364 3264(F) You had a template that specified an absolute position outside
6df41af2
GS
3265the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3266
f337b084
TH
3267=item '@' outside of string with malformed UTF-8 in unpack
3268
3269(F) You had a template that specified an absolute position outside
3270the string being unpacked. The string being unpacked was also invalid
3271UTF-8. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3272
7cb0cfe6
BM
3273=item Overloaded dereference did not return a reference
3274
3275(F) An object with an overloaded dereference operator was dereferenced,
3276but the overloaded operation did not return a reference. See
3277L<overload>.
3278
3279=item Overloaded qr did not return a REGEXP
3280
3281(F) An object with a C<qr> overload was used as part of a match, but the
3282overloaded operation didn't return a compiled regexp. See L<overload>.
3283
6df41af2
GS
3284=item %s package attribute may clash with future reserved word: %s
3285
be771a83
GS
3286(W reserved) A lowercase attribute name was used that had a
3287package-specific handler. That name might have a meaning to Perl itself
3288some day, even though it doesn't yet. Perhaps you should use a
3289mixed-case attribute name, instead. See L<attributes>.
6df41af2 3290
96ebfdd7
RK
3291=item pack/unpack repeat count overflow
3292
3293(F) You can't specify a repeat count so large that it overflows your
3294signed integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3295
a0d0e21e
LW
3296=item page overflow
3297
be771a83
GS
3298(W io) A single call to write() produced more lines than can fit on a
3299page. See L<perlform>.
a0d0e21e 3300
6df41af2
GS
3301=item panic: %s
3302
3303(P) An internal error.
3304
c99a1475
NC
3305=item panic: attempt to call %s in %s
3306
3307(P) One of the file test operators entered a code branch that calls
3308an ACL related-function, but that function is not available on this
3309platform. Earlier checks mean that it should not be possible to
3310enter this branch on this platform.
3311
a0d0e21e
LW
3312=item panic: ck_grep
3313
3314(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a grep.
3315
3316=item panic: ck_split
3317
3318(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a split.
3319
3320=item panic: corrupt saved stack index
3321
be771a83
GS
3322(P) The savestack was requested to restore more localized values than
3323there are in the savestack.
a0d0e21e 3324
810b8aa5
GS
3325=item panic: del_backref
3326
3327(P) Failed an internal consistency check while trying to reset a weak
3328reference.
3329
7619c85e
RG
3330=item panic: Devel::DProf inconsistent subroutine return
3331
3332(P) Devel::DProf called a subroutine that exited using goto(LABEL),
3333last(LABEL) or next(LABEL). Leaving that way a subroutine called from
3334an XSUB will lead very probably to a crash of the interpreter. This is
3335a bug that will hopefully one day get fixed.
3336
a0d0e21e
LW
3337=item panic: die %s
3338
3339(P) We popped the context stack to an eval context, and then discovered
3340it wasn't an eval context.
3341
a0d0e21e
LW
3342=item panic: do_subst
3343
be771a83
GS
3344(P) The internal pp_subst() routine was called with invalid operational
3345data.
a0d0e21e 3346
2269b42e 3347=item panic: do_trans_%s
a0d0e21e 3348
2269b42e 3349(P) The internal do_trans routines were called with invalid operational
be771a83 3350data.
a0d0e21e 3351
b7f7fd0b
NC
3352=item panic: fold_constants JMPENV_PUSH returned %d
3353
10203f38 3354(P) While attempting folding constants an exception other than an C<eval>
b7f7fd0b
NC
3355failure was caught.
3356
c635e13b
PP
3357=item panic: frexp
3358
3359(P) The library function frexp() failed, making printf("%f") impossible.
3360
a0d0e21e
LW
3361=item panic: goto
3362
3363(P) We popped the context stack to a context with the specified label,
3364and then discovered it wasn't a context we know how to do a goto in.
3365
23976bdd
NC
3366=item panic: hfreeentries failed to free hash
3367
3368(P) The internal routine used to clear a hashes entries tried repeatedly,
3369but each time something added more entries to the hash. Most likely the hash
3370contains an object with a reference back to the hash and a destructor that
3371adds a new object to the hash.
3372
a0d0e21e
LW
3373=item panic: INTERPCASEMOD
3374
3375(P) The lexer got into a bad state at a case modifier.
3376
3377=item panic: INTERPCONCAT
3378
3379(P) The lexer got into a bad state parsing a string with brackets.
3380
e446cec8
IZ
3381=item panic: kid popen errno read
3382
3383(F) forked child returned an incomprehensible message about its errno.
3384
a0d0e21e
LW
3385=item panic: last
3386
3387(P) We popped the context stack to a block context, and then discovered
3388it wasn't a block context.