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1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
d1d15184 11 (D) A deprecation (enabled by default).
00eb3f2b 12 (S) A severe warning (enabled by default).
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13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
75b44862 18The majority of messages from the first three classifications above
64977eb6 19(W, D & S) can be controlled using the C<warnings> pragma.
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20
21If a message can be controlled by the C<warnings> pragma, its warning
22category is included with the classification letter in the description
23below.
24
25Optional warnings are enabled by using the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-w>
26and B<-W> switches. Warnings may be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}>
27to a reference to a routine that will be called on each warning instead
28of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
29
b7eceb5b 30Severe warnings are always enabled, unless they are explicitly disabled
e476b1b5 31with the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-X> switch.
4438c4b7 32
748a9306 33Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
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34L<perlfunc/eval>. In almost all cases, warnings may be selectively
35disabled or promoted to fatal errors using the C<warnings> pragma.
36See L<warnings>.
a0d0e21e 37
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38The messages are in alphabetical order, without regard to upper or
39lower-case. Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are
40denoted with a %s or other printf-style escape. These escapes are
41ignored by the alphabetical order, as are all characters other than
42letters. To look up your message, just ignore anything that is not a
43letter.
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44
45=over 4
46
6df41af2 47=item accept() on closed socket %s
33633739 48
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49(W closed) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget
50to check the return value of your socket() call? See
51L<perlfunc/accept>.
33633739 52
de42a5a9 53=item Allocation too large: %x
a0d0e21e 54
6df41af2 55(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e 56
1109a392 57=item '%c' allowed only after types %s
ef54e1a4 58
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59(F) The modifiers '!', '<' and '>' are allowed in pack() or unpack() only
60after certain types. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
ef54e1a4 61
6df41af2 62=item Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
43192e07 63
75b44862 64(W ambiguous) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl
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65keyword, and you have used the name without qualification for calling
66one or the other. Perl decided to call the builtin because the
67subroutine is not imported.
43192e07 68
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69To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand
70before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.
71Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's
72imported with the C<use subs> pragma).
43192e07 73
6df41af2 74To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the C<CORE::> prefix
496a33f5 75on the operator (e.g. C<CORE::log($x)>) or declare the subroutine
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76to be an object method (see L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes"> or
77L<attributes>).
43192e07 78
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79=item Ambiguous overloaded argument to %s resolved as %s
80
81(W ambiguous) You called C<keys>, C<values> or C<each> on an object that had
82overloading of C<%{}> or C<@{}> or both. In such a case, the object is
83dereferenced according to its overloading, not its underlying reference type.
84The warning is issued when C<%{}> overloading exists on a blessed arrayref,
85when C<@{}> overloading exists on a blessed hashref, or when both overloadings
86are defined (in which case C<%{}> is used). You can force the interpretation
c69ca1d4 87of the object by explicitly dereferencing it as an array or hash instead of
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88passing the object itself to C<keys>, C<values> or C<each>.
89
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90=item Ambiguous range in transliteration operator
91
92(F) You wrote something like C<tr/a-z-0//> which doesn't mean anything at
93all. To include a C<-> character in a transliteration, put it either
94first or last. (In the past, C<tr/a-z-0//> was synonymous with
95C<tr/a-y//>, which was probably not what you would have expected.)
96
6df41af2 97=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
43192e07 98
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99(W ambiguous)(S) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
100you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
101a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
a0d0e21e 102
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103=item Ambiguous use of %c resolved as operator %c
104
105(W ambiguous) C<%>, C<&>, and C<*> are both infix operators (modulus,
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106bitwise and, and multiplication) I<and> initial special characters
107(denoting hashes, subroutines and typeglobs), and you said something
108like C<*foo * foo> that might be interpreted as either of them. We
109assumed you meant the infix operator, but please try to make it more
110clear -- in the example given, you might write C<*foo * foo()> if you
111really meant to multiply a glob by the result of calling a function.
d8225693 112
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113=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s} resolved to %c%s
114
115(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<@{foo}>, which might be
116asking for the variable C<@foo>, or it might be calling a function
117named foo, and dereferencing it as an array reference. If you wanted
118the varable, you can just write C<@foo>. If you wanted to call the
119function, write C<@{foo()}> ... or you could just not have a variable
120and a function with the same name, and save yourself a lot of trouble.
121
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122=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s%s} resolved to %c%s%s
123
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124(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<${foo[2]}> (where foo
125represents the name of a Perl keyword), which might be looking for
126element number 2 of the array named C<@foo>, in which case please write
127C<$foo[2]>, or you might have meant to pass an anonymous arrayref to
128the function named foo, and then do a scalar deref on the value it
129returns. If you meant that, write C<${foo([2])}>.
130
131In regular expressions, the C<${foo[2]}> syntax is sometimes necessary
132to disambiguate between array subscripts and character classes.
133C</$length[2345]/>, for instance, will be interpreted as C<$length>
134followed by the character class C<[2345]>. If an array subscript is what
135you want, you can avoid the warning by changing C</${length[2345]}/>
136to the unsightly C</${\$length[2345]}/>, by renaming your array to
137something that does not coincide with a built-in keyword, or by
138simply turning off warnings with C<no warnings 'ambiguous';>.
4da60377 139
bdac9d71 140=item Ambiguous use of -%s resolved as -&%s()
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141
142(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<-foo>, which might be the
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143string C<"-foo">, or a call to the function C<foo>, negated. If you meant
144the string, just write C<"-foo">. If you meant the function call,
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145write C<-foo()>.
146
6df41af2 147=item '|' and '<' may not both be specified on command line
a0d0e21e 148
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149(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
150redirection, and found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to
151redirect STDIN using '<'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
c9f97d15 152
6df41af2 153=item '|' and '>' may not both be specified on command line
1028017a 154
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155(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
156redirection, and thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and
157into a pipe to another command. You need to choose one or the other,
158though nothing's stopping you from piping into a program or Perl script
159which 'splits' output into two streams, such as
1028017a 160
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161 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
162 while (<STDIN>) {
163 print;
164 print OUT;
165 }
166 close OUT;
c9f97d15 167
6df41af2 168=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
eb6e2d6f 169
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170(W misc) The pattern match (C<//>), substitution (C<s///>), and
171transliteration (C<tr///>) operators work on scalar values. If you apply
be771a83 172one of them to an array or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to
ac036724 173a scalar value (the length of an array, or the population info of a
174hash) and then work on that scalar value. This is probably not what
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175you meant to do. See L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for
176alternatives.
eb6e2d6f 177
6df41af2 178=item Args must match #! line
a0d0e21e 179
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180(F) The setuid emulator requires that the arguments Perl was invoked
181with match the arguments specified on the #! line. Since some systems
182impose a one-argument limit on the #! line, try combining switches;
183for example, turn C<-w -U> into C<-wU>.
a0d0e21e 184
6df41af2 185=item Arg too short for msgsnd
76cd736e 186
6df41af2 187(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
76cd736e 188
b0fdf69e 189=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or a subroutine
a0d0e21e 190
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191(F) The argument to exists() must be a hash or array element or a
192subroutine with an ampersand, such as:
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193
194 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 195 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
cc1c2e42 196 &do_something
a0d0e21e 197
8ea97a1e 198=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice
5f05dabc 199
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200(F) The argument to delete() must be either a hash or array element,
201such as:
5f05dabc 202
203 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 204 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
5f05dabc 205
8ea97a1e 206or a hash or array slice, such as:
5f05dabc 207
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208 @foo[$bar, $baz, $xyzzy]
209 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
5315574d 210
6df41af2 211=item %s argument is not a subroutine name
a0d0e21e 212
6df41af2 213(F) The argument to exists() for C<exists &sub> must be a subroutine
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214name, and not a subroutine call. C<exists &sub()> will generate this
215error.
a0d0e21e 216
f86702cc 217=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
a0d0e21e 218
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219(W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator
220that expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
221will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
a0d0e21e 222
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223=item Argument list not closed for PerlIO layer "%s"
224
225(W layer) When pushing a layer with arguments onto the Perl I/O system you
226forgot the ) that closes the argument list. (Layers take care of transforming
227data between external and internal representations.) Perl stopped parsing
228the layer list at this point and did not attempt to push this layer.
229If your program didn't explicitly request the failing operation, it may be
230the result of the value of the environment variable PERLIO.
231
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232=item Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
233
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234(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some
235spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
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236
237=item assertion botched: %s
238
239(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
240
241=item Assertion failed: file "%s"
242
243(P) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
244
245=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
246
247(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
248must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
249know which context to supply to the right side.
250
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251=item A thread exited while %d threads were running
252
4447dfc1 253(W threads)(S) When using threaded Perl, a thread (not necessarily the main
96ebfdd7 254thread) exited while there were still other threads running.
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255Usually it's a good idea first to collect the return values of the
256created threads by joining them, and only then to exit from the main
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257thread. See L<threads>.
258
2393f1b9 259=item Attempt to access disallowed key '%s' in a restricted hash
1b1f1335 260
49293501 261(F) The failing code has attempted to get or set a key which is not in
2393f1b9 262the current set of allowed keys of a restricted hash.
49293501 263
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264=item Attempt to bless into a reference
265
266(F) The CLASSNAME argument to the bless() operator is expected to be
267the name of the package to bless the resulting object into. You've
268supplied instead a reference to something: perhaps you wrote
269
270 bless $self, $proto;
271
272when you intended
273
274 bless $self, ref($proto) || $proto;
275
276If you actually want to bless into the stringified version
277of the reference supplied, you need to stringify it yourself, for
278example by:
279
280 bless $self, "$proto";
281
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282=item Attempt to delete disallowed key '%s' from a restricted hash
283
284(F) The failing code attempted to delete from a restricted hash a key
285which is not in its key set.
286
287=item Attempt to delete readonly key '%s' from a restricted hash
288
289(F) The failing code attempted to delete a key whose value has been
290declared readonly from a restricted hash.
291
de42a5a9 292=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%x
a0d0e21e 293
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294(P internal) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas
295that will be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be
296outside any of those arenas.
a0d0e21e 297
54310121 298=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string
bbce6d69 299
111a855e 300(P internal) Perl maintains a reference-counted internal table of
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301strings to optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other
302strings. This indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count
303of a string that can no longer be found in the table.
bbce6d69 304
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305=item Attempt to free temp prematurely
306
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307(W debugging) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the
308free_tmps() routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the
309SV before the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the
310free_tmps() routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does
311try to free it.
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312
313=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
314
e476b1b5 315(P internal) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
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316
317=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar
318
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319(W internal) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to
320see if it would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0
321earlier, and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed.
322This could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or
323that SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was
324mortalized when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been
325corrupted.
a0d0e21e 326
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327=item Attempt to join self
328
329(F) You tried to join a thread from within itself, which is an
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330impossible task. You may be joining the wrong thread, or you may need
331to move the join() to some other thread.
dcdda58d 332
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333=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
334
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335(W pack) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
336function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
337means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
338invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
339literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
340avoid this warning.
84902520 341
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342=item Attempt to reload %s aborted.
343
344(F) You tried to load a file with C<use> or C<require> that failed to
345compile once already. Perl will not try to compile this file again
346unless you delete its entry from %INC. See L<perlfunc/require> and
347L<perlvar/%INC>.
348
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349=item Attempt to set length of freed array
350
351(W) You tried to set the length of an array which has been freed. You
352can do this by storing a reference to the scalar representing the last index
353of an array and later assigning through that reference. For example
354
355 $r = do {my @a; \$#a};
356 $$r = 503
357
b7a902f4 358=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
359
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360(W substr) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr()
361used as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
362dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
b7a902f4 363
c32124fe
NC
364=item Attribute "locked" is deprecated
365
111a855e 366(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragma to modify the "locked"
c32124fe 367attribute on a code reference. The :locked attribute is obsolete, has had no
a5547419 368effect since 5005 threads were removed, and will be removed in a future
c32124fe
NC
369release of Perl 5.
370
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371=item Attribute "unique" is deprecated
372
111a855e 373(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragma to modify the "unique"
b7a2910f 374attribute on an array, hash or scalar reference. The :unique attribute has
a5547419
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375had no effect since Perl 5.8.8, and will be removed in a future release
376of Perl 5.
f1a3ce43 377
de42a5a9 378=item Bad arg length for %s, is %u, should be %d
a0d0e21e 379
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380(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl()
381or shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 382S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
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383S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
384
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385=item Bad evalled substitution pattern
386
496a33f5 387(F) You've used the C</e> switch to evaluate the replacement for a
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388substitution, but perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate,
389most likely an unexpected right brace '}'.
390
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391=item Bad filehandle: %s
392
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393(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the
394symbol has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an
395open(), or did it in another package.
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396
397=item Bad free() ignored
398
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399(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had never
400been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
9ea8bc6d 401setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 0.
33c8a3fe 402
9ea8bc6d 403This message can be seen quite often with DB_File on systems with "hard"
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404dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of C<Berkeley DB>
405which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving> system malloc().
a0d0e21e 406
aa689395 407=item Bad hash
408
409(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
410
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411=item Badly placed ()'s
412
413(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
414of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
415Perl yourself.
416
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417=item Bad name after %s::
418
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419(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then
420didn't finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside
421of quotes, so
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422
423 $var = 'myvar';
424 $sym = mypack::$var;
425
426is not the same as
427
428 $var = 'myvar';
429 $sym = "mypack::$var";
430
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431=item Bad plugin affecting keyword '%s'
432
433(F) An extension using the keyword plugin mechanism violated the
434plugin API.
435
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436=item Bad realloc() ignored
437
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438(S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that had
439never been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled
4dcecea4 440by setting the environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
4ad56ec9 441
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442=item Bad symbol for array
443
444(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
445wasn't a symbol table entry.
446
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447=item Bad symbol for dirhandle
448
449(P) An internal request asked to add a dirhandle entry to something
450that wasn't a symbol table entry.
451
452
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453=item Bad symbol for filehandle
454
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455(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something
456that wasn't a symbol table entry.
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457
458=item Bad symbol for hash
459
460(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
461wasn't a symbol table entry.
462
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463=item Bareword found in conditional
464
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465(W bareword) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a
466conditional, which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part
467of the last argument of the previous construct, for example:
34d09196
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468
469 open FOO || die;
470
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471It may also indicate a misspelled constant that has been interpreted as
472a bareword:
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473
474 use constant TYPO => 1;
475 if (TYOP) { print "foo" }
476
477The C<strict> pragma is useful in avoiding such errors.
478
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479=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
480
481(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
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482subroutine identifier, in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>"
483symbol. Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
6df41af2
GS
484
485=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
486
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487(W bareword) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but the
488compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point. Perhaps
489you need to predeclare a package?
6df41af2 490
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491=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
492
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493(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN
494subroutine. Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is
495exited.
a0d0e21e 496
68dc0745 497=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
498
499(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
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500implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had already
501occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}> could not
502be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code likely
503depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
68dc0745 504
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505=item \1 better written as $1
506
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507(W syntax) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables.
508The use of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
509substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
510because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better if
511there are more than 9 backreferences.
6df41af2 512
252aa082
JH
513=item Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable
514
e476b1b5 515(W portable) The binary number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
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JH
516(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
517L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 518
69282e91 519=item bind() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 520
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521(W closed) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to
522check the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
a0d0e21e 523
c289d2f7
JH
524=item binmode() on closed filehandle %s
525
526(W unopened) You tried binmode() on a filehandle that was never opened.
4dcecea4 527Check your control flow and number of arguments.
c289d2f7 528
c5a0f51a
JH
529=item Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
530
e476b1b5 531(W portable) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is non-portable.
c5a0f51a 532
4633a7c4
LW
533=item Bizarre copy of %s in %s
534
be771a83 535(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not
4dcecea4 536copiable.
4633a7c4 537
f675dbe5
CB
538=item Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
539
be771a83
GS
540(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. While Perl was preparing to
541iterate over %ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition
542which was too long, so it was truncated to the string shown.
f675dbe5 543
a0d0e21e
LW
544=item Callback called exit
545
4929bf7b 546(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via call_sv()
a0d0e21e
LW
547exited by calling exit.
548
6df41af2 549=item %s() called too early to check prototype
f675dbe5 550
be771a83
GS
551(W prototype) You've called a function that has a prototype before the
552parser saw a definition or declaration for it, and Perl could not check
553that the call conforms to the prototype. You need to either add an
554early prototype declaration for the subroutine in question, or move the
555subroutine definition ahead of the call to get proper prototype
556checking. Alternatively, if you are certain that you're calling the
557function correctly, you may put an ampersand before the name to avoid
558the warning. See L<perlsub>.
f675dbe5 559
49704364 560=item Cannot compress integer in pack
0258719b
NC
561
562(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was too large to compress. The BER
563compressed integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you
564attempted to compress Infinity or a very large number (> 1e308).
565See L<perlfunc/pack>.
566
49704364 567=item Cannot compress negative numbers in pack
0258719b
NC
568
569(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was negative. The BER compressed integer
570format can only be used with positive integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
571
5c1f4d79
NC
572=item Cannot convert a reference to %s to typeglob
573
574(F) You manipulated Perl's symbol table directly, stored a reference in it,
575then tried to access that symbol via conventional Perl syntax. The access
576triggers Perl to autovivify that typeglob, but it there is no legal conversion
577from that type of reference to a typeglob.
578
ba2fdce6
NC
579=item Cannot copy to %s in %s
580
581(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy a value to an internal type that cannot
4dcecea4 582be directly assigned to.
ba2fdce6 583
b5d97229
RGS
584=item Cannot find encoding "%s"
585
586(S io) You tried to apply an encoding that did not exist to a filehandle,
587either with open() or binmode().
588
96ebfdd7
RK
589=item Can only compress unsigned integers in pack
590
591(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was not an integer. The BER compressed
592integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you attempted
593to compress something else. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
594
a0d0e21e
LW
595=item Can't bless non-reference value
596
597(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
598encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
599
dc57907a
RGS
600=item Can't "break" in a loop topicalizer
601
0d863452
RH
602(F) You called C<break>, but you're in a C<foreach> block rather than
603a C<given> block. You probably meant to use C<next> or C<last>.
604
605=item Can't "break" outside a given block
dc57907a 606
0d863452
RH
607(F) You called C<break>, but you're not inside a C<given> block.
608
6df41af2
GS
609=item Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
610
611(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
612object reference or package name contains an undefined value. Something
613like this will reproduce the error:
6df41af2
GS
614
615 $BADREF = undef;
616 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
617 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
618
a0d0e21e
LW
619=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
620
54310121 621(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
be771a83
GS
622ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but you
623didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't an
624object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
625
626=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
627
628(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
629object reference or package name contains an expression that returns a
630defined value which is neither an object reference nor a package name.
72b5445b
GS
631Something like this will reproduce the error:
632
633 $BADREF = 42;
634 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
635 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
636
a0d0e21e
LW
637=item Can't chdir to %s
638
639(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but C</foo/bar> is not a directory
640that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
641
0545a864 642=item Can't check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid
104d25b7 643
be771a83
GS
644(P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for
645nosuid.
104d25b7 646
22e74366 647=item Can't coerce %s to %s in %s
a0d0e21e
LW
648
649(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 650(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
a0d0e21e
LW
651say things like:
652
653 *foo += 1;
654
655You CAN say
656
657 $foo = *foo;
658 $foo += 1;
659
660but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
661
0d863452 662=item Can't "continue" outside a when block
dc57907a 663
0d863452
RH
664(F) You called C<continue>, but you're not inside a C<when>
665or C<default> block.
666
a0d0e21e
LW
667=item Can't create pipe mailbox
668
be771a83
GS
669(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted
670quotas or other plumbing problems.
a0d0e21e 671
eb64745e
GS
672=item Can't declare %s in "%s"
673
30c282f6
NC
674(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as "my", "our" or
675"state" variables. They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
a0d0e21e 676
6df41af2
GS
677=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
678
be771a83
GS
679(S inplace) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as
680a file in /dev, or a FIFO. The file was ignored.
6df41af2 681
a0d0e21e
LW
682=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
683
be771a83
GS
684(S inplace) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated
685reason.
a0d0e21e 686
54310121 687=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
a0d0e21e 688
be771a83
GS
689(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try
690reading from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say
691C<-i.bak>, or some such.
a0d0e21e 692
10f9c03d 693=item Can't do inplace edit: %s would not be unique
a0d0e21e 694
e476b1b5 695(S inplace) Your filesystem does not support filenames longer than 14
10f9c03d
CK
696characters and Perl was unable to create a unique filename during
697inplace editing with the B<-i> switch. The file was ignored.
a0d0e21e 698
7253e4e3 699=item Can't do {n,m} with n > m in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 700
b45f050a 701(F) Minima must be less than or equal to maxima. If you really want your
7253e4e3 702regexp to match something 0 times, just put {0}. The <-- HERE shows in the
b45f050a 703regular expression about where the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 704
a0d0e21e
LW
705=item Can't do waitpid with flags
706
be771a83
GS
707(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only
708waitpid() without flags is emulated.
a0d0e21e 709
a0d0e21e
LW
710=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
711
be771a83
GS
712(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this
713point. For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #!
714line.
a0d0e21e 715
1109a392
MHM
716=item Can't %s %s-endian %ss on this platform
717
718(F) Your platform's byte-order is neither big-endian nor little-endian,
719or it has a very strange pointer size. Packing and unpacking big- or
720little-endian floating point values and pointers may not be possible.
721See L<perlfunc/pack>.
722
a0d0e21e
LW
723=item Can't exec "%s": %s
724
d1be9408 725(W exec) A system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the
be771a83
GS
726named program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the
727permissions were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in
728C<$ENV{PATH}>, the executable in question was compiled for another
729architecture, or the #! line in a script points to an interpreter that
730can't be run for similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support
731#! at all.)
a0d0e21e
LW
732
733=item Can't exec %s
734
be771a83
GS
735(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because
736that's what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may
737need to mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
a0d0e21e
LW
738
739=item Can't execute %s
740
be771a83
GS
741(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute
742found in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
2a92aaa0 743
6df41af2 744=item Can't find an opnumber for "%s"
2a92aaa0 745
be771a83
GS
746(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but there
747is no builtin with the name C<word>.
6df41af2 748
56ca2fc0
JH
749=item Can't find %s character property "%s"
750
751(F) You used C<\p{}> or C<\P{}> but the character property by that name
e1b711da
KW
752could not be found. Maybe you misspelled the name of the property?
753See L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
754for a complete list of available properties.
56ca2fc0 755
6df41af2
GS
756=item Can't find label %s
757
be771a83
GS
758(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's
759possible for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2a92aaa0
GS
760
761=item Can't find %s on PATH
762
be771a83
GS
763(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
764found in the PATH.
a0d0e21e 765
6df41af2 766=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
a0d0e21e 767
be771a83
GS
768(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
769found in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The
770script exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
a0d0e21e
LW
771
772=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
773
be771a83
GS
774(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means
775that the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count
776nesting levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
a0d0e21e 777
fb73857a 778 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
779
be771a83
GS
780If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have included
781unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag. A good programmer's
782editor will have a way to help you find these characters.
a0d0e21e 783
660a4616
TS
784=item Can't find Unicode property definition "%s"
785
786(F) You may have tried to use C<\p> which means a Unicode property (for
e1b711da
KW
787example C<\p{Lu}> matches all uppercase letters). If you did mean to use a
788Unicode property, see
789L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
790for a complete list of available properties.
660a4616
TS
791If you didn't mean to use a Unicode property, escape the C<\p>, either
792by C<\\p> (just the C<\p>) or by C<\Q\p> (the rest of the string, until
793possible C<\E>).
794
b3647a36 795=item Can't fork: %s
a0d0e21e 796
be771a83
GS
797(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a
798pipeline.
a0d0e21e 799
b3647a36
SR
800=item Can't fork, trying again in 5 seconds
801
c973c02e 802(W pipe) A fork in a piped open failed with EAGAIN and will be retried
b3647a36
SR
803after five seconds.
804
748a9306
LW
805=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
806
be771a83
GS
807(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference
808between access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes.
809Under VMS, access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in
810the stat buffer, so that ACLs and other protections can be taken into
811account. Unfortunately, Perl assumes that the stat buffer contains all
812the necessary information, and passes it, instead of the filespec, to
813the access checking routine. It will try to retrieve the filespec using
814the device name and FID present in the stat buffer, but this works only
815if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat() routine,
816because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
817appears, the name lookup failed, and the access checking routine gave up
818and returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access checking
819routine knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you
820shouldn't ever see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises
821only if some internal code takes stat buffers lightly.)
748a9306 822
a0d0e21e
LW
823=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
824
be771a83
GS
825(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a
826pipe, Perl can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
827
828=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
829
748a9306
LW
830(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
831mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e 832
6df41af2 833=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
a0d0e21e 834
be771a83
GS
835(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a foreach
836loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2
GS
837
838=item Can't "goto" out of a pseudo block
839
be771a83
GS
840(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look like
841a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually occurs if
842you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which is a no-no.
843See L<perlfunc/goto>.
a0d0e21e 844
9850bf21 845=item Can't goto subroutine from a sort sub (or similar callback)
cd299c6e 846
9850bf21
RH
847(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of the
848comparison sub for a sort(), or from a similar callback (such
849as the reduce() function in List::Util).
850
c74ace89 851=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-%s
b150fb22 852
be771a83 853(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval
c74ace89 854"string" or block.
b150fb22 855
6df41af2
GS
856=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
857
be771a83
GS
858(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one
859subroutine call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole
860cloth. In general you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD
861routine anyway. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2 862
0b5b802d
GS
863=item Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default
864
be771a83
GS
865(W signal) Perl has detected that it is being run with the SIGCHLD
866signal (sometimes known as SIGCLD) disabled. Since disabling this
867signal will interfere with proper determination of exit status of child
868processes, Perl has reset the signal to its default value. This
869situation typically indicates that the parent program under which Perl
870may be running (e.g. cron) is being very careless.
0b5b802d 871
e2c0f81f
DG
872=item Can't kill a non-numeric process ID
873
874(F) Process identifiers must be (signed) integers. It is a fatal error to
875attempt to kill() an undefined, empty-string or otherwise non-numeric
876process identifier.
877
6df41af2 878=item Can't "last" outside a loop block
4633a7c4 879
6df41af2 880(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
be771a83
GS
881except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a current
882block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a "loopish"
883block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or grep(). You can
884usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the
885inner curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See
886L<perlfunc/last>.
4633a7c4 887
2c7d6b9c
RGS
888=item Can't linearize anonymous symbol table
889
890(F) Perl tried to calculate the method resolution order (MRO) of a
891package, but failed because the package stash has no name.
892
b8170e59
JB
893=item Can't load '%s' for module %s
894
895(F) The module you tried to load failed to load a dynamic extension. This
896may either mean that you upgraded your version of perl to one that is
897incompatible with your old dynamic extensions (which is known to happen
898between major versions of perl), or (more likely) that your dynamic
16d98ec5 899extension was built against an older version of the library that is
b8170e59
JB
900installed on your system. You may need to rebuild your old dynamic
901extensions.
902
748a9306
LW
903=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
904
2ba9eb46 905(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
30c282f6 906lexical variable using "my" or "state". This is not allowed. If you want to
748a9306
LW
907localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with the
908package name.
909
6df41af2 910=item Can't localize through a reference
4727527e 911
6df41af2
GS
912(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
913handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
be771a83 914pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be sure
64977eb6 915that $ref will still be a reference.
4727527e 916
ea071790 917=item Can't locate %s
ec889f3a
GS
918
919(F) You said to C<do> (or C<require>, or C<use>) a file that couldn't be
920found. Perl looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in @INC,
be771a83
GS
921unless the file name included the full path to the file. Perhaps you
922need to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where
923the extra library is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name
924to @INC. Or maybe you just misspelled the name of the file. See
925L<perlfunc/require> and L<lib>.
a0d0e21e 926
6df41af2
GS
927=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
928
be771a83
GS
929(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows
930autoload, but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes
931are a misprint in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit>
932the file, say, by doing C<make install>.
6df41af2 933
b8170e59
JB
934=item Can't locate loadable object for module %s in @INC
935
936(F) The module you loaded is trying to load an external library, like
937for example, C<foo.so> or C<bar.dll>, but the L<DynaLoader> module was
938unable to locate this library. See L<DynaLoader>.
939
a0d0e21e
LW
940=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
941
942(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
943functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 944method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
945
946=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
947
be771a83
GS
948(W syntax) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that
949doesn't seem to exist.
a0d0e21e 950
2f7da168
RK
951=item Can't locate PerlIO%s
952
953(F) You tried to use in open() a PerlIO layer that does not exist,
954e.g. open(FH, ">:nosuchlayer", "somefile").
955
3e3baf6d
TB
956=item Can't make list assignment to \%ENV on this system
957
be771a83
GS
958(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably
959VMS.
3e3baf6d 960
a0d0e21e
LW
961=item Can't modify %s in %s
962
be771a83
GS
963(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try
964to change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 965
54310121 966=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
967
968(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
969a NULL.
970
6df41af2
GS
971=item Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call
972
973(F) Subroutines meant to be used in lvalue context should be declared as
974such, see L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
975
5f05dabc 976=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 977
5f05dabc 978(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
979buffer.
980
6df41af2
GS
981=item Can't "next" outside a loop block
982
983(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
984there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
be771a83
GS
985count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or
986grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
987though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that loops
988once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
6df41af2 989
a0d0e21e
LW
990=item Can't open %s: %s
991
c47ff5f1 992(S inplace) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<< <> >>
08e9d68e
DD
993filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
994switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually this
be771a83
GS
995is because you don't have read permission for a file which you named on
996the command line.
a0d0e21e 997
9a869a14
RGS
998=item Can't open a reference
999
1000(W io) You tried to open a scalar reference for reading or writing,
1001using the 3-arg open() syntax :
1002
1003 open FH, '>', $ref;
1004
1005but your version of perl is compiled without perlio, and this form of
1006open is not supported.
1007
a0d0e21e
LW
1008=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
1009
be771a83
GS
1010(W pipe) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported.
1011You can try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such
1012as IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using
1013">", and then read it in under a different file handle.
a0d0e21e 1014
748a9306
LW
1015=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
1016
be771a83
GS
1017(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1018redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '2>' or '2>>' on
1019the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1020
1021=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
1022
be771a83
GS
1023(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1024redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '<' on the
1025command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
1026
1027=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
1028
be771a83
GS
1029(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1030redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '>' or '>>' on
1031the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1032
1033=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
1034
be771a83
GS
1035(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1036redirection, and couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined
1037for stdout.
748a9306 1038
2b8ca739 1039=item Can't open perl script%s
a0d0e21e
LW
1040
1041(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
1042
fa3aa65a
JC
1043If you're debugging a script that uses #!, and normally relies on the
1044shell's $PATH search, the -S option causes perl to do that search, so
1045you don't have to type the path or C<`which $scriptname`>.
1046
6df41af2
GS
1047=item Can't read CRTL environ
1048
1049(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read an element of %ENV
1050from the CRTL's internal environment array and discovered the array was
1051missing. You need to figure out where your CRTL misplaced its environ
be771a83
GS
1052or define F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that environ is not
1053searched.
6df41af2 1054
6df41af2
GS
1055=item Can't "redo" outside a loop block
1056
1057(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
1058there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
1059count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map()
1060or grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1061though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that
1062loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
1063
64977eb6 1064=item Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file
10f9c03d 1065
be771a83
GS
1066(S inplace) You requested an inplace edit without creating a backup
1067file. Perl was unable to remove the original file to replace it with
1068the modified file. The file was left unmodified.
10f9c03d 1069
a0d0e21e
LW
1070=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
1071
e476b1b5 1072(S inplace) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason,
10f9c03d 1073probably because you don't have write permission to the directory.
a0d0e21e 1074
748a9306
LW
1075=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
1076
be771a83
GS
1077(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried
1078to reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
748a9306 1079
fe13d51d 1080=item Can't resolve method "%s" overloading "%s" in package "%s"
6df41af2 1081
be771a83
GS
1082(F|P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as opposed
1083to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the package. If
1084method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
6df41af2 1085
cd06dffe
GS
1086=item Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine
1087
be771a83
GS
1088(F) Perl detected an attempt to return illegal lvalues (such as
1089temporary or readonly values) from a subroutine used as an lvalue. This
1090is not allowed.
cd06dffe 1091
96ebfdd7
RK
1092=item Can't return outside a subroutine
1093
1094(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
1095there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
1096
78f9721b
SM
1097=item Can't return %s to lvalue scalar context
1098
1099(F) You tried to return a complete array or hash from an lvalue subroutine,
1100but you called the subroutine in a way that made Perl think you meant
1101to return only one value. You probably meant to write parentheses around
1102the call to the subroutine, which tell Perl that the call should be in
1103list context.
1104
a0d0e21e
LW
1105=item Can't stat script "%s"
1106
be771a83
GS
1107(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have it
1108open already. Bizarre.
a0d0e21e 1109
a0d0e21e
LW
1110=item Can't take log of %g
1111
fb73857a 1112(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
1113negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
be771a83
GS
1114standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for the
1115negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
1116
1117=item Can't take sqrt of %g
1118
1119(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a 1120negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
1121with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
1122
1123=item Can't undef active subroutine
1124
1125(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
1126however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
1127redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
1128
1129=item Can't unshift
1130
1131(F) You tried to unshift an "unreal" array that can't be unshifted, such
1132as the main Perl stack.
1133
c81225bc 1134=item Can't upgrade %s (%d) to %d
a0d0e21e 1135
be771a83
GS
1136(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making it
1137into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are so
1138specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This message
1139indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
a0d0e21e 1140
1db89ea5
BS
1141=item Can't use anonymous symbol table for method lookup
1142
e27ad1f2 1143(F) The internal routine that does method lookup was handed a symbol
1db89ea5
BS
1144table that doesn't have a name. Symbol tables can become anonymous
1145for example by undefining stashes: C<undef %Some::Package::>.
1146
96ebfdd7
RK
1147=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
1148
1149(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
1150be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
1151
6df41af2
GS
1152=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
1153
be771a83
GS
1154(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1155references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 1156
90b75b61 1157=item Can't use %! because Errno.pm is not available
1d2dff63
GS
1158
1159(F) The first time the %! hash is used, perl automatically loads the
1160Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
1161provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
1162
1109a392
MHM
1163=item Can't use both '<' and '>' after type '%c' in %s
1164
1165(F) A type cannot be forced to have both big-endian and little-endian
1166byte-order at the same time, so this combination of modifiers is not
1167allowed. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1168
6df41af2
GS
1169=item Can't use %s for loop variable
1170
be771a83
GS
1171(F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a
1172foreach.
6df41af2 1173
aab6a793 1174=item Can't use global %s in "%s"
6df41af2 1175
be771a83
GS
1176(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This
1177is not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location
1178(namely the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to
1179have variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
6df41af2
GS
1180weren't.
1181
6d3b25aa
RGS
1182=item Can't use '%c' in a group with different byte-order in %s
1183
1184(F) You attempted to force a different byte-order on a type
1185that is already inside a group with a byte-order modifier.
1186For example you cannot force little-endianness on a type that
1187is inside a big-endian group.
1188
c07a80fd 1189=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
1190
1191(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
c47ff5f1 1192You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the <=> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd 1193and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
1194Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
1195lexical variable.
1196
a0d0e21e
LW
1197=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
1198
1199(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
1200reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
1201test the type of the reference, if need be.
1202
748a9306 1203=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e 1204
be771a83
GS
1205(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1206references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 1207
748a9306
LW
1208=item Can't use subscript on %s
1209
1210(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
1211subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
209e7cf1 1212didn't look like a hash or array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
748a9306 1213
6df41af2
GS
1214=item Can't use \%c to mean $%c in expression
1215
75b44862
GS
1216(W syntax) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that
1217creates a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a
1218backreference to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular
be771a83
GS
1219expression pattern. Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a
1220value that prints out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form
1221instead.
6df41af2 1222
0d863452 1223=item Can't use "when" outside a topicalizer
dc57907a 1224
0d863452
RH
1225(F) You have used a when() block that is neither inside a C<foreach>
1226loop nor a C<given> block. (Note that this error is issued on exit
1227from the C<when> block, so you won't get the error if the match fails,
1228or if you use an explicit C<continue>.)
1229
810b8aa5
GS
1230=item Can't weaken a nonreference
1231
1232(F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference. Only
1233references can be weakened.
1234
5f05dabc 1235=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e 1236
be771a83
GS
1237(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value)
1238with an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
a0d0e21e
LW
1239Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
1240
4a68bf9d 1241=item Character following "\c" must be ASCII
f9d13529 1242
17a3df4c
KW
1243(F|W deprecated, syntax) In C<\cI<X>>, I<X> must be an ASCII character.
1244It is planned to make this fatal in all instances in Perl 5.16. In the
1245cases where it isn't fatal, the character this evaluates to is
1246derived by exclusive or'ing the code point of this character with 0x40.
1247
1248Note that non-alphabetic ASCII characters are discouraged here as well.
f9d13529 1249
f337b084 1250=item Character in 'C' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1251
1252(W pack) You said
1253
1254 pack("C", $x)
1255
1256where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255; the C<"C"> format is
1257only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1258and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1259
1260 pack("C", $x & 255)
1261
1262If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1263instead.
1264
f337b084
TH
1265=item Character in 'W' format wrapped in pack
1266
1267(W pack) You said
1268
1269 pack("U0W", $x)
1270
1271where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255. However, C<U0>-mode expects
1272all values to fall in the interval [0, 255], so Perl behaved as if you
1273meant:
1274
1275 pack("U0W", $x & 255)
1276
1277=item Character in 'c' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1278
1279(W pack) You said
1280
1281 pack("c", $x)
1282
1283where $x is either less than -128 or more than 127; the C<"c"> format
1284is only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1285and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1286
1287 pack("c", $x & 255);
1288
1289If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1290instead.
1291
f337b084
TH
1292=item Character in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1293
1294(W unpack) You tried something like
1295
1296 unpack("H", "\x{2a1}")
1297
1a147d38 1298where the format expects to process a byte (a character with a value
f337b084
TH
1299below 256), but a higher value was provided instead. Perl uses the value
1300modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1301
1302 unpack("H", "\x{a1}")
1303
1304=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in pack
1305
1306(W pack) You tried something like
1307
1308 pack("u", "\x{1f3}b")
1309
1a147d38
YO
1310where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
1311value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1312uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1313
1314 pack("u", "\x{f3}b")
1315
1316=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1317
1318(W unpack) You tried something like
1319
1320 unpack("s", "\x{1f3}b")
1321
1a147d38
YO
1322where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
1323value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1324uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1325
1326 unpack("s", "\x{f3}b")
1327
96ebfdd7
RK
1328=item close() on unopened filehandle %s
1329
1330(W unopened) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
1331
abc7ecad
SP
1332=item closedir() attempted on invalid dirhandle %s
1333
1334(W io) The dirhandle you tried to close is either closed or not really
1335a dirhandle. Check your control flow.
1336
541ed3a9
FC
1337=item Closure prototype called
1338
1339(F) If a closure has attributes, the subroutine passed to an attribute
1340handler is the prototype that is cloned when a new closure is created.
1341This subroutine cannot be called.
1342
49704364
WL
1343=item Code missing after '/'
1344
1345(F) You had a (sub-)template that ends with a '/'. There must be another
1346template code following the slash. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1347
0876b9a0
KW
1348=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, may not be portable
1349
9ae3ac1a
KW
1350=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, no properties match it; all inverse properties do
1351
0876b9a0
KW
1352(W utf8) You had a code point above the Unicode maximum of U+10FFFF.
1353
1354Perl allows strings to contain a superset of Unicode code
1355points, up to the limit of what is storable in an unsigned integer on
1356your system, but these may not be accepted by other languages/systems.
1357At one time, it was legal in some standards to have code points up to
13580x7FFF_FFFF, but not higher. Code points above 0xFFFF_FFFF require
1359larger than a 32 bit word.
1360
9ae3ac1a
KW
1361None of the Unicode or Perl-defined properties will match a non-Unicode
1362code point. For example,
1363
1364 chr(0x7FF_FFFF) =~ /\p{Any}/
1365
1366will not match, because the code point is not in Unicode. But
1367
1368 chr(0x7FF_FFFF) =~ /\P{Any}/
1369
1370will match.
1371
6df41af2
GS
1372=item %s: Command not found
1373
be771a83
GS
1374(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1375Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2 1376
7a2e2cd6 1377=item Compilation failed in require
1378
1379(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
be771a83
GS
1380Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it
1381encountered were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
7a2e2cd6 1382
c3464db5
DD
1383=item Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
1384
be771a83
GS
1385(W regexp) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex
1386situations where back-tracking is required. Recursion depth is limited
1387to 32766, or perhaps less in architectures where the stack cannot grow
1388arbitrarily. ("Simple" and "medium" situations are handled without
1389recursion and are not subject to a limit.) Try shortening the string
1390under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with C<while>) rather than
1391in the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular expression so
c2e66d9e 1392that it is simpler or backtracks less. (See L<perlfaq2> for information
be771a83 1393on I<Mastering Regular Expressions>.)
c3464db5 1394
38875929
DM
1395=item cond_broadcast() called on unlocked variable
1396
1397(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to call
1398cond_broadcast() on a variable which wasn't locked. The cond_broadcast()
1399function is used to wake up another thread that is waiting in a
1400cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't sent before the other thread
1401has a chance to enter the wait, it is usual for the signaling thread to
1402first wait for a lock on variable. This lock attempt will only succeed
1403after the other thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the
1404lock.
1405
38875929
DM
1406=item cond_signal() called on unlocked variable
1407
1408(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to call
1409cond_signal() on a variable which wasn't locked. The cond_signal()
1410function is used to wake up another thread that is waiting in a
1411cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't sent before the other thread
1412has a chance to enter the wait, it is usual for the signaling thread to
1413first wait for a lock on variable. This lock attempt will only succeed
1414after the other thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the
1415lock.
1416
69282e91 1417=item connect() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1418
be771a83
GS
1419(W closed) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget
1420to check the return value of your socket() call? See
1421L<perlfunc/connect>.
a0d0e21e 1422
41ab332f 1423=item Constant(%s)%s: %s
6df41af2 1424
be771a83
GS
1425(F) The parser found inconsistencies either while attempting to define
1426an overloaded constant, or when trying to find the character name
1427specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you forgot to load the
1428corresponding C<overload> or C<charnames> pragma? See L<charnames> and
1429L<overload>.
6df41af2 1430
fc8cd66c
YO
1431=item Constant(%s)%s: %s in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1432
1a147d38
YO
1433(F) The parser found inconsistencies while attempting to find
1434the character name specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you
1435forgot to load the corresponding C<charnames> pragma?
fc8cd66c
YO
1436See L<charnames>.
1437
1438
779c5bc9
GS
1439=item Constant is not %s reference
1440
1441(F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the C<use constant> pragma)
be771a83
GS
1442is being dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference.
1443The message indicates the type of reference that was expected. This
1444usually indicates a syntax error in dereferencing the constant value.
779c5bc9
GS
1445See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> and L<constant>.
1446
4cee8e80
CS
1447=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
1448
bb028877 1449(S) You redefined a subroutine which had previously been
be771a83
GS
1450eligible for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for
1451commentary and workarounds.
4cee8e80 1452
9607fc9c 1453=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
1454
be771a83
GS
1455(W misc) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible
1456for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1457workarounds.
9607fc9c 1458
e7ea3e70
IZ
1459=item Copy method did not return a reference
1460
64977eb6 1461(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See
13a2d996 1462L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
e7ea3e70 1463
6798c92b
GS
1464=item CORE::%s is not a keyword
1465
1466(F) The CORE:: namespace is reserved for Perl keywords.
1467
a0d0e21e
LW
1468=item corrupted regexp pointers
1469
1470(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1471expression compiler gave it.
1472
1473=item corrupted regexp program
1474
be771a83
GS
1475(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without a
1476valid magic number.
a0d0e21e 1477
de42a5a9 1478=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%x at 0x%x
6df41af2
GS
1479
1480(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
1481
49704364
WL
1482=item Count after length/code in unpack
1483
1484(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string, but
1485you have also specified an explicit size for the string. See
1486L<perlfunc/pack>.
1487
17a3df4c
KW
1488=item "\c{" is deprecated and is more clearly written as ";"
1489
1490(D deprecated, syntax) The C<\cI<X>> construct is intended to be a way
1491to specify non-printable characters. You used it with a "{" which
1492evaluates to ";", which is printable. It is planned to remove the
1493ability to specify a semi-colon this way in Perl 5.16. Just use a
1494semi-colon or a backslash-semi-colon without the "\c".
1495
1496=item "\c%c" is more clearly written simply as "%s"
f9d13529 1497
17a3df4c 1498(W syntax) The C<\cI<X>> construct is intended to be a way to specify
f9d13529 1499non-printable characters. You used it for a printable one, which is better
1408fb84 1500written as simply itself, perhaps preceded by a backslash for non-word
17a3df4c 1501characters.
f9d13529 1502
a0d0e21e
LW
1503=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
1504
be771a83
GS
1505(W recursion) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly)
1506100 times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an
1507infinite recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in
1508which case it indicates something else.
a0d0e21e 1509
aad1d01f
NC
1510This threshold can be changed from 100, by recompiling the F<perl> binary,
1511setting the C pre-processor macro C<PERL_SUB_DEPTH_WARN> to the desired value.
1512
f10b0346 1513=item defined(@array) is deprecated
69794302 1514
be771a83
GS
1515(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on arrays because it
1516checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the
64977eb6 1517array is empty, just use C<if (@array) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1518
f10b0346 1519=item defined(%hash) is deprecated
69794302 1520
be771a83
GS
1521(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on hashes because it
1522checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the hash
64977eb6 1523is empty, just use C<if (%hash) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1524
62658f4d
PM
1525=item %s defines neither package nor VERSION--version check failed
1526
1527(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but in the Module file
1528there are neither package declarations nor a C<$VERSION>.
1529
fc36a67e 1530=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1531
be771a83
GS
1532(F) In a here document construct like C<<<FOO>, the label C<FOO> is too
1533long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously twisted to write code
1534that triggers this error.
fc36a67e 1535
4a68bf9d 1536=item Deprecated character in \N{...}; marked by <-- HERE in \N{%s<-- HERE %s
cb233ae3
KW
1537
1538(D deprecated) Just about anything is legal for the C<...> in C<\N{...}>.
1539But starting in 5.12, non-reasonable ones that don't look like names are
1540deprecated. A reasonable name begins with an alphabetic character and
1541continues with any combination of alphanumerics, dashes, spaces, parentheses or
1542colons.
1543
6d3b25aa
RGS
1544=item Deprecated use of my() in false conditional
1545
1546(D deprecated) You used a declaration similar to C<my $x if 0>.
1547There has been a long-standing bug in Perl that causes a lexical variable
1548not to be cleared at scope exit when its declaration includes a false
1549conditional. Some people have exploited this bug to achieve a kind of
1550static variable. Since we intend to fix this bug, we don't want people
1551relying on this behavior. You can achieve a similar static effect by
1552declaring the variable in a separate block outside the function, eg
36fb85f3 1553
6d3b25aa
RGS
1554 sub f { my $x if 0; return $x++ }
1555
1556becomes
1557
1558 { my $x; sub f { return $x++ } }
1559
36fb85f3
RGS
1560Beginning with perl 5.9.4, you can also use C<state> variables to
1561have lexicals that are initialized only once (see L<feature>):
1562
1563 sub f { state $x; return $x++ }
1564
500ab966
RGS
1565=item DESTROY created new reference to dead object '%s'
1566
1567(F) A DESTROY() method created a new reference to the object which is
1568just being DESTROYed. Perl is confused, and prefers to abort rather than
1569to create a dangling reference.
1570
3cdd684c
TP
1571=item Did not produce a valid header
1572
1573See Server error.
1574
6df41af2
GS
1575=item %s did not return a true value
1576
1577(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
1578it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
1579traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
1580do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
1581
cc507455 1582=item (Did you mean &%s instead?)
4633a7c4 1583
413ff9f6
FC
1584(W misc) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or
1585some such.
4633a7c4 1586
cc507455 1587=item (Did you mean "local" instead of "our"?)
33633739 1588
be771a83
GS
1589(W misc) Remember that "our" does not localize the declared global
1590variable. You have declared it again in the same lexical scope, which
1591seems superfluous.
33633739 1592
cc507455 1593=item (Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?)
a0d0e21e 1594
be771a83
GS
1595(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or
1596@hash{@keys}. On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got
1597carried away.
748a9306 1598
7e1af8bc 1599=item Died
5f05dabc 1600
1601(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
1602you called it with no args and both C<$@> and C<$_> were empty.
1603
3cdd684c
TP
1604=item Document contains no data
1605
1606See Server error.
1607
62658f4d
PM
1608=item %s does not define %s::VERSION--version check failed
1609
1610(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but the Module did not
1611define a C<$VERSION.>
1612
49704364
WL
1613=item '/' does not take a repeat count
1614
1615(F) You cannot put a repeat count of any kind right after the '/' code.
1616See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1617
a0d0e21e
LW
1618=item Don't know how to handle magic of type '%s'
1619
1620(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
1621
1622=item do_study: out of memory
1623
1624(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
1625
6df41af2
GS
1626=item (Do you need to predeclare %s?)
1627
56da5a46
RGS
1628(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
1629"%s found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
6df41af2
GS
1630name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
1631because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
be771a83
GS
1632"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're referencing
1633something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have to define the
1634subroutine or package before the current location. You can use an empty
1635"sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward" declaration.
6df41af2 1636
ac206dc8
RGS
1637=item dump() better written as CORE::dump()
1638
1639(W misc) You used the obsolescent C<dump()> built-in function, without fully
1640qualifying it as C<CORE::dump()>. Maybe it's a typo. See L<perlfunc/dump>.
1641
84d78eb7
YO
1642=item dump is not supported
1643
1644(F) Your machine doesn't support dump/undump.
1645
a0d0e21e
LW
1646=item Duplicate free() ignored
1647
be771a83
GS
1648(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had
1649already been freed.
a0d0e21e 1650
1109a392
MHM
1651=item Duplicate modifier '%c' after '%c' in %s
1652
1653(W) You have applied the same modifier more than once after a type
1654in a pack template. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1655
4633a7c4
LW
1656=item elseif should be elsif
1657
56da5a46
RGS
1658(S syntax) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks it's
1659ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method named
be771a83 1660"elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
4633a7c4
LW
1661unlikely to be what you want.
1662
ab13f0c7
JH
1663=item Empty %s
1664
af6f566e
HS
1665(F) C<\p> and C<\P> are used to introduce a named Unicode property, as
1666described in L<perlunicode> and L<perlre>. You used C<\p> or C<\P> in
1667a regular expression without specifying the property name.
ab13f0c7 1668
85ab1d1d 1669=item entering effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1670
85ab1d1d 1671(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1672effective uids or gids failed.
1673
c038024b
RGS
1674=item %ENV is aliased to %s
1675
1676(F) You're running under taint mode, and the C<%ENV> variable has been
1677aliased to another hash, so it doesn't reflect anymore the state of the
1678program's environment. This is potentially insecure.
1679
748a9306
LW
1680=item Error converting file specification %s
1681
5f05dabc 1682(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306 1683specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
be771a83
GS
1684single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've passed
1685an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a case the
1686conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
748a9306 1687
e4d48cc9
GS
1688=item %s: Eval-group in insecure regular expression
1689
be771a83
GS
1690(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
1691expression that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which
1692is unsafe. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
e4d48cc9 1693
fc8f615e 1694=item %s: Eval-group not allowed at runtime, use re 'eval'
e4d48cc9 1695
be771a83
GS
1696(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the
1697C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the
1698pattern contains interpolated values. Since that is a security risk, it
1699is not allowed. If you insist, you may still do this by explicitly
1700building the pattern from an interpolated string at run time and using
1701that in an eval(). See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
e4d48cc9 1702
6df41af2
GS
1703=item %s: Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval'
1704
be771a83
GS
1705(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width
1706assertion, but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'>
1707pragma is in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
6df41af2 1708
1a147d38
YO
1709=item EVAL without pos change exceeded limit in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1710
1711(F) You used a pattern that nested too many EVAL calls without consuming
1712any text. Restructure the pattern so that text is consumed.
1713
1714The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
1715discovered.
1716
fc36a67e 1717=item Excessively long <> operator
1718
1719(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
1720Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
1721filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
1722variable and glob that.
1723
ed9aa3b7
SG
1724=item exec? I'm not *that* kind of operating system
1725
1726(F) The C<exec> function is not implemented in MacPerl. See L<perlport>.
1727
fe13d51d 1728=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors.
a0d0e21e
LW
1729
1730(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
1731
1732=item Exiting eval via %s
1733
be771a83
GS
1734(W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as a
1735goto, or a loop control statement.
e476b1b5
GS
1736
1737=item Exiting format via %s
1738
9a2ff54b 1739(W exiting) You are exiting a format by unconventional means, such as a
be771a83 1740goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1741
0a753a76 1742=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
1743
be771a83
GS
1744(W exiting) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a
1745sort block or subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a
1746loop control statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
0a753a76 1747
a0d0e21e
LW
1748=item Exiting subroutine via %s
1749
be771a83
GS
1750(W exiting) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such
1751as a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
1752
1753=item Exiting substitution via %s
1754
be771a83
GS
1755(W exiting) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such
1756as a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1757
7b8d334a
GS
1758=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
1759
be771a83
GS
1760(W misc) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
1761the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
1762usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target package,
1763e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');
7b8d334a 1764
6df41af2
GS
1765=item %s: Expression syntax
1766
be771a83
GS
1767(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1768Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2
GS
1769
1770=item %s failed--call queue aborted
1771
3c10abe3
AG
1772(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a UNITCHECK,
1773CHECK, INIT, or END subroutine. Processing of the remainder of the
1774queue of such routines has been prematurely ended.
6df41af2 1775
7253e4e3 1776=item False [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
73b437c8 1777
be771a83 1778(W regexp) A character class range must start and end at a literal
7253e4e3
RK
1779character, not another character class like C<\d> or C<[:alpha:]>. The "-"
1780in your false range is interpreted as a literal "-". Consider quoting the
1781"-", "\-". The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
1782problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
73b437c8 1783
1b1ee2ef 1784=item Fatal VMS error (status=%d) at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 1785
be771a83
GS
1786(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS
1787system service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more
1788details. The filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell
1789you which section of the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
1790
1791=item fcntl is not implemented
1792
1793(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
1794PDP-11 or something?
1795
22846ab4
AB
1796=item FETCHSIZE returned a negative value
1797
1798(F) A tied array claimed to have a negative number of elements, which
1799is not possible.
1800
f337b084
TH
1801=item Field too wide in 'u' format in pack
1802
1803(W pack) Each line in an uuencoded string start with a length indicator
1804which can't encode values above 63. So there is no point in asking for
1805a line length bigger than that. Perl will behave as if you specified
1806C<u63> as format.
1807
af8c498a 1808=item Filehandle %s opened only for input
a0d0e21e 1809
6c8d78fb
HS
1810(W io) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you intended
1811it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with "+<" or
1812"+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you intended only to
1813write the file, use ">" or ">>". See L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 1814
af8c498a 1815=item Filehandle %s opened only for output
a0d0e21e 1816
6c8d78fb
HS
1817(W io) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing, If
1818you intended it to be a read/write filehandle, you needed to open it
be771a83
GS
1819with "+<" or "+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you
1820intended only to read from the file, use "<". See L<perlfunc/open>.
6c8d78fb
HS
1821Another possibility is that you attempted to open filedescriptor 0
1822(also known as STDIN) for output (maybe you closed STDIN earlier?).
97828cef
RGS
1823
1824=item Filehandle %s reopened as %s only for input
1825
1826(W io) You opened for reading a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
d7f8936a 1827as STDOUT or STDERR. This occurred because you closed STDOUT or STDERR
97828cef
RGS
1828previously.
1829
1830=item Filehandle STDIN reopened as %s only for output
1831
1832(W io) You opened for writing a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
d7f8936a 1833as STDIN. This occurred because you closed STDIN previously.
a0d0e21e
LW
1834
1835=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
1836
1837(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
be771a83
GS
1838a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name that
1839happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or the
1840name.
a0d0e21e 1841
56e90b21
GS
1842=item flock() on closed filehandle %s
1843
be771a83 1844(W closed) The filehandle you're attempting to flock() got itself closed
c289d2f7 1845some time before now. Check your control flow. flock() operates on
be771a83
GS
1846filehandles. Are you attempting to call flock() on a dirhandle by the
1847same name?
56e90b21 1848
6df41af2
GS
1849=item Format not terminated
1850
1851(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
1852to the end of your file without finding such a line.
1853
a0d0e21e
LW
1854=item Format %s redefined
1855
e476b1b5 1856(W redefine) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
a0d0e21e
LW
1857
1858 {
271595cc 1859 no warnings 'redefine';
a0d0e21e
LW
1860 eval "format NAME =...";
1861 }
1862
a0d0e21e
LW
1863=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
1864
e476b1b5 1865(W syntax) You said
a0d0e21e
LW
1866
1867 if ($foo = 123)
1868
1869when you meant
1870
1871 if ($foo == 123)
1872
1873(or something like that).
1874
6df41af2
GS
1875=item %s found where operator expected
1876
56da5a46
RGS
1877(S syntax) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator.
1878If it sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an
be771a83
GS
1879operator, it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an
1880operator or delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
6df41af2 1881
a0d0e21e
LW
1882=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
1883
1884(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
1885
1886=item gethostent not implemented
1887
1888(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
1889because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
1890on the Internet.
1891
69282e91 1892=item get%sname() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1893
be771a83
GS
1894(W closed) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed
1895socket. Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
a0d0e21e 1896
748a9306
LW
1897=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
1898
1899(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
1900C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
1901
6df41af2
GS
1902=item getsockopt() on closed socket %s
1903
be771a83
GS
1904(W closed) You tried to get a socket option on a closed socket. Did you
1905forget to check the return value of your socket() call? See
6df41af2
GS
1906L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
1907
1908=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
1909
a4edf47d 1910(F) You've said "use strict" or "use strict vars", which indicates
30c282f6 1911that all variables must either be lexically scoped (using "my" or "state"),
a4edf47d
GS
1912declared beforehand using "our", or explicitly qualified to say
1913which package the global variable is in (using "::").
6df41af2 1914
e476b1b5
GS
1915=item glob failed (%s)
1916
be771a83
GS
1917(W glob) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used for
1918C<glob> and C<< <*.c> >>. Usually, this means that you supplied a
1919C<glob> pattern that caused the external program to fail and exit with a
1920nonzero status. If the message indicates that the abnormal exit
1921resulted in a coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C shell) is
1922broken. If so, you should change all of the csh-related variables in
1923config.sh: If you have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as if it
1924were csh (e.g. C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them all
1925empty (except that C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will
1926think csh is missing. In either case, after editing config.sh, run
75b44862 1927C<./Configure -S> and rebuild Perl.
e476b1b5 1928
a0d0e21e
LW
1929=item Glob not terminated
1930
1931(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
be771a83
GS
1932a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and
1933not finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out
1934earlier in the line, and you really meant a "less than".
a0d0e21e 1935
bcd05b94 1936=item gmtime(%f) too large
8b56d6ff 1937
fc003d4b
MS
1938(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with an number that was larger than
1939it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong
1940date. This warning is also triggered with nan (the special
1941not-a-number value).
1942
bcd05b94 1943=item gmtime(%f) too small
fc003d4b
MS
1944
1945(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with an number that was smaller than
1946it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong
1947date. This warning is also triggered with nan (the special
1948not-a-number value).
8b56d6ff 1949
6df41af2 1950=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
a0d0e21e 1951
6df41af2
GS
1952(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
1953version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
a0d0e21e
LW
1954
1955=item goto must have label
1956
1957(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
1958unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
1959
49704364 1960=item ()-group starts with a count
18529408 1961
49704364 1962(F) A ()-group started with a count. A count is
18529408 1963supposed to follow something: a template character or a ()-group.
49704364 1964 See L<perlfunc/pack>.
18529408 1965
fe13d51d 1966=item %s had compilation errors.
6df41af2
GS
1967
1968(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
1969
a0d0e21e
LW
1970=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
1971
be771a83
GS
1972(S internal) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought
1973to have existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be
1974created on an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
a0d0e21e
LW
1975
1976=item Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
1977
be771a83
GS
1978(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some
1979spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
a0d0e21e 1980
6df41af2
GS
1981=item %s has too many errors
1982
1983(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
1984Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
1985
e6897b1a
KW
1986=item Having no space between pattern and following word is deprecated
1987
1988(D syntax)
1989
1990You had a word that isn't a regex modifier immediately following a pattern
1991without an intervening space. For example, the two constructs:
1992
1993 $a =~ m/$foo/sand $bar
1994 $a =~ m/$foo/s and $bar
1995
1996both currently mean the same thing, but it is planned to disallow the first form
1997in Perl 5.16. And,
1998
1999 $a =~ m/$foo/and $bar
2000
2001will be disallowed too.
2002
252aa082
JH
2003=item Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
2004
e476b1b5 2005(W portable) The hexadecimal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
2006(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
2007L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 2008
8903cb82 2009=item Identifier too long
2010
2011(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e 2012about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
be771a83
GS
2013names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future versions
2014of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 2015
c3c41406 2016=item Ignoring zero length \N{} in character class
fc8cd66c 2017
ff3f963a
KW
2018(W) Named Unicode character escapes (\N{...}) may return a
2019zero length sequence. When such an escape is used in a character class
1a147d38 2020its behaviour is not well defined. Check that the correct escape has
fc8cd66c
YO
2021been used, and the correct charname handler is in scope.
2022
6df41af2 2023=item Illegal binary digit %s
f675dbe5 2024
6df41af2 2025(F) You used a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
f675dbe5 2026
6df41af2 2027=item Illegal binary digit %s ignored
a0d0e21e 2028
be771a83
GS
2029(W digit) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a
2030binary number. Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the
2031offending digit.
a0d0e21e 2032
78d0fecf 2033=item Illegal character \%o (carriage return)
4fdae800 2034
d5898338 2035(F) Perl normally treats carriage returns in the program text as it
be771a83
GS
2036would any other whitespace, which means you should never see this error
2037when Perl was built using standard options. For some reason, your
2038version of Perl appears to have been built without this support. Talk
2039to your Perl administrator.
4fdae800 2040
d37a9538
ST
2041=item Illegal character in prototype for %s : %s
2042
197afce1
MT
2043(W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype declaration.
2044Legal characters in prototypes are $, @, %, *, ;, [, ], &, and \.
d37a9538 2045
904d85c5
RGS
2046=item Illegal declaration of anonymous subroutine
2047
2048(F) When using the C<sub> keyword to construct an anonymous subroutine,
2049you must always specify a block of code. See L<perlsub>.
2050
8e742a20
MHM
2051=item Illegal declaration of subroutine %s
2052
2053(F) A subroutine was not declared correctly. See L<perlsub>.
2054
a0d0e21e
LW
2055=item Illegal division by zero
2056
be771a83
GS
2057(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in
2058your logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against
2059meaningless input.
a0d0e21e 2060
6df41af2
GS
2061=item Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
2062
be771a83
GS
2063(W digit) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or
2064A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal
2065number stopped before the illegal character.
6df41af2 2066
a0d0e21e
LW
2067=item Illegal modulus zero
2068
be771a83
GS
2069(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most
2070numbers don't take to this kindly.
a0d0e21e 2071
6df41af2 2072=item Illegal number of bits in vec
399388f4 2073
6df41af2
GS
2074(F) The number of bits in vec() (the third argument) must be a power of
2075two from 1 to 32 (or 64, if your platform supports that).
399388f4
GS
2076
2077=item Illegal octal digit %s
a0d0e21e 2078
d1be9408 2079(F) You used an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
a0d0e21e 2080
399388f4 2081=item Illegal octal digit %s ignored
748a9306 2082
d1be9408 2083(W digit) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
75b44862 2084Interpretation of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
748a9306 2085
fe13d51d 2086=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: -%c
6ff81951 2087
6df41af2 2088(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
646ca9b2 2089following switches: B<-[CDIMUdmtw]>.
6ff81951 2090
6df41af2 2091=item Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
81e118e0 2092
75b44862 2093(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the CRTL's
be771a83
GS
2094internal environ array, and encountered an element without the C<=>
2095delimiter used to separate keys from values. The element is ignored.
09bef843 2096
6df41af2 2097=item Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
54310121 2098
be771a83
GS
2099(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read a logical
2100name or CLI symbol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and
2101didn't see the expected delimiter between key and value, so the line was
2102ignored.
54310121 2103
6df41af2 2104=item (in cleanup) %s
9607fc9c 2105
be771a83
GS
2106(W misc) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised
2107the indicated exception. Since destructors are usually called by the
2108system at arbitrary points during execution, and often a vast number of
2109times, the warning is issued only once for any number of failures that
2110would otherwise result in the same message being repeated.
6df41af2 2111
be771a83
GS
2112Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the C<G_KEEPERR> flag could
2113also result in this warning. See L<perlcall/G_KEEPERR>.
9607fc9c 2114
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2115=item Inconsistent hierarchy during C3 merge of class '%s': merging failed on parent '%s'
2116
2117(F) The method resolution order (MRO) of the given class is not
2118C3-consistent, and you have enabled the C3 MRO for this class. See the C3
2119documentation in L<mro> for more information.
2120
979699d9
JH
2121=item In EBCDIC the v-string components cannot exceed 2147483647
2122
2123(F) An error peculiar to EBCDIC. Internally, v-strings are stored as
2124Unicode code points, and encoded in EBCDIC as UTF-EBCDIC. The UTF-EBCDIC
2125encoding is limited to code points no larger than 2147483647 (0x7FFFFFFF).
2126
1a147d38
YO
2127=item Infinite recursion in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2128
2129(F) You used a pattern that references itself without consuming any input
2130text. You should check the pattern to ensure that recursive patterns
2131either consume text or fail.
2132
2133The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
2134discovered.
2135
6dbe9451
NC
2136=item Initialization of state variables in list context currently forbidden
2137
2138(F) Currently the implementation of "state" only permits the initialization
2139of scalar variables in scalar context. Re-write C<state ($a) = 42> as
2140C<state $a = 42> to change from list to scalar context. Constructions such
2141as C<state (@a) = foo()> will be supported in a future perl release.
2142
a0d0e21e
LW
2143=item Insecure dependency in %s
2144
8b1a09fc 2145(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
be771a83
GS
2146The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or
2147setgid, or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The
2148tainting mechanism labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly
2149from the user, who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any
2150such data is used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See
2151L<perlsec> for more information.
a0d0e21e
LW
2152
2153=item Insecure directory in %s
2154
be771a83
GS
2155(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
2156setgid script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by
df98f984
RGS
2157the world. Also, the PATH must not contain any relative directory.
2158See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2159
62f468fc 2160=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2161
2162(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc 2163setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
332d5f78
SR
2164C<$ENV{ENV}>, C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> or C<$ENV{TERM}> are derived from data
2165supplied (or potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set
2166the path to a known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2167
a7ae9550
GS
2168=item Integer overflow in %s number
2169
75b44862 2170(W overflow) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have specified
be771a83
GS
2171either as a literal or as an argument to hex() or oct() is too big for
2172your architecture, and has been converted to a floating point number.
2173On a 32-bit architecture the largest hexadecimal, octal or binary number
9e24b6e2
JH
2174representable without overflow is 0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or
21750b11111111111111111111111111111111 respectively. Note that Perl
2176transparently promotes all numbers to a floating point representation
2177internally--subject to loss of precision errors in subsequent
2178operations.
bbce6d69 2179
2fba7546
GA
2180=item Integer overflow in format string for %s
2181
0be96356
AL
2182(F) The indexes and widths specified in the format string of C<printf()>
2183or C<sprintf()> are too large. The numbers must not overflow the size of
2fba7546
GA
2184integers for your architecture.
2185
46314c13
JP
2186=item Integer overflow in version
2187
2188(F) Some portion of a version initialization is too large for the
2189size of integers for your architecture. This is not a warning
2190because there is no rational reason for a version to try and use a
2191element larger than typically 2**32. This is usually caused by
2192trying to use some odd mathematical operation as a version, like
2193100/9.
2194
7253e4e3 2195=item Internal disaster in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2196
2197(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
7253e4e3 2198The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
b45f050a
JF
2199discovered.
2200
748a9306
LW
2201=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
2202
be771a83
GS
2203(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number of times
2204you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine whether the current call
2205to C<exec> should affect the current script or a subprocess (see
2206L<perlvms/"exec LIST">). Somehow, this count has become scrambled, so
2207Perl is making a guess and treating this C<exec> as a request to
2208terminate the Perl script and execute the specified command.
748a9306 2209
7253e4e3 2210=item Internal urp in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a 2211
7253e4e3
RK
2212(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser. The
2213<-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
2214discovered.
a0d0e21e 2215
6df41af2
GS
2216=item %s (...) interpreted as function
2217
75b44862 2218(W syntax) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator
be771a83 2219followed by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list
64977eb6 2220operators arguments found inside the parentheses. See
13a2d996 2221L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
6df41af2 2222
09bef843
SB
2223=item Invalid %s attribute: %s
2224
a4a4c9e2 2225(F) The indicated attribute for a subroutine or variable was not recognized
09bef843
SB
2226by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
2227
2228=item Invalid %s attributes: %s
2229
a4a4c9e2 2230(F) The indicated attributes for a subroutine or variable were not
be771a83 2231recognized by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2232
c635e13b 2233=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
2234
be771a83
GS
2235(W printf) Perl does not understand the given format conversion. See
2236L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
c635e13b 2237
9e08bc66
TS
2238=item Invalid escape in the specified encoding in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2239
2240(W regexp) The numeric escape (for example C<\xHH>) of value < 256
2241didn't correspond to a single character through the conversion
2242from the encoding specified by the encoding pragma.
2243The escape was replaced with REPLACEMENT CHARACTER (U+FFFD) instead.
2244The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
2245escape was discovered.
2246
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2247=item Invalid mro name: '%s'
2248
2249(F) You tried to C<mro::set_mro("classname", "foo")>
2250or C<use mro 'foo'>, where C<foo> is not a valid method resolution order (MRO).
2251(Currently, the only valid ones are C<dfs> and C<c3>). See L<mro>.
2252
7253e4e3 2253=item Invalid [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2254
2255(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
7253e4e3
RK
2256greater than the maximum character. One possibility is that you forgot the
2257C<{}> from your ending C<\x{}> - C<\x> without the curly braces can go only
2258up to C<ff>. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
2259problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 2260
d1573ac7 2261=item Invalid range "%s" in transliteration operator
c2e66d9e
GS
2262
2263(F) The range specified in the tr/// or y/// operator had a minimum
2264character greater than the maximum character. See L<perlop>.
2265
09bef843
SB
2266=item Invalid separator character %s in attribute list
2267
0120eecf 2268(F) Something other than a colon or whitespace was seen between the
be771a83
GS
2269elements of an attribute list. If the previous attribute had a
2270parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that list was terminated too soon.
2271See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2272
b4581f09
JH
2273=item Invalid separator character %s in PerlIO layer specification %s
2274
2275(W layer) When pushing layers onto the Perl I/O system, something other than a
2276colon or whitespace was seen between the elements of a layer list.
2277If the previous attribute had a parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that
2278list was terminated too soon.
2279
2c86d456
DG
2280=item Invalid strict version format (%s)
2281
2282(F) A version number did not meet the "strict" criteria for versions.
2283A "strict" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2284decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
2285v-string with a leading 'v' character and at least three components.
a6485a24 2286The parenthesized text indicates which criteria were not met.
2c86d456
DG
2287See the L<version> module for more details on allowed version formats.
2288
49704364 2289=item Invalid type '%s' in %s
96e4d5b1 2290
49704364
WL
2291(F) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type.
2292See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2293(W) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type but used to be
75b44862 2294silently ignored.
96e4d5b1 2295
2c86d456
DG
2296=item Invalid version format (%s)
2297
2298(F) A version number did not meet the "lax" criteria for versions.
2299A "lax" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2300decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
2301v-string. If the v-string has less than three components, it must have a
2302leading 'v' character. Otherwise, the leading 'v' is optional. Both
2303decimal and dotted-decimal versions may have a trailing "alpha"
2304component separated by an underscore character after a fractional or
2305dotted-decimal component. The parenthesized text indicates which
a6485a24 2306criteria were not met. See the L<version> module for more details on
2c86d456 2307allowed version formats.
46314c13 2308
798ae1b7
DG
2309=item Invalid version object
2310
2311(F) The internal structure of the version object was invalid. Perhaps
2312the internals were modified directly in some way or an arbitrary reference
2313was blessed into the "version" class.
2314
a0d0e21e
LW
2315=item ioctl is not implemented
2316
2317(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
2318strange for a machine that supports C.
2319
c289d2f7
JH
2320=item ioctl() on unopened %s
2321
2322(W unopened) You tried ioctl() on a filehandle that was never opened.
2323Check you control flow and number of arguments.
2324
fe13d51d 2325=item IO layers (like '%s') unavailable
363c40c4
SB
2326
2327(F) Your Perl has not been configured to have PerlIO, and therefore
2328you cannot use IO layers. To have PerlIO Perl must be configured
2329with 'useperlio'.
2330
80cbd5ad
JH
2331=item IO::Socket::atmark not implemented on this architecture
2332
2333(F) Your machine doesn't implement the sockatmark() functionality,
2334neither as a system call or an ioctl call (SIOCATMARK).
2335
b4581f09
JH
2336=item $* is no longer supported
2337
d1d15184 2338(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$*>, deprecated in older perls, has
4fd19576
B
2339been removed as of 5.9.0 and is no longer supported. In previous versions of perl the use of
2340C<$*> enabled or disabled multi-line matching within a string.
2341
2342Instead of using C<$*> you should use the C</m> (and maybe C</s>) regexp
2343modifiers. (In older versions: when C<$*> was set to a true value then all regular
2344expressions behaved as if they were written using C</m>.)
b4581f09 2345
8ae1fe26
RGS
2346=item $# is no longer supported
2347
d1d15184 2348(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$#>, deprecated in older perls, has
8ae1fe26
RGS
2349been removed as of 5.9.3 and is no longer supported. You should use the
2350printf/sprintf functions instead.
2351
6ad11d81
JH
2352=item `%s' is not a code reference
2353
04a80ee0
RGS
2354(W overload) The second (fourth, sixth, ...) argument of overload::constant
2355needs to be a code reference. Either an anonymous subroutine, or a reference
6ad11d81
JH
2356to a subroutine.
2357
2358=item `%s' is not an overloadable type
2359
04a80ee0
RGS
2360(W overload) You tried to overload a constant type the overload package is
2361unaware of.
6ad11d81 2362
a0d0e21e
LW
2363=item junk on end of regexp
2364
2365(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
2366
2367=item Label not found for "last %s"
2368
be771a83
GS
2369(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a loop
2370of that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2371L<perlfunc/last>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2372
2373=item Label not found for "next %s"
2374
2375(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
2376that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2377L<perlfunc/last>.
2378
2379=item Label not found for "redo %s"
2380
2381(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
2382that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2383L<perlfunc/last>.
2384
85ab1d1d 2385=item leaving effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 2386
85ab1d1d 2387(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
2388effective uids or gids failed.
2389
49704364
WL
2390=item length/code after end of string in unpack
2391
d7f8936a 2392(F) While unpacking, the string buffer was already used up when an unpack
49704364
WL
2393length/code combination tried to obtain more data. This results in
2394an undefined value for the length. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2395
f0e67a1d
Z
2396=item Lexing code attempted to stuff non-Latin-1 character into Latin-1 input
2397
2398(F) An extension is attempting to insert text into the current parse
2399(using L<lex_stuff_pvn_flags|perlapi/lex_stuff_pvn_flags> or similar), but
2400tried to insert a character that couldn't be part of the current input.
2401This is an inherent pitfall of the stuffing mechanism, and one of the
2402reasons to avoid it. Where it is necessary to stuff, stuffing only
2403plain ASCII is recommended.
2404
2405=item Lexing code internal error (%s)
2406
2407(F) Lexing code supplied by an extension violated the lexer's API in a
2408detectable way.
2409
69282e91 2410=item listen() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2411
be771a83
GS
2412(W closed) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget
2413to check the return value of your socket() call? See
2414L<perlfunc/listen>.
a0d0e21e 2415
bcd05b94 2416=item localtime(%f) too large
8b56d6ff 2417
fc003d4b
MS
2418(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with an number that was larger
2419than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
2420wrong date. This warning is also triggered with nan (the special
2421not-a-number value).
2422
bcd05b94 2423=item localtime(%f) too small
fc003d4b
MS
2424
2425(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with an number that was smaller
2426than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
2427wrong date. This warning is also triggered with nan (the special
2428not-a-number value).
8b56d6ff 2429
58e23c8d 2430=item Lookbehind longer than %d not implemented in regex m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
2431
2432(F) There is currently a limit on the length of string which lookbehind can
58e23c8d 2433handle. This restriction may be eased in a future release.
2e50fd82 2434
b88df990
NC
2435=item Lost precision when %s %f by 1
2436
2437(W) The value you attempted to increment or decrement by one is too large
2438for the underlying floating point representation to store accurately,
2439hence the target of C<++> or C<--> is unchanged. Perl issues this warning
2440because it has already switched from integers to floating point when values
2441are too large for integers, and now even floating point is insufficient.
2442You may wish to switch to using L<Math::BigInt> explicitly.
2443
2f7da168
RK
2444=item lstat() on filehandle %s
2445
2446(W io) You tried to do an lstat on a filehandle. What did you mean
2447by that? lstat() makes sense only on filenames. (Perl did a fstat()
2448instead on the filehandle.)
2449
885ef6f5
GG
2450=item lvalue attribute ignored after the subroutine has been defined
2451
963d9ce9 2452(W misc) Making a subroutine an lvalue subroutine after it has been defined
d9159685
RS
2453by declaring the subroutine with an lvalue attribute is not
2454possible. To make the subroutine an lvalue subroutine add the
e2bd2e2b 2455lvalue attribute to the definition, or put the declaration before
885ef6f5
GG
2456the definition.
2457
96ebfdd7
RK
2458=item Lvalue subs returning %s not implemented yet
2459
2460(F) Due to limitations in the current implementation, array and hash
2461values cannot be returned in subroutines used in lvalue context. See
2462L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
2463
49704364
WL
2464=item Malformed integer in [] in pack
2465
2466(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
2467are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2468
2469=item Malformed integer in [] in unpack
2470
2471(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
2472are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2473
6df41af2
GS
2474=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
2475
2476(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
2477
2478 prefix1;prefix2
2479
2480or
6df41af2
GS
2481 prefix1 prefix2
2482
be771a83
GS
2483with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix of
2484a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error may
2485appear if components are not found, or are too long. See
fecfaeb8 2486"PERLLIB_PREFIX" in L<perlos2>.
6df41af2 2487
2f758a16
ST
2488=item Malformed prototype for %s: %s
2489
d37a9538
ST
2490(F) You tried to use a function with a malformed prototype. The
2491syntax of function prototypes is given a brief compile-time check for
2492obvious errors like invalid characters. A more rigorous check is run
2493when the function is called.
2f758a16 2494
ba210ebe
JH
2495=item Malformed UTF-8 character (%s)
2496
2575c402
JW
2497(S utf8) (F) Perl detected a string that didn't comply with UTF-8
2498encoding rules, even though it had the UTF8 flag on.
ba210ebe 2499
2575c402
JW
2500One possible cause is that you set the UTF8 flag yourself for data that
2501you thought to be in UTF-8 but it wasn't (it was for example legacy
25028-bit data). To guard against this, you can use Encode::decode_utf8.
2503
2504If you use the C<:encoding(UTF-8)> PerlIO layer for input, invalid byte
2505sequences are handled gracefully, but if you use C<:utf8>, the flag is
2506set without validating the data, possibly resulting in this error
2507message.
2508
2509See also L<Encode/"Handling Malformed Data">.
901b21bf 2510
dea0fc0b
JH
2511=item Malformed UTF-16 surrogate
2512
183097aa 2513(F) Perl thought it was reading UTF-16 encoded character data but while
dea0fc0b
JH
2514doing it Perl met a malformed Unicode surrogate.
2515
ff3f963a
KW
2516=item Malformed UTF-8 returned by \N
2517
2518(F) The charnames handler returned malformed UTF-8.
2519
f337b084
TH
2520=item Malformed UTF-8 string in pack
2521
2522(F) You tried to pack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2523rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2524
2525=item Malformed UTF-8 string in unpack
2526
2527(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2528rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2529
2530=item Malformed UTF-8 string in '%c' format in unpack
2531
2532(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2533rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2534
de42a5a9 2535=item Maximal count of pending signals (%u) exceeded
2563cec5 2536
fe13d51d 2537(F) Perl aborted due to a too high number of signals pending. This
2563cec5
IZ
2538usually indicates that your operating system tried to deliver signals
2539too fast (with a very high priority), starving the perl process from
2540resources it would need to reach a point where it can process signals
2541safely. (See L<perlipc/"Deferred Signals (Safe Signals)">.)
2542
49704364 2543=item %s matches null string many times in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2544
2545(W regexp) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
7253e4e3
RK
2546regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. The <-- HERE
2547shows in the regular expression about where the problem was discovered.
2548See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 2549
25f58aea
PN
2550=item "%s" may clash with future reserved word
2551
2552(W) This warning may be due to running a perl5 script through a perl4
2553interpreter, especially if the word that is being warned about is
2554"use" or "my".
2555
49704364 2556=item % may not be used in pack
6df41af2
GS
2557
2558(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
be771a83
GS
2559checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other way.
2560See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
6df41af2 2561
a0d0e21e
LW
2562=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
2563
2564(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
e7ea3e70 2565doesn't resolve to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 2566
3cdd684c
TP
2567=item Method %s not permitted
2568
2569See Server error.
2570
a0d0e21e
LW
2571=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
2572
2573(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
2574by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
2575ended earlier on the current line.
2576
2577=item Misplaced _ in number
2578
d4ced10d
JH
2579(W syntax) An underscore (underbar) in a numeric constant did not
2580separate two digits.
a0d0e21e 2581
7baa4690
HS
2582=item Missing argument in %s
2583
2584(W uninitialized) A printf-type format required more arguments than were
2585supplied.
2586
9e81e6a1
RGS
2587=item Missing argument to -%c
2588
2589(F) The argument to the indicated command line switch must follow
2590immediately after the switch, without intervening spaces.
2591
ff3f963a 2592=item Missing braces on \N{}
423cee85 2593
4a2d328f 2594(F) Wrong syntax of character name literal C<\N{charname}> within
c3c41406
KW
2595double-quotish context. This can also happen when there is a space (or
2596comment) between the C<\N> and the C<{> in a regex with the C</x> modifier.
2597This modifier does not change the requirement that the brace immediately follow
2598the C<\N>.
423cee85 2599
f0a2b745
KW
2600=item Missing braces on \o{}
2601
2602(F) A C<\o> must be followed immediately by a C<{> in double-quotish context.
2603
a0d0e21e
LW
2604=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
2605
2606(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
2607"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
2608
06eaf0bc
GS
2609=item Missing command in piped open
2610
be771a83
GS
2611(W pipe) You used the C<open(FH, "| command")> or
2612C<open(FH, "command |")> construction, but the command was missing or
2613blank.
06eaf0bc 2614
961ce445
RGS
2615=item Missing control char name in \c
2616
2617(F) A double-quoted string ended with "\c", without the required control
2618character name.
2619
6df41af2
GS
2620=item Missing name in "my sub"
2621
be771a83
GS
2622(F) The reserved syntax for lexically scoped subroutines requires that
2623they have a name with which they can be found.
6df41af2
GS
2624
2625=item Missing $ on loop variable
2626
be771a83
GS
2627(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables
2628are always mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it
2629can vary from one line to the next.
6df41af2 2630
cc507455 2631=item (Missing operator before %s?)
748a9306 2632
56da5a46
RGS
2633(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2634"%s found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
748a9306 2635
ab13f0c7
JH
2636=item Missing right brace on %s
2637
ff3f963a
KW
2638(F) Missing right brace in C<\x{...}>, C<\p{...}>, C<\P{...}>, or C<\N{...}>.
2639
4a68bf9d 2640=item Missing right brace on \N{} or unescaped left brace after \N
ff3f963a 2641
0a96133f
KW
2642(F)
2643C<\N> has two meanings.
2644
2645The traditional one has it followed by a name enclosed
2646in braces, meaning the character (or sequence of characters) given by that name.
ff3f963a 2647Thus C<\N{ASTERISK}> is another way of writing C<*>, valid in both
0a96133f
KW
2648double-quoted strings and regular expression patterns. In patterns, it doesn't
2649have the meaning an unescaped C<*> does.
ff3f963a 2650
0a96133f 2651Starting in Perl 5.12.0, C<\N> also can have an additional meaning (only) in
c3c41406
KW
2652patterns, namely to match a non-newline character. (This is short for
2653C<[^\n]>, and like C<.> but is not affected by the C</s> regex modifier.)
ff3f963a
KW
2654
2655This can lead to some ambiguities. When C<\N> is not followed immediately by a
c3c41406 2656left brace, Perl assumes the C<[^\n]> meaning. Also, if
ff3f963a
KW
2657the braces form a valid quantifier such as C<\N{3}> or C<\N{5,}>, Perl assumes
2658that this means to match the given quantity of non-newlines (in these examples,
0a96133f 26593; and 5 or more, respectively). In all other case, where there is a C<\N{>
ff3f963a
KW
2660and a matching C<}>, Perl assumes that a character name is desired.
2661
2662However, if there is no matching C<}>, Perl doesn't know if it was mistakenly
c3c41406 2663omitted, or if C<[^\n]{> was desired, and
0a96133f
KW
2664raises this error. If you meant the former, add the right brace; if you meant
2665the latter, escape the brace with a backslash, like so: C<\N\{>
ab13f0c7 2666
d98d5fff 2667=item Missing right curly or square bracket
a0d0e21e 2668
be771a83
GS
2669(F) The lexer counted more opening curly or square brackets than closing
2670ones. As a general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place you
2671were last editing.
a0d0e21e 2672
6df41af2
GS
2673=item (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
2674
56da5a46
RGS
2675(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2676"%s found where operator expected". Don't automatically put a semicolon on
6df41af2
GS
2677the previous line just because you saw this message.
2678
a0d0e21e
LW
2679=item Modification of a read-only value attempted
2680
2681(F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
5f05dabc 2682constant. You didn't, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
a0d0e21e
LW
2683catches that. But an easy way to do the same thing is:
2684
2685 sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
2686 mod(2);
2687
2688Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.
2689
c5674021
PDF
2690Yet another way is to assign to a C<foreach> loop I<VAR> when I<VAR>
2691is aliased to a constant in the look I<LIST>:
2692
2693 $x = 1;
2694 foreach my $n ($x, 2) {
2695 $n *= 2; # modifies the $x, but fails on attempt to modify the 2
64977eb6 2696 }
c5674021 2697
7a4340ed 2698=item Modification of non-creatable array value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2699
2700(F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
2701subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the array
2702backwards.
2703
7a4340ed 2704=item Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e 2705
be771a83
GS
2706(P) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it
2707couldn't be created for some peculiar reason.
a0d0e21e
LW
2708
2709=item Module name must be constant
2710
2711(F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".
2712
be98fb35 2713=item Module name required with -%c option
6df41af2 2714
be98fb35
GS
2715(F) The C<-M> or C<-m> options say that Perl should load some module, but
2716you omitted the name of the module. Consult L<perlrun> for full details
2717about C<-M> and C<-m>.
6df41af2 2718
fe13d51d 2719=item More than one argument to '%s' open
ed9aa3b7
SG
2720
2721(F) The C<open> function has been asked to open multiple files. This
2722can happen if you are trying to open a pipe to a command that takes a
2723list of arguments, but have forgotten to specify a piped open mode.
2724See L<perlfunc/open> for details.
2725
a0d0e21e
LW
2726=item msg%s not implemented
2727
2728(F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.
2729
2730=item Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
2731
75b44862
GS
2732(W syntax) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like C<$foo[1,2,3]>.
2733They're written like C<$foo[1][2][3]>, as in C.
8b1a09fc 2734
49704364 2735=item '/' must follow a numeric type in unpack
6df41af2 2736
49704364
WL
2737(F) You had an unpack template that contained a '/', but this did not
2738follow some unpack specification producing a numeric value.
2739See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6df41af2
GS
2740
2741=item "my sub" not yet implemented
2742
be771a83
GS
2743(F) Lexically scoped subroutines are not yet implemented. Don't try
2744that yet.
6df41af2 2745
30c282f6 2746=item "%s" variable %s can't be in a package
6df41af2 2747
be771a83
GS
2748(F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make
2749sense to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the front. Use
2750local() if you want to localize a package variable.
09bef843 2751
4a68bf9d 2752=item \N in a character class must be a named character: \N{...}
ff3f963a 2753
c3c41406
KW
2754(F) The new (5.12) meaning of C<\N> as C<[^\n]> is not valid in a bracketed
2755character class, for the same reason that C<.> in a character class loses its
2756specialness: it matches almost everything, which is probably not what you want.
2757
4a68bf9d 2758=item \N{NAME} must be resolved by the lexer
c3c41406
KW
2759
2760(F) When compiling a regex pattern, an unresolved named character or sequence
2761was encountered. This can happen in any of several ways that bypass the lexer,
b09c05e6 2762such as using single-quotish context, or an extra backslash in double quotish:
c3c41406
KW
2763
2764 $re = '\N{SPACE}'; # Wrong!
b09c05e6 2765 $re = "\\N{SPACE}"; # Wrong!
c3c41406
KW
2766 /$re/;
2767
b09c05e6 2768Instead, use double-quotes with a single backslash:
c3c41406
KW
2769
2770 $re = "\N{SPACE}"; # ok
2771 /$re/;
2772
2773The lexer can be bypassed as well by creating the pattern from smaller
2774components:
2775
2776 $re = '\N';
2777 /${re}{SPACE}/; # Wrong!
2778
2779It's not a good idea to split a construct in the middle like this, and it
2780doesn't work here. Instead use the solution above.
2781
2782Finally, the message also can happen under the C</x> regex modifier when the
2783C<\N> is separated by spaces from the C<{>, in which case, remove the spaces.
2784
2785 /\N {SPACE}/x; # Wrong!
2786 /\N{SPACE}/x; # ok
ff3f963a 2787
8b1a09fc 2788=item Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
2789
e476b1b5 2790(W once) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable names.
be771a83
GS
2791If you had a good reason for having a unique name, then just mention it
2792again somehow to suppress the message. The C<our> declaration is
77ca0c92 2793provided for this purpose.
a0d0e21e 2794
64b374f4
FD
2795NOTE: This warning detects symbols that have been used only once so $c, @c,
2796%c, *c, &c, sub c{}, c(), and c (the filehandle or format) are considered
2797the same; if a program uses $c only once but also uses any of the others it
2798will not trigger this warning.
2799
4a68bf9d 2800=item Invalid hexadecimal number in \N{U+...}
ff3f963a
KW
2801
2802(F) The character constant represented by C<...> is not a valid hexadecimal
c3c41406
KW
2803number. Either it is empty, or you tried to use a character other than 0 - 9
2804or A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number.
ff3f963a 2805
49704364
WL
2806=item Negative '/' count in unpack
2807
2808(F) The length count obtained from a length/code unpack operation was
2809negative. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2810
a0d0e21e
LW
2811=item Negative length
2812
be771a83
GS
2813(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer
2814length that is less than 0. This is difficult to imagine.
a0d0e21e 2815
ed9aa3b7
SG
2816=item Negative offset to vec in lvalue context
2817
2818(F) When C<vec> is called in an lvalue context, the second argument must be
2819greater than or equal to zero.
2820
7253e4e3 2821=item Nested quantifiers in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 2822
b45f050a 2823(F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses. So
7253e4e3 2824things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal. The <-- HERE shows in the regular
b45f050a 2825expression about where the problem was discovered.
a0d0e21e 2826
7253e4e3 2827Note that the minimal matching quantifiers, C<*?>, C<+?>, and
be771a83 2828C<??> appear to be nested quantifiers, but aren't. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 2829
6df41af2 2830=item %s never introduced
a0d0e21e 2831
be771a83
GS
2832(S internal) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of
2833scope before it could possibly have been used.
a0d0e21e 2834
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2835=item next::method/next::can/maybe::next::method cannot find enclosing method
2836
2837(F) C<next::method> needs to be called within the context of a
2838real method in a real package, and it could not find such a context.
2839See L<mro>.
2840
a0d0e21e
LW
2841=item No %s allowed while running setuid
2842
be771a83
GS
2843(F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or
2844setgid script to even be allowed to attempt. Generally speaking there
2845will be another way to do what you want that is, if not secure, at least
2846securable. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2847
a0d0e21e
LW
2848=item No comma allowed after %s
2849
2850(F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is not
2851allowed to have a comma between that and the following arguments.
2852Otherwise it'd be just another one of the arguments.
2853
0a753a76 2854One possible cause for this is that you expected to have imported a
2855constant to your name space with B<use> or B<import> while no such
2856importing took place, it may for example be that your operating system
2857does not support that particular constant. Hopefully you did use an
2858explicit import list for the constants you expect to see, please see
2859L<perlfunc/use> and L<perlfunc/import>. While an explicit import list
2860would probably have caught this error earlier it naturally does not
2861remedy the fact that your operating system still does not support that
2862constant. Maybe you have a typo in the constants of the symbol import
2863list of B<use> or B<import> or in the constant name at the line where
2864this error was triggered?
2865
748a9306
LW
2866=item No command into which to pipe on command line
2867
be771a83
GS
2868(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2869redirection, and found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it
2870doesn't know where you want to pipe the output from this command.
748a9306 2871
a0d0e21e
LW
2872=item No DB::DB routine defined
2873
be771a83 2874(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
ccafdc96
RGS
2875for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
2876module) didn't define a routine to be called at the beginning of each
2877statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
2878
2879=item No dbm on this machine
2880
2881(P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine should
5f05dabc 2882supply dbm nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM. See L<SDBM_File>.
a0d0e21e 2883
ccafdc96 2884=item No DB::sub routine defined
a0d0e21e 2885
ccafdc96
RGS
2886(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
2887for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
2888module) didn't define a C<DB::sub> routine to be called at the beginning
2889of each ordinary subroutine call.
a0d0e21e 2890
96ebfdd7
RK
2891=item No B<-e> allowed in setuid scripts
2892
2893(F) A setuid script can't be specified by the user.
2894
c47ff5f1 2895=item No error file after 2> or 2>> on command line
748a9306 2896
be771a83
GS
2897(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2898redirection, and found a '2>' or a '2>>' on the command line, but can't
2899find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stderr.
748a9306 2900
49704364
WL
2901=item No group ending character '%c' found in template
2902
2903(F) A pack or unpack template has an opening '(' or '[' without its
2904matching counterpart. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2905
c47ff5f1 2906=item No input file after < on command line
748a9306 2907
be771a83
GS
2908(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2909redirection, and found a '<' on the command line, but can't find the
2910name of the file from which to read data for stdin.
748a9306 2911
6df41af2
GS
2912=item No #! line
2913
2914(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
2915even on machines that don't support the #! construct.
2916
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2917=item No next::method '%s' found for %s
2918
2919(F) C<next::method> found no further instances of this method name
2920in the remaining packages of the MRO of this class. If you don't want
2921it throwing an exception, use C<maybe::next::method>
2922or C<next::can>. See L<mro>.
2923
6df41af2
GS
2924=item "no" not allowed in expression
2925
be771a83
GS
2926(F) The "no" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and
2927returns no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
6df41af2 2928
c47ff5f1 2929=item No output file after > on command line
748a9306 2930
be771a83
GS
2931(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2932redirection, and found a lone '>' at the end of the command line, so it
2933doesn't know where you wanted to redirect stdout.
748a9306 2934
c47ff5f1 2935=item No output file after > or >> on command line
748a9306 2936
be771a83
GS
2937(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2938redirection, and found a '>' or a '>>' on the command line, but can't
2939find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stdout.
748a9306 2940
1ec3e8de
GS
2941=item No package name allowed for variable %s in "our"
2942
be771a83
GS
2943(F) Fully qualified variable names are not allowed in "our"
2944declarations, because that doesn't make much sense under existing
2945semantics. Such syntax is reserved for future extensions.
1ec3e8de 2946
a0d0e21e
LW
2947=item No Perl script found in input
2948
2949(F) You called C<perl -x>, but no line was found in the file beginning
2950with #! and containing the word "perl".
2951
2952=item No setregid available
2953
2954(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setregid() call for
2955your system.
2956
2957=item No setreuid available
2958
2959(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setreuid() call for
2960your system.
2961
6df41af2
GS
2962=item No %s specified for -%c
2963
2964(F) The indicated command line switch needs a mandatory argument, but
2965you haven't specified one.
e75d1f10
RD
2966=item No such class field "%s" in variable %s of type %s
2967
2968(F) You tried to access a key from a hash through the indicated typed variable
2969but that key is not allowed by the package of the same type. The indicated
2970package has restricted the set of allowed keys using the L<fields> pragma.
2971
2c692339
RGS
2972=item No such class %s
2973
30c282f6 2974(F) You provided a class qualifier in a "my", "our" or "state" declaration, but
2c692339
RGS
2975this class doesn't exist at this point in your program.
2976
3c20a832
SP
2977=item No such hook: %s
2978
2979(F) You specified a signal hook that was not recognized by Perl. Currently, Perl
2980accepts C<__DIE__> and C<__WARN__> as valid signal hooks
2981
6df41af2
GS
2982=item No such pipe open
2983
2984(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The internal routine my_pclose() tried to
be771a83
GS
2985close a pipe which hadn't been opened. This should have been caught
2986earlier as an attempt to close an unopened filehandle.
6df41af2 2987
a0d0e21e
LW
2988=item No such signal: SIG%s
2989
be771a83
GS
2990(W signal) You specified a signal name as a subscript to %SIG that was
2991not recognized. Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal
2992names on your system.
a0d0e21e
LW
2993
2994=item Not a CODE reference
2995
2996(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
2997subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
2998use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
2999also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3000
3001=item Not a format reference
3002
3003(F) I'm not sure how you managed to generate a reference to an anonymous
3004format, but this indicates you did, and that it didn't exist.
3005
3006=item Not a GLOB reference
3007
be771a83
GS
3008(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a "typeglob" (that is, a
3009symbol table entry that looks like C<*foo>), but found a reference to
3010something else instead. You can use the ref() function to find out what
3011kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3012
3013=item Not a HASH reference
3014
be771a83
GS
3015(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a hash value, but found a
3016reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function to
3017find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 3018
6df41af2
GS
3019=item Not an ARRAY reference
3020
be771a83
GS
3021(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to an array value, but found
3022a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
3023to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 3024
a0d0e21e
LW
3025=item Not a perl script
3026
3027(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
3028even on machines that don't support the #! construct. The line must
3029mention perl.
3030
3031=item Not a SCALAR reference
3032
be771a83
GS
3033(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a scalar value, but found
3034a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
3035to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3036
3037=item Not a subroutine reference
3038
3039(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
3040subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
3041use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
3042also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 3043
e7ea3e70 3044=item Not a subroutine reference in overload table
a0d0e21e
LW
3045
3046(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
8b1a09fc 3047doesn't somehow point to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 3048
a0d0e21e
LW
3049=item Not enough arguments for %s
3050
3051(F) The function requires more arguments than you specified.
3052
6df41af2
GS
3053=item Not enough format arguments
3054
be771a83
GS
3055(W syntax) A format specified more picture fields than the next line
3056supplied. See L<perlform>.
6df41af2
GS
3057
3058=item %s: not found
3059
be771a83
GS
3060(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell instead
3061of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl
3062yourself.
6df41af2
GS
3063
3064=item no UTC offset information; assuming local time is UTC
a0d0e21e 3065
6df41af2
GS
3066(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl was unable to find the local
3067timezone offset, so it's assuming that local system time is equivalent
be771a83
GS
3068to UTC. If it's not, define the logical name
3069F<SYS$TIMEZONE_DIFFERENTIAL> to translate to the number of seconds which
3070need to be added to UTC to get local time.
a0d0e21e 3071
f0a2b745
KW
3072=item Non-octal character '%c'. Resolved as "%s"
3073
3074(W digit) In parsing an octal numeric constant, a character was unexpectedly
3075encountered that isn't octal. The resulting value is as indicated.
3076
4ef2275c
GA
3077=item Non-string passed as bitmask
3078
3079(W misc) A number has been passed as a bitmask argument to select().
3080Use the vec() function to construct the file descriptor bitmasks for
3081select. See L<perlfunc/select>
3082
a0d0e21e
LW
3083=item Null filename used
3084
be771a83
GS
3085(F) You can't require the null filename, especially because on many
3086machines that means the current directory! See L<perlfunc/require>.
a0d0e21e 3087
6df41af2
GS
3088=item NULL OP IN RUN
3089
be771a83
GS
3090(P debugging) Some internal routine called run() with a null opcode
3091pointer.
6df41af2 3092
55497cff 3093=item Null picture in formline
3094
3095(F) The first argument to formline must be a valid format picture
3096specification. It was found to be empty, which probably means you
3097supplied it an uninitialized value. See L<perlform>.
3098
a0d0e21e
LW
3099=item Null realloc
3100
3101(P) An attempt was made to realloc NULL.
3102
3103=item NULL regexp argument
3104
5f05dabc 3105(P) The internal pattern matching routines blew it big time.
a0d0e21e
LW
3106
3107=item NULL regexp parameter
3108
3109(P) The internal pattern matching routines are out of their gourd.
3110
fc36a67e 3111=item Number too long
3112
be771a83 3113(F) Perl limits the representation of decimal numbers in programs to
da75cd15 3114about 250 characters. You've exceeded that length. Future
be771a83
GS
3115versions of Perl are likely to eliminate this arbitrary limitation. In
3116the meantime, try using scientific notation (e.g. "1e6" instead of
3117"1_000_000").
fc36a67e 3118
f0a2b745
KW
3119=item Number with no digits
3120
3121(F) Perl was looking for a number but found nothing that looked like a number.
3122This happens, for example with C<\o{}>, with no number between the braces.
3123
6df41af2
GS
3124=item Octal number in vector unsupported
3125
be771a83
GS
3126(F) Numbers with a leading C<0> are not currently allowed in vectors.
3127The octal number interpretation of such numbers may be supported in a
3128future version.
6df41af2 3129
252aa082
JH
3130=item Octal number > 037777777777 non-portable
3131
75b44862 3132(W portable) The octal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
be771a83
GS
3133(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
3134L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082
JH
3135
3136See also L<perlport> for writing portable code.
3137
6ad11d81
JH
3138=item Odd number of arguments for overload::constant
3139
04a80ee0
RGS
3140(W overload) The call to overload::constant contained an odd number of
3141arguments. The arguments should come in pairs.
6ad11d81 3142
b21befc1
MG
3143=item Odd number of elements in anonymous hash
3144
3145(W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash,
3146which is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
3147
1930e939 3148=item Odd number of elements in hash assignment
a0d0e21e 3149
be771a83
GS
3150(W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash,
3151which is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
a0d0e21e 3152
bbce6d69 3153=item Offset outside string
3154
a4a4c9e2 3155(F|W layer) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv/seek operation
42bc49da 3156with an offset pointing outside the buffer. This is difficult to
f5a7294f
JH
3157imagine. The sole exceptions to this are that zero padding will
3158take place when going past the end of the string when either
3159C<sysread()>ing a file, or when seeking past the end of a scalar opened
1a7a2554
MB
3160for I/O (in anticipation of future reads and to imitate the behaviour
3161with real files).
bbce6d69 3162
c289d2f7 3163=item %s() on unopened %s
2dd78f96
JH
3164
3165(W unopened) An I/O operation was attempted on a filehandle that was
3166never initialized. You need to do an open(), a sysopen(), or a socket()
3167call, or call a constructor from the FileHandle package.
3168
96ebfdd7
RK
3169=item -%s on unopened filehandle %s
3170
3171(W unopened) You tried to invoke a file test operator on a filehandle
3172that isn't open. Check your control flow. See also L<perlfunc/-X>.
3173
a0d0e21e
LW
3174=item oops: oopsAV
3175
e476b1b5 3176(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e
LW
3177
3178=item oops: oopsHV
3179
e476b1b5 3180(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e 3181
abc718f2
RGS
3182=item Opening dirhandle %s also as a file
3183
a4a4c9e2 3184(W io, deprecated) You used open() to associate a filehandle to
abc718f2
RGS
3185a symbol (glob or scalar) that already holds a dirhandle.
3186Although legal, this idiom might render your code confusing
3187and is deprecated.
3188
3189=item Opening filehandle %s also as a directory
3190
a4a4c9e2 3191(W io, deprecated) You used opendir() to associate a dirhandle to
abc718f2
RGS
3192a symbol (glob or scalar) that already holds a filehandle.
3193Although legal, this idiom might render your code confusing
3194and is deprecated.
3195
a0288114 3196=item Operation "%s": no method found, %s
44a8e56a 3197
be771a83
GS
3198(F) An attempt was made to perform an overloaded operation for which no
3199handler was defined. While some handlers can be autogenerated in terms
3200of other handlers, there is no default handler for any operation, unless
3201C<fallback> overloading key is specified to be true. See L<overload>.
44a8e56a 3202
9ae3ac1a
KW
3203=item Operation "%s" returns its argument for UTF-16 surrogate U+%X
3204
3205(W) You performed an operation requiring Unicode semantics on a Unicode
3206surrogate. Unicode frowns upon the use of surrogates for anything but
3207storing strings in UTF-16, but semantics are (reluctantly) defined for
3208the surrogates, and they are to do nothing for this operation. Because
3209the use of surrogates can be dangerous, Perl warns.
3210
3211If the operation shown is "ToFold", it means that case-insensitive
3212matching in a regular expression was done on the code point.
3213
3214If you know what you are doing you can turn off this warning by
3215C<no warnings 'utf8';>.
3216
3217=item Operation "%s" returns its argument for non-Unicode code point 0x%X
3218
3219(W) You performed an operation requiring Unicode semantics on a code
3220point that is not in Unicode, so what it should do is not defined. Perl
3221has chosen to have it do nothing, and warn you.
3222
3223If the operation shown is "ToFold", it means that case-insensitive
3224matching in a regular expression was done on the code point.
3225
3226If you know what you are doing you can turn off this warning by
3227C<no warnings 'utf8';>.
3228
748a9306
LW
3229=item Operator or semicolon missing before %s
3230
be771a83
GS
3231(S ambiguous) You used a variable or subroutine call where the parser
3232was expecting an operator. The parser has assumed you really meant to
3233use an operator, but this is highly likely to be incorrect. For
3234example, if you say "*foo *foo" it will be interpreted as if you said
3235"*foo * 'foo'".
748a9306 3236
6df41af2
GS
3237=item "our" variable %s redeclared
3238
be771a83
GS
3239(W misc) You seem to have already declared the same global once before
3240in the current lexical scope.
6df41af2 3241
a80b8354
GS
3242=item Out of memory!
3243
3244(X) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
be771a83
GS
3245remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. Perl has
3246no option but to exit immediately.
a80b8354 3247
19a52907
JH
3248At least in Unix you may be able to get past this by increasing your
3249process datasize limits: in csh/tcsh use C<limit> and
3250C<limit datasize n> (where C<n> is the number of kilobytes) to check
3251the current limits and change them, and in ksh/bash/zsh use C<ulimit -a>
3252and C<ulimit -d n>, respectively.
3253
6d3b25aa
RGS
3254=item Out of memory during %s extend
3255
3256(X) An attempt was made to extend an array, a list, or a string beyond
3257the largest possible memory allocation.
3258
6df41af2 3259=item Out of memory during "large" request for %s
a0d0e21e 3260
6df41af2
GS
3261(F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
3262remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. However,
be771a83
GS
3263the request was judged large enough (compile-time default is 64K), so a
3264possibility to shut down by trapping this error is granted.
a0d0e21e 3265
1b979e0a 3266=item Out of memory during request for %s
a0d0e21e 3267
be771a83
GS
3268(X|F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was
3269insufficient remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the
3270request.
eff9c6e2
CS
3271
3272The request was judged to be small, so the possibility to trap it
3273depends on the way perl was compiled. By default it is not trappable.
be771a83
GS
3274However, if compiled for this, Perl may use the contents of C<$^M> as an
3275emergency pool after die()ing with this message. In this case the error
b022d2d2
IZ
3276is trappable I<once>, and the error message will include the line and file
3277where the failed request happened.
55497cff 3278
1b979e0a
IZ
3279=item Out of memory during ridiculously large request
3280
3281(F) You can't allocate more than 2^31+"small amount" bytes. This error
be771a83
GS
3282is most likely to be caused by a typo in the Perl program. e.g.,
3283C<$arr[time]> instead of C<$arr[$time]>.
1b979e0a 3284
6df41af2
GS
3285=item Out of memory for yacc stack
3286
be771a83
GS
3287(F) The yacc parser wanted to grow its stack so it could continue
3288parsing, but realloc() wouldn't give it more memory, virtual or
3289otherwise.
6df41af2 3290
28be1210
TH
3291=item '.' outside of string in pack
3292
3293(F) The argument to a '.' in your template tried to move the working
3294position to before the start of the packed string being built.
3295
49704364 3296=item '@' outside of string in unpack
6df41af2 3297
49704364 3298(F) You had a template that specified an absolute position outside
6df41af2
GS
3299the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3300
f337b084
TH
3301=item '@' outside of string with malformed UTF-8 in unpack
3302
3303(F) You had a template that specified an absolute position outside
3304the string being unpacked. The string being unpacked was also invalid
3305UTF-8. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3306
7cb0cfe6
BM
3307=item Overloaded dereference did not return a reference
3308
3309(F) An object with an overloaded dereference operator was dereferenced,
3310but the overloaded operation did not return a reference. See
3311L<overload>.
3312
3313=item Overloaded qr did not return a REGEXP
3314
3315(F) An object with a C<qr> overload was used as part of a match, but the
3316overloaded operation didn't return a compiled regexp. See L<overload>.
3317
6df41af2
GS
3318=item %s package attribute may clash with future reserved word: %s
3319
be771a83
GS
3320(W reserved) A lowercase attribute name was used that had a
3321package-specific handler. That name might have a meaning to Perl itself
3322some day, even though it doesn't yet. Perhaps you should use a
3323mixed-case attribute name, instead. See L<attributes>.
6df41af2 3324
fb2e24cd
KW
3325=item \p{} uses Unicode rules, not locale rules
3326
3327(W) You compiled a regular expression that contained a Unicode property
3328match (C<\p> or C<\P>), but the regular expression is also being told to
f7f5e97b
KW
3329use the run-time locale, not Unicode. Instead, use a POSIX character
3330class, which should know about the locale's rules.
3331(See L<perlrecharclass/POSIX Character Classes>.)
3332
3333Even if the run-time locale is ISO 8859-1 (Latin1), which is a subset of
3334Unicode, some properties will give results that are not valid for that
3335subset.
3336
3337Here are a couple of examples to help you see what's going on. If the
3338locale is ISO 8859-7, the character at code point 0xD7 is the "GREEK
3339CAPITAL LETTER CHI". But in Unicode that code point means the
3340"MULTIPLICATION SIGN" instead, and C<\p> always uses the Unicode
3341meaning. That means that C<\p{Alpha}> won't match, but C<[[:alpha:]]>
3342should. Only in the Latin1 locale are all the characters in the same
3343positions as they are in Unicode. But, even here, some properties give
3344incorrect results. An example is C<\p{Changes_When_Uppercased}> which
3345is true for "LATIN SMALL LETTER Y WITH DIAERESIS", but since the upper
3346case of that character is not in Latin1, in that locale it doesn't
3347change when upper cased.
fb2e24cd 3348
96ebfdd7
RK
3349=item pack/unpack repeat count overflow
3350
3351(F) You can't specify a repeat count so large that it overflows your
3352signed integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3353
a0d0e21e
LW
3354=item page overflow
3355
be771a83
GS
3356(W io) A single call to write() produced more lines than can fit on a
3357page. See L<perlform>.
a0d0e21e 3358
6df41af2
GS
3359=item panic: %s
3360
3361(P) An internal error.
3362
c99a1475
NC
3363=item panic: attempt to call %s in %s
3364
3365(P) One of the file test operators entered a code branch that calls
3366an ACL related-function, but that function is not available on this
3367platform. Earlier checks mean that it should not be possible to
3368enter this branch on this platform.
3369
a0d0e21e
LW
3370=item panic: ck_grep
3371
3372(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a grep.
3373
3374=item panic: ck_split
3375
3376(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a split.
3377
3378=item panic: corrupt saved stack index
3379
be771a83
GS
3380(P) The savestack was requested to restore more localized values than
3381there are in the savestack.
a0d0e21e 3382
810b8aa5
GS
3383=item panic: del_backref
3384
3385(P) Failed an internal consistency check while trying to reset a weak