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1=head1 NAME
2
3perlebcdic - Considerations for running Perl on EBCDIC platforms
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7An exploration of some of the issues facing Perl programmers
8on EBCDIC based computers. We do not cover localization,
9internationalization, or multi byte character set issues (yet).
10
11Portions that are still incomplete are marked with XXX.
12
13=head1 COMMON CHARACTER CODE SETS
14
15=head2 ASCII
16
17The American Standard Code for Information Interchange is a set of
18integers running from 0 to 127 (decimal) that imply character
19interpretation by the display and other system(s) of computers.
51b5cecb 20The range 0..127 can be covered by setting the bits in a 7-bit binary
d396a558 21digit, hence the set is sometimes referred to as a "7-bit ASCII".
51b5cecb 22ASCII was described by the American National Standards Institute
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23document ANSI X3.4-1986. It was also described by ISO 646:1991
24(with localization for currency symbols). The full ASCII set is
25given in the table below as the first 128 elements. Languages that
26can be written adequately with the characters in ASCII include
27English, Hawaiian, Indonesian, Swahili and some Native American
28languages.
29
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30There are many character sets that extend the range of integers
31from 0..2**7-1 up to 2**8-1, or 8 bit bytes (octets if you prefer).
32One common one is the ISO 8859-1 character set.
33
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34=head2 ISO 8859
35
36The ISO 8859-$n are a collection of character code sets from the
37International Organization for Standardization (ISO) each of which
38adds characters to the ASCII set that are typically found in European
39languages many of which are based on the Roman, or Latin, alphabet.
40
41=head2 Latin 1 (ISO 8859-1)
42
43A particular 8-bit extension to ASCII that includes grave and acute
44accented Latin characters. Languages that can employ ISO 8859-1
45include all the languages covered by ASCII as well as Afrikaans,
46Albanian, Basque, Catalan, Danish, Faroese, Finnish, Norwegian,
47Portugese, Spanish, and Swedish. Dutch is covered albeit without
48the ij ligature. French is covered too but without the oe ligature.
49German can use ISO 8859-1 but must do so without German-style
50quotation marks. This set is based on Western European extensions
51to ASCII and is commonly encountered in world wide web work.
52In IBM character code set identification terminology ISO 8859-1 is
51b5cecb 53also known as CCSID 819 (or sometimes 0819 or even 00819).
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54
55=head2 EBCDIC
56
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57The Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code refers to a
58large collection of slightly different single and multi byte
59coded character sets that are different from ASCII or ISO 8859-1
60and typically run on host computers. The EBCDIC encodings derive
61from 8 bit byte extensions of Hollerith punched card encodings.
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62The layout on the cards was such that high bits were set for the
63upper and lower case alphabet characters [a-z] and [A-Z], but there
64were gaps within each latin alphabet range.
65
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66Some IBM EBCDIC character sets may be known by character code set
67identification numbers (CCSID numbers) or code page numbers. Leading
68zero digits in CCSID numbers within this document are insignificant.
69E.g. CCSID 0037 may be referred to as 37 in places.
70
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71=head2 13 variant characters
72
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73Among IBM EBCDIC character code sets there are 13 characters that
74are often mapped to different integer values. Those characters
75are known as the 13 "variant" characters and are:
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51b5cecb 77 \ [ ] { } ^ ~ ! # | $ @ `
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78
79=head2 0037
80
81Character code set ID 0037 is a mapping of the ASCII plus Latin-1
82characters (i.e. ISO 8859-1) to an EBCDIC set. 0037 is used
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83in North American English locales on the OS/400 operating system
84that runs on AS/400 computers. CCSID 37 differs from ISO 8859-1
85in 237 places, in other words they agree on only 19 code point values.
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86
87=head2 1047
88
89Character code set ID 1047 is also a mapping of the ASCII plus
90Latin-1 characters (i.e. ISO 8859-1) to an EBCDIC set. 1047 is
91used under Unix System Services for OS/390, and OpenEdition for VM/ESA.
92CCSID 1047 differs from CCSID 0037 in eight places.
93
94=head2 POSIX-BC
95
96The EBCDIC code page in use on Siemens' BS2000 system is distinct from
971047 and 0037. It is identified below as the POSIX-BC set.
98
99=head1 SINGLE OCTET TABLES
100
101The following tables list the ASCII and Latin 1 ordered sets including
102the subsets: C0 controls (0..31), ASCII graphics (32..7e), delete (7f),
103C1 controls (80..9f), and Latin-1 (a.k.a. ISO 8859-1) (a0..ff). In the
104table non-printing control character names as well as the Latin 1
105extensions to ASCII have been labelled with character names roughly
106corresponding to I<The Unicode Standard, Version 2.0> albeit with
107substitutions such as s/LATIN// and s/VULGAR// in all cases,
108s/CAPITAL LETTER// in some cases, and s/SMALL LETTER ([A-Z])/\l$1/
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109in some other cases (the C<charnames> pragma names unfortunately do
110not list explicit names for the C0 or C1 control characters). The
111"names" of the C1 control set (128..159 in ISO 8859-1) listed here are
112somewhat arbitrary. The differences between the 0037 and 1047 sets are
113flagged with ***. The differences between the 1047 and POSIX-BC sets
114are flagged with ###. All ord() numbers listed are decimal. If you
115would rather see this table listing octal values then run the table
116(that is, the pod version of this document since this recipe may not
117work with a pod2_other_format translation) through:
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118
119=over 4
120
121=item recipe 0
122
123=back
124
125 perl -ne 'if(/(.{33})(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)/)' \
126 -e '{printf("%s%-9o%-9o%-9o%-9o\n",$1,$2,$3,$4,$5)}' perlebcdic.pod
127
128If you would rather see this table listing hexadecimal values then
129run the table through:
130
131=over 4
132
133=item recipe 1
134
135=back
136
137 perl -ne 'if(/(.{33})(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)/)' \
138 -e '{printf("%s%-9X%-9X%-9X%-9X\n",$1,$2,$3,$4,$5)}' perlebcdic.pod
139
140
141 8859-1
142 chr 0819 0037 1047 POSIX-BC
143 ----------------------------------------------------------------
144 <NULL> 0 0 0 0
145 <START OF HEADING> 1 1 1 1
146 <START OF TEXT> 2 2 2 2
147 <END OF TEXT> 3 3 3 3
148 <END OF TRANSMISSION> 4 55 55 55
149 <ENQUIRY> 5 45 45 45
150 <ACKNOWLEDGE> 6 46 46 46
151 <BELL> 7 47 47 47
152 <BACKSPACE> 8 22 22 22
153 <HORIZONTAL TABULATION> 9 5 5 5
154 <LINE FEED> 10 37 21 21 ***
155 <VERTICAL TABULATION> 11 11 11 11
156 <FORM FEED> 12 12 12 12
157 <CARRIAGE RETURN> 13 13 13 13
158 <SHIFT OUT> 14 14 14 14
159 <SHIFT IN> 15 15 15 15
160 <DATA LINK ESCAPE> 16 16 16 16
161 <DEVICE CONTROL ONE> 17 17 17 17
162 <DEVICE CONTROL TWO> 18 18 18 18
163 <DEVICE CONTROL THREE> 19 19 19 19
164 <DEVICE CONTROL FOUR> 20 60 60 60
165 <NEGATIVE ACKNOWLEDGE> 21 61 61 61
166 <SYNCHRONOUS IDLE> 22 50 50 50
167 <END OF TRANSMISSION BLOCK> 23 38 38 38
168 <CANCEL> 24 24 24 24
169 <END OF MEDIUM> 25 25 25 25
170 <SUBSTITUTE> 26 63 63 63
171 <ESCAPE> 27 39 39 39
172 <FILE SEPARATOR> 28 28 28 28
173 <GROUP SEPARATOR> 29 29 29 29
174 <RECORD SEPARATOR> 30 30 30 30
175 <UNIT SEPARATOR> 31 31 31 31
176 <SPACE> 32 64 64 64
177 ! 33 90 90 90
178 " 34 127 127 127
179 # 35 123 123 123
180 $ 36 91 91 91
181 % 37 108 108 108
182 & 38 80 80 80
183 ' 39 125 125 125
184 ( 40 77 77 77
185 ) 41 93 93 93
186 * 42 92 92 92
187 + 43 78 78 78
188 , 44 107 107 107
189 - 45 96 96 96
190 . 46 75 75 75
191 / 47 97 97 97
192 0 48 240 240 240
193 1 49 241 241 241
194 2 50 242 242 242
195 3 51 243 243 243
196 4 52 244 244 244
197 5 53 245 245 245
198 6 54 246 246 246
199 7 55 247 247 247
200 8 56 248 248 248
201 9 57 249 249 249
202 : 58 122 122 122
203 ; 59 94 94 94
204 < 60 76 76 76
205 = 61 126 126 126
206 > 62 110 110 110
207 ? 63 111 111 111
208 @ 64 124 124 124
209 A 65 193 193 193
210 B 66 194 194 194
211 C 67 195 195 195
212 D 68 196 196 196
213 E 69 197 197 197
214 F 70 198 198 198
215 G 71 199 199 199
216 H 72 200 200 200
217 I 73 201 201 201
218 J 74 209 209 209
219 K 75 210 210 210
220 L 76 211 211 211
221 M 77 212 212 212
222 N 78 213 213 213
223 O 79 214 214 214
224 P 80 215 215 215
225 Q 81 216 216 216
226 R 82 217 217 217
227 S 83 226 226 226
228 T 84 227 227 227
229 U 85 228 228 228
230 V 86 229 229 229
231 W 87 230 230 230
232 X 88 231 231 231
233 Y 89 232 232 232
234 Z 90 233 233 233
235 [ 91 186 173 187 *** ###
236 \ 92 224 224 188 ###
237 ] 93 187 189 189 ***
238 ^ 94 176 95 106 *** ###
239 _ 95 109 109 109
240 ` 96 121 121 74 ###
241 a 97 129 129 129
242 b 98 130 130 130
243 c 99 131 131 131
244 d 100 132 132 132
245 e 101 133 133 133
246 f 102 134 134 134
247 g 103 135 135 135
248 h 104 136 136 136
249 i 105 137 137 137
250 j 106 145 145 145
251 k 107 146 146 146
252 l 108 147 147 147
253 m 109 148 148 148
254 n 110 149 149 149
255 o 111 150 150 150
256 p 112 151 151 151
257 q 113 152 152 152
258 r 114 153 153 153
259 s 115 162 162 162
260 t 116 163 163 163
261 u 117 164 164 164
262 v 118 165 165 165
263 w 119 166 166 166
264 x 120 167 167 167
265 y 121 168 168 168
266 z 122 169 169 169
267 { 123 192 192 251 ###
268 | 124 79 79 79
269 } 125 208 208 253 ###
270 ~ 126 161 161 255 ###
271 <DELETE> 127 7 7 7
272 <C1 0> 128 32 32 32
273 <C1 1> 129 33 33 33
274 <C1 2> 130 34 34 34
275 <C1 3> 131 35 35 35
276 <C1 4> 132 36 36 36
277 <C1 5> 133 21 37 37 ***
278 <C1 6> 134 6 6 6
279 <C1 7> 135 23 23 23
280 <C1 8> 136 40 40 40
281 <C1 9> 137 41 41 41
282 <C1 10> 138 42 42 42
283 <C1 11> 139 43 43 43
284 <C1 12> 140 44 44 44
285 <C1 13> 141 9 9 9
286 <C1 14> 142 10 10 10
287 <C1 15> 143 27 27 27
288 <C1 16> 144 48 48 48
289 <C1 17> 145 49 49 49
290 <C1 18> 146 26 26 26
291 <C1 19> 147 51 51 51
292 <C1 20> 148 52 52 52
293 <C1 21> 149 53 53 53
294 <C1 22> 150 54 54 54
295 <C1 23> 151 8 8 8
296 <C1 24> 152 56 56 56
297 <C1 25> 153 57 57 57
298 <C1 26> 154 58 58 58
299 <C1 27> 155 59 59 59
300 <C1 28> 156 4 4 4
301 <C1 29> 157 20 20 20
302 <C1 30> 158 62 62 62
303 <C1 31> 159 255 255 95 ###
304 <NON-BREAKING SPACE> 160 65 65 65
305 <INVERTED EXCLAMATION MARK> 161 170 170 170
306 <CENT SIGN> 162 74 74 176 ###
307 <POUND SIGN> 163 177 177 177
308 <CURRENCY SIGN> 164 159 159 159
309 <YEN SIGN> 165 178 178 178
310 <BROKEN BAR> 166 106 106 208 ###
311 <SECTION SIGN> 167 181 181 181
312 <DIAERESIS> 168 189 187 121 *** ###
313 <COPYRIGHT SIGN> 169 180 180 180
314 <FEMININE ORDINAL INDICATOR> 170 154 154 154
315 <LEFT POINTING GUILLEMET> 171 138 138 138
316 <NOT SIGN> 172 95 176 186 *** ###
317 <SOFT HYPHEN> 173 202 202 202
318 <REGISTERED TRADE MARK SIGN> 174 175 175 175
319 <MACRON> 175 188 188 161 ###
320 <DEGREE SIGN> 176 144 144 144
321 <PLUS-OR-MINUS SIGN> 177 143 143 143
322 <SUPERSCRIPT TWO> 178 234 234 234
323 <SUPERSCRIPT THREE> 179 250 250 250
324 <ACUTE ACCENT> 180 190 190 190
325 <MICRO SIGN> 181 160 160 160
326 <PARAGRAPH SIGN> 182 182 182 182
327 <MIDDLE DOT> 183 179 179 179
328 <CEDILLA> 184 157 157 157
329 <SUPERSCRIPT ONE> 185 218 218 218
330 <MASC. ORDINAL INDICATOR> 186 155 155 155
331 <RIGHT POINTING GUILLEMET> 187 139 139 139
332 <FRACTION ONE QUARTER> 188 183 183 183
333 <FRACTION ONE HALF> 189 184 184 184
334 <FRACTION THREE QUARTERS> 190 185 185 185
335 <INVERTED QUESTION MARK> 191 171 171 171
336 <A WITH GRAVE> 192 100 100 100
337 <A WITH ACUTE> 193 101 101 101
338 <A WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 194 98 98 98
339 <A WITH TILDE> 195 102 102 102
340 <A WITH DIAERESIS> 196 99 99 99
341 <A WITH RING ABOVE> 197 103 103 103
342 <CAPITAL LIGATURE AE> 198 158 158 158
343 <C WITH CEDILLA> 199 104 104 104
344 <E WITH GRAVE> 200 116 116 116
345 <E WITH ACUTE> 201 113 113 113
346 <E WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 202 114 114 114
347 <E WITH DIAERESIS> 203 115 115 115
348 <I WITH GRAVE> 204 120 120 120
349 <I WITH ACUTE> 205 117 117 117
350 <I WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 206 118 118 118
351 <I WITH DIAERESIS> 207 119 119 119
352 <CAPITAL LETTER ETH> 208 172 172 172
353 <N WITH TILDE> 209 105 105 105
354 <O WITH GRAVE> 210 237 237 237
355 <O WITH ACUTE> 211 238 238 238
356 <O WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 212 235 235 235
357 <O WITH TILDE> 213 239 239 239
358 <O WITH DIAERESIS> 214 236 236 236
359 <MULTIPLICATION SIGN> 215 191 191 191
360 <O WITH STROKE> 216 128 128 128
361 <U WITH GRAVE> 217 253 253 224 ###
362 <U WITH ACUTE> 218 254 254 254
363 <U WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 219 251 251 221 ###
364 <U WITH DIAERESIS> 220 252 252 252
365 <Y WITH ACUTE> 221 173 186 173 *** ###
366 <CAPITAL LETTER THORN> 222 174 174 174
367 <SMALL LETTER SHARP S> 223 89 89 89
368 <a WITH GRAVE> 224 68 68 68
369 <a WITH ACUTE> 225 69 69 69
370 <a WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 226 66 66 66
371 <a WITH TILDE> 227 70 70 70
372 <a WITH DIAERESIS> 228 67 67 67
373 <a WITH RING ABOVE> 229 71 71 71
374 <SMALL LIGATURE ae> 230 156 156 156
375 <c WITH CEDILLA> 231 72 72 72
376 <e WITH GRAVE> 232 84 84 84
377 <e WITH ACUTE> 233 81 81 81
378 <e WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 234 82 82 82
379 <e WITH DIAERESIS> 235 83 83 83
380 <i WITH GRAVE> 236 88 88 88
381 <i WITH ACUTE> 237 85 85 85
382 <i WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 238 86 86 86
383 <i WITH DIAERESIS> 239 87 87 87
384 <SMALL LETTER eth> 240 140 140 140
385 <n WITH TILDE> 241 73 73 73
386 <o WITH GRAVE> 242 205 205 205
387 <o WITH ACUTE> 243 206 206 206
388 <o WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 244 203 203 203
389 <o WITH TILDE> 245 207 207 207
390 <o WITH DIAERESIS> 246 204 204 204
391 <DIVISION SIGN> 247 225 225 225
392 <o WITH STROKE> 248 112 112 112
393 <u WITH GRAVE> 249 221 221 192 ###
394 <u WITH ACUTE> 250 222 222 222
395 <u WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 251 219 219 219
396 <u WITH DIAERESIS> 252 220 220 220
397 <y WITH ACUTE> 253 141 141 141
398 <SMALL LETTER thorn> 254 142 142 142
399 <y WITH DIAERESIS> 255 223 223 223
400
401If you would rather see the above table in CCSID 0037 order rather than
402ASCII + Latin-1 order then run the table through:
403
404=over 4
405
406=item recipe 2
407
408=back
409
51b5cecb 410 perl -ne 'if(/.{33}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}/)'\
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411 -e '{push(@l,$_)}' \
412 -e 'END{print map{$_->[0]}' \
413 -e ' sort{$a->[1] <=> $b->[1]}' \
414 -e ' map{[$_,substr($_,42,3)]}@l;}' perlebcdic.pod
415
416If you would rather see it in CCSID 1047 order then change the digit
41742 in the last line to 51, like this:
418
419=over 4
420
421=item recipe 3
422
423=back
424
51b5cecb 425 perl -ne 'if(/.{33}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}/)'\
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426 -e '{push(@l,$_)}' \
427 -e 'END{print map{$_->[0]}' \
428 -e ' sort{$a->[1] <=> $b->[1]}' \
429 -e ' map{[$_,substr($_,51,3)]}@l;}' perlebcdic.pod
430
431If you would rather see it in POSIX-BC order then change the digit
43251 in the last line to 60, like this:
433
434=over 4
435
436=item recipe 4
437
438=back
439
51b5cecb 440 perl -ne 'if(/.{33}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}/)'\
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441 -e '{push(@l,$_)}' \
442 -e 'END{print map{$_->[0]}' \
443 -e ' sort{$a->[1] <=> $b->[1]}' \
444 -e ' map{[$_,substr($_,60,3)]}@l;}' perlebcdic.pod
445
446
447=head1 IDENTIFYING CHARACTER CODE SETS
448
449To determine the character set you are running under from perl one
450could use the return value of ord() or chr() to test one or more
451character values. For example:
452
453 $is_ascii = "A" eq chr(65);
454 $is_ebcdic = "A" eq chr(193);
455
51b5cecb 456Also, "\t" is a C<HORIZONTAL TABULATION> character so that:
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457
458 $is_ascii = ord("\t") == 9;
459 $is_ebcdic = ord("\t") == 5;
460
461To distinguish EBCDIC code pages try looking at one or more of
462the characters that differ between them. For example:
463
464 $is_ebcdic_37 = "\n" eq chr(37);
465 $is_ebcdic_1047 = "\n" eq chr(21);
466
467Or better still choose a character that is uniquely encoded in any
468of the code sets, e.g.:
469
470 $is_ascii = ord('[') == 91;
471 $is_ebcdic_37 = ord('[') == 186;
472 $is_ebcdic_1047 = ord('[') == 173;
473 $is_ebcdic_POSIX_BC = ord('[') == 187;
474
475However, it would be unwise to write tests such as:
476
477 $is_ascii = "\r" ne chr(13); # WRONG
478 $is_ascii = "\n" ne chr(10); # ILL ADVISED
479
480Obviously the first of these will fail to distinguish most ASCII machines
481from either a CCSID 0037, a 1047, or a POSIX-BC EBCDIC machine since "\r" eq
482chr(13) under all of those coded character sets. But note too that
483because "\n" is chr(13) and "\r" is chr(10) on the MacIntosh (which is an
484ASCII machine) the second C<$is_ascii> test will lead to trouble there.
485
486To determine whether or not perl was built under an EBCDIC
487code page you can use the Config module like so:
488
489 use Config;
51b5cecb 490 $is_ebcdic = $Config{'ebcdic'} eq 'define';
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491
492=head1 CONVERSIONS
493
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494=head2 tr///
495
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496In order to convert a string of characters from one character set to
497another a simple list of numbers, such as in the right columns in the
498above table, along with perl's tr/// operator is all that is needed.
499The data in the table are in ASCII order hence the EBCDIC columns
500provide easy to use ASCII to EBCDIC operations that are also easily
501reversed.
502
503For example, to convert ASCII to code page 037 take the output of the second
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504column from the output of recipe 0 (modified to add \\ characters) and use
505it in tr/// like so:
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506
507 $cp_037 =
508 '\000\001\002\003\234\011\206\177\227\215\216\013\014\015\016\017' .
509 '\020\021\022\023\235\205\010\207\030\031\222\217\034\035\036\037' .
510 '\200\201\202\203\204\012\027\033\210\211\212\213\214\005\006\007' .
511 '\220\221\026\223\224\225\226\004\230\231\232\233\024\025\236\032' .
512 '\040\240\342\344\340\341\343\345\347\361\242\056\074\050\053\174' .
513 '\046\351\352\353\350\355\356\357\354\337\041\044\052\051\073\254' .
514 '\055\057\302\304\300\301\303\305\307\321\246\054\045\137\076\077' .
515 '\370\311\312\313\310\315\316\317\314\140\072\043\100\047\075\042' .
516 '\330\141\142\143\144\145\146\147\150\151\253\273\360\375\376\261' .
517 '\260\152\153\154\155\156\157\160\161\162\252\272\346\270\306\244' .
518 '\265\176\163\164\165\166\167\170\171\172\241\277\320\335\336\256' .
519 '\136\243\245\267\251\247\266\274\275\276\133\135\257\250\264\327' .
520 '\173\101\102\103\104\105\106\107\110\111\255\364\366\362\363\365' .
521 '\175\112\113\114\115\116\117\120\121\122\271\373\374\371\372\377' .
522 '\134\367\123\124\125\126\127\130\131\132\262\324\326\322\323\325' .
523 '\060\061\062\063\064\065\066\067\070\071\263\333\334\331\332\237' ;
524
525 my $ebcdic_string = $ascii_string;
1e054b24 526 eval '$ebcdic_string =~ tr/\000-\377/' . $cp_037 . '/';
d396a558 527
d5d9880c 528To convert from EBCDIC 037 to ASCII just reverse the order of the tr///
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529arguments like so:
530
531 my $ascii_string = $ebcdic_string;
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532 eval '$ascii_string = tr/' . $cp_037 . '/\000-\377/';
533
534Similarly one could take the output of the third column from recipe 0 to
535obtain a C<$cp_1047> table. The fourth column of the output from recipe
5360 could provide a C<$cp_posix_bc> table suitable for transcoding as well.
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537
538=head2 iconv
d396a558 539
d5d9880c 540XPG operability often implies the presence of an I<iconv> utility
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541available from the shell or from the C library. Consult your system's
542documentation for information on iconv.
543
544On OS/390 see the iconv(1) man page. One way to invoke the iconv
545shell utility from within perl would be to:
546
51b5cecb 547 # OS/390 example
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548 $ascii_data = `echo '$ebcdic_data'| iconv -f IBM-1047 -t ISO8859-1`
549
550or the inverse map:
551
51b5cecb 552 # OS/390 example
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553 $ebcdic_data = `echo '$ascii_data'| iconv -f ISO8859-1 -t IBM-1047`
554
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555For other perl based conversion options see the Convert::* modules on CPAN.
556
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557=head2 C RTL
558
559The OS/390 C run time library provides _atoe() and _etoa() functions.
560
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561=head1 OPERATOR DIFFERENCES
562
563The C<..> range operator treats certain character ranges with
564care on EBCDIC machines. For example the following array
565will have twenty six elements on either an EBCDIC machine
566or an ASCII machine:
567
568 @alphabet = ('A'..'Z'); # $#alphabet == 25
569
570The bitwise operators such as & ^ | may return different results
571when operating on string or character data in a perl program running
572on an EBCDIC machine than when run on an ASCII machine. Here is
573an example adapted from the one in L<perlop>:
574
575 # EBCDIC-based examples
576 print "j p \n" ^ " a h"; # prints "JAPH\n"
577 print "JA" | " ph\n"; # prints "japh\n"
578 print "JAPH\nJunk" & "\277\277\277\277\277"; # prints "japh\n";
579 print 'p N$' ^ " E<H\n"; # prints "Perl\n";
580
581An interesting property of the 32 C0 control characters
582in the ASCII table is that they can "literally" be constructed
51b5cecb
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583as control characters in perl, e.g. C<(chr(0) eq "\c@")>
584C<(chr(1) eq "\cA")>, and so on. Perl on EBCDIC machines has been
585ported to take "\c@" to chr(0) and "\cA" to chr(1) as well, but the
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586thirty three characters that result depend on which code page you are
587using. The table below uses the character names from the previous table
51b5cecb 588but with substitutions such as s/START OF/S.O./; s/END OF /E.O./;
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589s/TRANSMISSION/TRANS./; s/TABULATION/TAB./; s/VERTICAL/VERT./;
590s/HORIZONTAL/HORIZ./; s/DEVICE CONTROL/D.C./; s/SEPARATOR/SEP./;
591s/NEGATIVE ACKNOWLEDGE/NEG. ACK./;. The POSIX-BC and 1047 sets are
592identical throughout this range and differ from the 0037 set at only
51b5cecb
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593one spot (21 decimal). Note that the C<LINE FEED> character
594may be generated by "\cJ" on ASCII machines but by "\cU" on 1047 or POSIX-BC
595machines and cannot be generated as a C<"\c.letter."> control character on
5960037 machines. Note also that "\c\\" maps to two characters
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597not one.
598
599 chr ord 8859-1 0037 1047 && POSIX-BC
600 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
601 "\c?" 127 <DELETE> " " ***><
602 "\c@" 0 <NULL> <NULL> <NULL> ***><
603 "\cA" 1 <S.O. HEADING> <S.O. HEADING> <S.O. HEADING>
604 "\cB" 2 <S.O. TEXT> <S.O. TEXT> <S.O. TEXT>
605 "\cC" 3 <E.O. TEXT> <E.O. TEXT> <E.O. TEXT>
606 "\cD" 4 <E.O. TRANS.> <C1 28> <C1 28>
607 "\cE" 5 <ENQUIRY> <HORIZ. TAB.> <HORIZ. TAB.>
608 "\cF" 6 <ACKNOWLEDGE> <C1 6> <C1 6>
609 "\cG" 7 <BELL> <DELETE> <DELETE>
610 "\cH" 8 <BACKSPACE> <C1 23> <C1 23>
611 "\cI" 9 <HORIZ. TAB.> <C1 13> <C1 13>
612 "\cJ" 10 <LINE FEED> <C1 14> <C1 14>
613 "\cK" 11 <VERT. TAB.> <VERT. TAB.> <VERT. TAB.>
614 "\cL" 12 <FORM FEED> <FORM FEED> <FORM FEED>
615 "\cM" 13 <CARRIAGE RETURN> <CARRIAGE RETURN> <CARRIAGE RETURN>
616 "\cN" 14 <SHIFT OUT> <SHIFT OUT> <SHIFT OUT>
617 "\cO" 15 <SHIFT IN> <SHIFT IN> <SHIFT IN>
618 "\cP" 16 <DATA LINK ESCAPE> <DATA LINK ESCAPE> <DATA LINK ESCAPE>
619 "\cQ" 17 <D.C. ONE> <D.C. ONE> <D.C. ONE>
620 "\cR" 18 <D.C. TWO> <D.C. TWO> <D.C. TWO>
621 "\cS" 19 <D.C. THREE> <D.C. THREE> <D.C. THREE>
622 "\cT" 20 <D.C. FOUR> <C1 29> <C1 29>
623 "\cU" 21 <NEG. ACK.> <C1 5> <LINE FEED> ***
624 "\cV" 22 <SYNCHRONOUS IDLE> <BACKSPACE> <BACKSPACE>
625 "\cW" 23 <E.O. TRANS. BLOCK> <C1 7> <C1 7>
626 "\cX" 24 <CANCEL> <CANCEL> <CANCEL>
627 "\cY" 25 <E.O. MEDIUM> <E.O. MEDIUM> <E.O. MEDIUM>
628 "\cZ" 26 <SUBSTITUTE> <C1 18> <C1 18>
629 "\c[" 27 <ESCAPE> <C1 15> <C1 15>
630 "\c\\" 28 <FILE SEP.>\ <FILE SEP.>\ <FILE SEP.>\
631 "\c]" 29 <GROUP SEP.> <GROUP SEP.> <GROUP SEP.>
632 "\c^" 30 <RECORD SEP.> <RECORD SEP.> <RECORD SEP.> ***><
633 "\c_" 31 <UNIT SEP.> <UNIT SEP.> <UNIT SEP.> ***><
634
635
636=head1 FUNCTION DIFFERENCES
637
638=over 8
639
640=item chr()
641
642chr() must be given an EBCDIC code number argument to yield a desired
643character return value on an EBCDIC machine. For example:
644
645 $CAPITAL_LETTER_A = chr(193);
646
647=item ord()
648
649ord() will return EBCDIC code number values on an EBCDIC machine.
650For example:
651
652 $the_number_193 = ord("A");
653
654=item pack()
655
656The c and C templates for pack() are dependent upon character set
657encoding. Examples of usage on EBCDIC include:
658
659 $foo = pack("CCCC",193,194,195,196);
660 # $foo eq "ABCD"
661 $foo = pack("C4",193,194,195,196);
662 # same thing
663
664 $foo = pack("ccxxcc",193,194,195,196);
665 # $foo eq "AB\0\0CD"
666
667=item print()
668
669One must be careful with scalars and strings that are passed to
670print that contain ASCII encodings. One common place
671for this to occur is in the output of the MIME type header for
672CGI script writing. For example, many perl programming guides
673recommend something similar to:
674
675 print "Content-type:\ttext/html\015\012\015\012";
676 # this may be wrong on EBCDIC
677
678Under the IBM OS/390 USS Web Server for example you should instead
679write that as:
680
681 print "Content-type:\ttext/html\r\n\r\n"; # OK for DGW et alia
682
683That is because the translation from EBCDIC to ASCII is done
684by the web server in this case (such code will not be appropriate for
685the Macintosh however). Consult your web server's documentation for
686further details.
687
688=item printf()
689
690The formats that can convert characters to numbers and vice versa
691will be different from their ASCII counterparts when executed
692on an EBCDIC machine. Examples include:
693
694 printf("%c%c%c",193,194,195); # prints ABC
695
696=item sort()
697
698EBCDIC sort results may differ from ASCII sort results especially for
699mixed case strings. This is discussed in more detail below.
700
701=item sprintf()
702
703See the discussion of printf() above. An example of the use
704of sprintf would be:
705
706 $CAPITAL_LETTER_A = sprintf("%c",193);
707
708=item unpack()
709
710See the discussion of pack() above.
711
712=back
713
714=head1 REGULAR EXPRESSION DIFFERENCES
715
716As of perl 5.005_03 the letter range regular expression such as
717[A-Z] and [a-z] have been especially coded to not pick up gap
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718characters. For example, characters such as E<ocirc> C<o WITH CIRCUMFLEX>
719that lie between I and J would not be matched by the
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720regular expression range C</[H-K]/>.
721
722If you do want to match the alphabet gap characters in a single octet
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723regular expression try matching the hex or octal code such
724as C</\313/> on EBCDIC or C</\364/> on ASCII machines to
51b5cecb 725have your regular expression match C<o WITH CIRCUMFLEX>.
d396a558 726
51b5cecb 727Another construct to be wary of is the inappropriate use of hex or
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728octal constants in regular expressions. Consider the following
729set of subs:
730
731 sub is_c0 {
732 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
733 $char =~ /[\000-\037]/;
734 }
735
736 sub is_print_ascii {
737 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
738 $char =~ /[\040-\176]/;
739 }
740
741 sub is_delete {
742 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
743 $char eq "\177";
744 }
745
746 sub is_c1 {
747 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
748 $char =~ /[\200-\237]/;
749 }
750
751 sub is_latin_1 {
752 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
753 $char =~ /[\240-\377]/;
754 }
755
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756The above would be adequate if the concern was only with numeric code points.
757However, the concern may be with characters rather than code points
758and on an EBCDIC machine it may be desirable for constructs such as
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759C<if (is_print_ascii("A")) {print "A is a printable character\n";}> to print
760out the expected message. One way to represent the above collection
761of character classification subs that is capable of working across the
762four coded character sets discussed in this document is as follows:
763
764 sub Is_c0 {
765 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
766 if (ord('^')==94) { # ascii
767 return $char =~ /[\000-\037]/;
768 }
769 if (ord('^')==176) { # 37
770 return $char =~ /[\000-\003\067\055-\057\026\005\045\013-\023\074\075\062\046\030\031\077\047\034-\037]/;
771 }
772 if (ord('^')==95 || ord('^')==106) { # 1047 || posix-bc
773 return $char =~ /[\000-\003\067\055-\057\026\005\025\013-\023\074\075\062\046\030\031\077\047\034-\037]/;
774 }
775 }
776
777 sub Is_print_ascii {
778 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
779 $char =~ /[ !"\#\$%&'()*+,\-.\/0-9:;<=>?\@A-Z[\\\]^_`a-z{|}~]/;
780 }
781
782 sub Is_delete {
783 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
784 if (ord('^')==94) { # ascii
785 return $char eq "\177";
786 }
787 else { # ebcdic
788 return $char eq "\007";
789 }
790 }
791
792 sub Is_c1 {
793 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
794 if (ord('^')==94) { # ascii
795 return $char =~ /[\200-\237]/;
796 }
797 if (ord('^')==176) { # 37
798 return $char =~ /[\040-\044\025\006\027\050-\054\011\012\033\060\061\032\063-\066\010\070-\073\040\024\076\377]/;
799 }
800 if (ord('^')==95) { # 1047
801 return $char =~ /[\040-\045\006\027\050-\054\011\012\033\060\061\032\063-\066\010\070-\073\040\024\076\377]/;
802 }
803 if (ord('^')==106) { # posix-bc
804 return $char =~
805 /[\040-\045\006\027\050-\054\011\012\033\060\061\032\063-\066\010\070-\073\040\024\076\137]/;
806 }
807 }
808
809 sub Is_latin_1 {
810 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
811 if (ord('^')==94) { # ascii
812 return $char =~ /[\240-\377]/;
813 }
814 if (ord('^')==176) { # 37
815 return $char =~
816 /[\101\252\112\261\237\262\152\265\275\264\232\212\137\312\257\274\220\217\352\372\276\240\266\263\235\332\233\213\267\270\271\253\144\145\142\146\143\147\236\150\164\161-\163\170\165-\167\254\151\355\356\353\357\354\277\200\375\376\373\374\255\256\131\104\105\102\106\103\107\234\110\124\121-\123\130\125-\127\214\111\315\316\313\317\314\341\160\335\336\333\334\215\216\337]/;
817 }
818 if (ord('^')==95) { # 1047
819 return $char =~
820 /[\101\252\112\261\237\262\152\265\273\264\232\212\260\312\257\274\220\217\352\372\276\240\266\263\235\332\233\213\267\270\271\253\144\145\142\146\143\147\236\150\164\161-\163\170\165-\167\254\151\355\356\353\357\354\277\200\375\376\373\374\272\256\131\104\105\102\106\103\107\234\110\124\121-\123\130\125-\127\214\111\315\316\313\317\314\341\160\335\336\333\334\215\216\337]/;
821 }
822 if (ord('^')==106) { # posix-bc
823 return $char =~
824 /[\101\252\260\261\237\262\320\265\171\264\232\212\272\312\257\241\220\217\352\372\276\240\266\263\235\332\233\213\267\270\271\253\144\145\142\146\143\147\236\150\164\161-\163\170\165-\167\254\151\355\356\353\357\354\277\200\340\376\335\374\255\256\131\104\105\102\106\103\107\234\110\124\121-\123\130\125-\127\214\111\315\316\313\317\314\341\160\300\336\333\334\215\216\337]/;
825 }
826 }
827
828Note however that only the C<Is_ascii_print()> sub is really independent
829of coded character set. Another way to write C<Is_latin_1()> would be
830to use the characters in the range explicitly:
831
832 sub Is_latin_1 {
833 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
834 $char =~ /[ ¡¢£¤¥¦§¨©ª«¬­®¯°±²³´µ¶·¸¹º»¼½¾¿ÀÁÂÃÄÅÆÇÈÉÊËÌÍÎÏÐÑÒÓÔÕÖ×ØÙÚÛÜÝÞßàáâãäåæçèéêëìíîïðñòóôõö÷øùúûüýþÿ]/;
835 }
836
837Although that form may run into trouble in network transit (due to the
838presence of 8 bit characters) or on non ISO-Latin character sets.
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839
840=head1 SOCKETS
841
842Most socket programming assumes ASCII character encodings in network
843byte order. Exceptions can include CGI script writing under a
844host web server where the server may take care of translation for you.
845Most host web servers convert EBCDIC data to ISO-8859-1 or Unicode on
846output.
847
848=head1 SORTING
849
850One big difference between ASCII based character sets and EBCDIC ones
851are the relative positions of upper and lower case letters and the
852letters compared to the digits. If sorted on an ASCII based machine the
853two letter abbreviation for a physician comes before the two letter
854for drive, that is:
855
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856 @sorted = sort(qw(Dr. dr.)); # @sorted holds ('Dr.','dr.') on ASCII,
857 # but ('dr.','Dr.') on EBCDIC
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858
859The property of lower case before uppercase letters in EBCDIC is
860even carried to the Latin 1 EBCDIC pages such as 0037 and 1047.
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861An example would be that E<Euml> C<E WITH DIAERESIS> (203) comes
862before E<euml> C<e WITH DIAERESIS> (235) on an ASCII machine, but
51b5cecb 863the latter (83) comes before the former (115) on an EBCDIC machine.
b3b6085d 864(Astute readers will note that the upper case version of E<szlig>
51b5cecb 865C<SMALL LETTER SHARP S> is simply "SS" and that the upper case version of
b3b6085d 866E<yuml> C<y WITH DIAERESIS> is not in the 0..255 range but it is
51b5cecb 867at U+x0178 in Unicode, or C<"\x{178}"> in a Unicode enabled Perl).
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868
869The sort order will cause differences between results obtained on
870ASCII machines versus EBCDIC machines. What follows are some suggestions
871on how to deal with these differences.
872
51b5cecb 873=head2 Ignore ASCII vs. EBCDIC sort differences.
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874
875This is the least computationally expensive strategy. It may require
876some user education.
877
51b5cecb 878=head2 MONO CASE then sort data.
d396a558 879
51b5cecb 880In order to minimize the expense of mono casing mixed test try to
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881C<tr///> towards the character set case most employed within the data.
882If the data are primarily UPPERCASE non Latin 1 then apply tr/[a-z]/[A-Z]/
883then sort(). If the data are primarily lowercase non Latin 1 then
884apply tr/[A-Z]/[a-z]/ before sorting. If the data are primarily UPPERCASE
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885and include Latin-1 characters then apply:
886
887 tr/[a-z]/[A-Z]/;
888 tr/[àáâãäåæçèéêëìíîïðñòóôõöøùúûüýþ]/[ÀÁÂÃÄÅÆÇÈÉÊËÌÍÎÏÐÑÒÓÔÕÖØÙÚÛÜÝÞ]/;
889 s/ß/SS/g;
d396a558 890
51b5cecb 891then sort(). Do note however that such Latin-1 manipulation does not
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892address the E<yuml> C<y WITH DIAERESIS> character that will remain at
893code point 255 on ASCII machines, but 223 on most EBCDIC machines
51b5cecb
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894where it will sort to a place less than the EBCDIC numerals. With a
895Unicode enabled Perl you might try:
d396a558 896
51b5cecb
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897 tr/^?/\x{178}/;
898
899The strategy of mono casing data before sorting does not preserve the case
900of the data and may not be acceptable for that reason.
901
902=head2 Convert, sort data, then re convert.
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903
904This is the most expensive proposition that does not employ a network
905connection.
906
907=head2 Perform sorting on one type of machine only.
908
909This strategy can employ a network connection. As such
910it would be computationally expensive.
911
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912=head1 TRANFORMATION FORMATS
913
914There are a variety of ways of transforming data with an intra character set
915mapping that serve a variety of purposes. Sorting was discussed in the
916previous section and a few of the other more popular mapping techniques are
917discussed next.
918
919=head2 URL decoding and encoding
d396a558 920
51b5cecb 921Note that some URLs have hexadecimal ASCII code points in them in an
1e054b24
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922attempt to overcome character or protocol limitation issues. For example
923the tilde character is not on every keyboard hence a URL of the form:
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924
925 http://www.pvhp.com/~pvhp/
926
927may also be expressed as either of:
928
929 http://www.pvhp.com/%7Epvhp/
930
931 http://www.pvhp.com/%7epvhp/
932
51b5cecb 933where 7E is the hexadecimal ASCII code point for '~'. Here is an example
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934of decoding such a URL under CCSID 1047:
935
936 $url = 'http://www.pvhp.com/%7Epvhp/';
937 # this array assumes code page 1047
938 my @a2e_1047 = (
939 0, 1, 2, 3, 55, 45, 46, 47, 22, 5, 21, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
940 16, 17, 18, 19, 60, 61, 50, 38, 24, 25, 63, 39, 28, 29, 30, 31,
941 64, 90,127,123, 91,108, 80,125, 77, 93, 92, 78,107, 96, 75, 97,
942 240,241,242,243,244,245,246,247,248,249,122, 94, 76,126,110,111,
943 124,193,194,195,196,197,198,199,200,201,209,210,211,212,213,214,
944 215,216,217,226,227,228,229,230,231,232,233,173,224,189, 95,109,
945 121,129,130,131,132,133,134,135,136,137,145,146,147,148,149,150,
946 151,152,153,162,163,164,165,166,167,168,169,192, 79,208,161, 7,
947 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 6, 23, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 9, 10, 27,
948 48, 49, 26, 51, 52, 53, 54, 8, 56, 57, 58, 59, 4, 20, 62,255,
949 65,170, 74,177,159,178,106,181,187,180,154,138,176,202,175,188,
950 144,143,234,250,190,160,182,179,157,218,155,139,183,184,185,171,
951 100,101, 98,102, 99,103,158,104,116,113,114,115,120,117,118,119,
952 172,105,237,238,235,239,236,191,128,253,254,251,252,186,174, 89,
953 68, 69, 66, 70, 67, 71,156, 72, 84, 81, 82, 83, 88, 85, 86, 87,
954 140, 73,205,206,203,207,204,225,112,221,222,219,220,141,142,223
955 );
956 $url =~ s/%([0-9a-fA-F]{2})/pack("c",$a2e_1047[hex($1)])/ge;
957
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958Conversely, here is a partial solution for the task of encoding such
959a URL under the 1047 code page:
960
961 $url = 'http://www.pvhp.com/~pvhp/';
962 # this array assumes code page 1047
963 my @e2a_1047 = (
964 0, 1, 2, 3,156, 9,134,127,151,141,142, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
965 16, 17, 18, 19,157, 10, 8,135, 24, 25,146,143, 28, 29, 30, 31,
966 128,129,130,131,132,133, 23, 27,136,137,138,139,140, 5, 6, 7,
967 144,145, 22,147,148,149,150, 4,152,153,154,155, 20, 21,158, 26,
968 32,160,226,228,224,225,227,229,231,241,162, 46, 60, 40, 43,124,
969 38,233,234,235,232,237,238,239,236,223, 33, 36, 42, 41, 59, 94,
970 45, 47,194,196,192,193,195,197,199,209,166, 44, 37, 95, 62, 63,
971 248,201,202,203,200,205,206,207,204, 96, 58, 35, 64, 39, 61, 34,
972 216, 97, 98, 99,100,101,102,103,104,105,171,187,240,253,254,177,
973 176,106,107,108,109,110,111,112,113,114,170,186,230,184,198,164,
974 181,126,115,116,117,118,119,120,121,122,161,191,208, 91,222,174,
975 172,163,165,183,169,167,182,188,189,190,221,168,175, 93,180,215,
976 123, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73,173,244,246,242,243,245,
977 125, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82,185,251,252,249,250,255,
978 92,247, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90,178,212,214,210,211,213,
979 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57,179,219,220,217,218,159
980 );
981 # The following regular expression does not address the
982 # mappings for: ('.' => '%2E', '/' => '%2F', ':' => '%3A')
983 $url =~ s/([\t "#%&\(\),;<=>\?\@\[\\\]^`{|}~])/sprintf("%%%02X",$e2a_1047[ord($1)])/ge;
984
985where a more complete solution would split the URL into components
986and apply a full s/// substitution only to the appropriate parts.
987
988In the remaining examples a @e2a or @a2e array may be employed
989but the assignment will not be shown explicitly. For code page 1047
990you could use the @a2e_1047 or @e2a_1047 arrays just shown.
991
992=head2 uu encoding and decoding
993
994The C<u> template to pack() or unpack() will render EBCDIC data in EBCDIC
995characters equivalent to their ASCII counterparts. For example, the
996following will print "Yes indeed\n" on either an ASCII or EBCDIC computer:
997
998 $all_byte_chrs = '';
999 for (0..255) { $all_byte_chrs .= chr($_); }
1000 $uuencode_byte_chrs = pack('u', $all_byte_chrs);
1001 ($uu = <<' ENDOFHEREDOC') =~ s/^\s*//gm;
1002 M``$"`P0%!@<("0H+#`T.#Q`1$A,4%187&!D:&QP='A\@(2(C)"4F)R@I*BLL
1003 M+2XO,#$R,S0U-C<X.3H[/#T^/T!!0D-$149'2$E*2TQ-3D]045)35%565UA9
1004 M6EM<75Y?8&%B8V1E9F=H:6IK;&UN;W!Q<G-T=79W>'EZ>WQ]?G^`@8*#A(6&
1005 MAXB)BHN,C8Z/D)&2DY25EI>8F9J;G)V>GZ"AHJ.DI::GJ*FJJZRMKJ^PL;*S
1006 MM+6VM[BYNKN\O;Z_P,'"P\3%QL?(R<K+S,W.S]#1TM/4U=;7V-G:V]S=WM_@
1007 ?X>+CY.7FY^CIZNOL[>[O\/'R\_3U]O?X^?K[_/W^_P``
1008 ENDOFHEREDOC
1009 if ($uuencode_byte_chrs eq $uu) {
1010 print "Yes ";
1011 }
1012 $uudecode_byte_chrs = unpack('u', $uuencode_byte_chrs);
1013 if ($uudecode_byte_chrs eq $all_byte_chrs) {
1014 print "indeed\n";
1015 }
1016
1017Here is a very spartan uudecoder that will work on EBCDIC provided
1018that the @e2a array is filled in appropriately:
1019
1020 #!/usr/local/bin/perl
1021 @e2a = ( # this must be filled in
1022 );
1023 $_ = <> until ($mode,$file) = /^begin\s*(\d*)\s*(\S*)/;
1024 open(OUT, "> $file") if $file ne "";
1025 while(<>) {
1026 last if /^end/;
1027 next if /[a-z]/;
1028 next unless int(((($e2a[ord()] - 32 ) & 077) + 2) / 3) ==
1029 int(length() / 4);
1030 print OUT unpack("u", $_);
1031 }
1032 close(OUT);
1033 chmod oct($mode), $file;
1034
1035
1036=head2 Quoted-Printable encoding and decoding
1037
1038On ASCII encoded machines it is possible to strip characters outside of
1039the printable set using:
1040
1041 # This QP encoder works on ASCII only
1042 $qp_string =~ s/([=\x00-\x1F\x80-\xFF])/sprintf("=%02X",ord($1))/ge;
1043
1044Whereas a QP encoder that works on both ASCII and EBCDIC machines
1045would look somewhat like the following (where the EBCDIC branch @e2a
1046array is omitted for brevity):
1047
1048 if (ord('A') == 65) { # ASCII
1049 $delete = "\x7F"; # ASCII
1050 @e2a = (0 .. 255) # ASCII to ASCII identity map
1051 }
1052 else { # EBCDIC
1053 $delete = "\x07"; # EBCDIC
1054 @e2a = # EBCDIC to ASCII map (as shown above)
1055 }
1056 $qp_string =~
1057 s/([^ !"\#\$%&'()*+,\-.\/0-9:;<>?\@A-Z[\\\]^_`a-z{|}~$delete])/sprintf("=%02X",$e2a[ord($1)])/ge;
1058
1059(although in production code the substitutions might be done
1060in the EBCDIC branch with the @e2a array and separately in the
1061ASCII branch without the expense of the identity map).
1062
1063Such QP strings can be decoded with:
1064
1065 # This QP decoder is limited to ASCII only
1066 $string =~ s/=([0-9A-Fa-f][0-9A-Fa-f])/chr hex $1/ge;
1067 $string =~ s/=[\n\r]+$//;
1068
1069Whereas a QP decoder that works on both ASCII and EBCDIC machines
1070would look somewhat like the following (where the @a2e array is
1071omitted for brevity):
1072
1073 $string =~ s/=([0-9A-Fa-f][0-9A-Fa-f])/chr $a2e[hex $1]/ge;
1074 $string =~ s/=[\n\r]+$//;
1075
1076=head2 Caesarian cyphers
1077
1078The practice of shifting an alphabet one or more characters for encipherment
1079dates back thousands of years and was explicitly detailed by Gaius Julius
1080Caesar in his B<Gallic Wars> text. A single alphabet shift is sometimes
1081referred to as a rotation and the shift amount is given as a number $n after
1082the string 'rot' or "rot$n". Rot0 and rot26 would designate identity maps
1083on the 26 letter English version of the Latin alphabet. Rot13 has the
1084interesting property that alternate subsequent invocations are identity maps
1085(thus rot13 is its own non-trivial inverse in the group of 26 alphabet
1086rotations). Hence the following is a rot13 encoder and decoder that will
1087work on ASCII and EBCDIC machines:
1088
1089 #!/usr/local/bin/perl
1090
1091 while(<>){
1092 tr/n-za-mN-ZA-M/a-zA-Z/;
1093 print;
1094 }
1095
1096In one-liner form:
1097
1098 perl -ne 'tr/n-za-mN-ZA-M/a-zA-Z/;print'
1099
1100
1101=head1 Hashing order and checksums
1102
1103XXX
1104
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1105=head1 I18N AND L10N
1106
1107Internationalization(I18N) and localization(L10N) are supported at least
1108in principle even on EBCDIC machines. The details are system dependent
1109and discussed under the L<perlebcdic/OS ISSUES> section below.
1110
1111=head1 MULTI OCTET CHARACTER SETS
1112
51b5cecb 1113Multi byte EBCDIC code pages; Unicode, UTF-8, UTF-EBCDIC, XXX.
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1114
1115=head1 OS ISSUES
1116
1117There may be a few system dependent issues
1118of concern to EBCDIC Perl programmers.
1119
1120=head2 OS/400
1121
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1122The PASE environment.
1123
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1124=over 8
1125
1126=item IFS access
1127
1128XXX.
1129
1130=back
1131
1132=head2 OS/390
1133
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1134Perl runs under Unix Systems Services or USS.
1135
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1136=over 8
1137
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1138=item chcp
1139
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1140B<chcp> is supported as a shell utility for displaying and changing
1141one's code page. See also L<chcp>.
51b5cecb 1142
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1143=item dataset access
1144
1145For sequential data set access try:
1146
1147 my @ds_records = `cat //DSNAME`;
1148
1149or:
1150
1151 my @ds_records = `cat //'HLQ.DSNAME'`;
1152
1153See also the OS390::Stdio module on CPAN.
1154
1e054b24 1155=item OS/390 iconv
51b5cecb 1156
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1157B<iconv> is supported as both a shell utility and a C RTL routine.
1158See also the iconv(1) and iconv(3) manual pages.
51b5cecb 1159
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1160=item locales
1161
1162On OS/390 see L<locale> for information on locales. The L10N files
1163are in F</usr/nls/locale>. $Config{d_setlocale} is 'define' on OS/390.
1164
1165=back
1166
1167=head2 VM/ESA?
1168
1169XXX.
1170
1171=head2 POSIX-BC?
1172
1173XXX.
1174
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1175=head1 BUGS
1176
1177This pod document contains literal Latin 1 characters and may encounter
b1866b2d 1178translation difficulties. In particular one popular nroff implementation
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1179was known to strip accented characters to their unaccented counterparts
1180while attempting to view this document through the B<pod2man> program
1181(for example, you may see a plain C<y> rather than one with a diaeresis
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1182as in E<yuml>). Another nroff truncated the resultant man page at
1183the first occurence of 8 bit characters.
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1184
1185Not all shells will allow multiple C<-e> string arguments to perl to
1186be concatenated together properly as recipes 2, 3, and 4 might seem
1187to imply.
1188
1189Perl does not yet work with any Unicode features on EBCDIC platforms.
1190
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1191=head1 SEE ALSO
1192
1193L<perllocale>, L<perlfunc>.
1194
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1195=head1 REFERENCES
1196
1197http://anubis.dkuug.dk/i18n/charmaps
1198
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1199http://www.unicode.org/
1200
1201http://www.unicode.org/unicode/reports/tr16/
1202
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1203http://www.wps.com/texts/codes/
1204B<ASCII: American Standard Code for Information Infiltration> Tom Jennings,
1205September 1999.
1206
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1207B<The Unicode Standard Version 2.0> The Unicode Consortium,
1208ISBN 0-201-48345-9, Addison Wesley Developers Press, July 1996.
1209
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1210B<The Unicode Standard Version 3.0> The Unicode Consortium, Lisa Moore ed.,
1211ISBN 0-201-61633-5, Addison Wesley Developers Press, February 2000.
1212
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1213B<CDRA: IBM - Character Data Representation Architecture -
1214Reference and Registry>, IBM SC09-2190-00, December 1996.
1215
1216"Demystifying Character Sets", Andrea Vine, Multilingual Computing
1217& Technology, B<#26 Vol. 10 Issue 4>, August/September 1999;
1218ISSN 1523-0309; Multilingual Computing Inc. Sandpoint ID, USA.
1219
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1220B<Codes, Ciphers, and Other Cryptic and Clandestine Communication>
1221Fred B. Wrixon, ISBN 1-57912-040-7, Black Dog & Leventhal Publishers,
12221998.
1223
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1224=head1 AUTHOR
1225
b3b6085d 1226Peter Prymmer pvhp@best.com wrote this in 1999 and 2000
d396a558 1227with CCSID 0819 and 0037 help from Chris Leach and
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1228AndrE<eacute> Pirard A.Pirard@ulg.ac.be as well as POSIX-BC
1229help from Thomas Dorner Thomas.Dorner@start.de.
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1230Thanks also to Vickie Cooper, Philip Newton, William Raffloer, and
1231Joe Smith. Trademarks, registered trademarks, service marks and
1232registered service marks used in this document are the property of
1233their respective owners.
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1234
1235