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1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
11 (D) A deprecation (optional).
12 (S) A severe warning (mandatory).
13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
748a9306 18Optional warnings are enabled by using the B<-w> switch. Warnings may
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19be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}> to a reference to a routine that
20will be called on each warning instead of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
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21Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
22L<perlfunc/eval>.
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23
24Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are denoted with a %s,
2ba9eb46 25just as in a printf format. Note that some messages start with a %s!
702d120d 26The symbols C<"%(-?@> sort before the letters, while C<[> and C<\> sort after.
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27
28=over 4
29
30=item "my" variable %s can't be in a package
31
32(F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make sense
33to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the front. Use local()
34if you want to localize a package variable.
35
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36=item "my" variable %s masks earlier declaration in same scope
37
fb73857a 38(W) A lexical variable has been redeclared in the same scope, effectively
2ba9eb46 39eliminating all access to the previous instance. This is almost always
8b1a09fc 40a typographical error. Note that the earlier variable will still exist
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41until the end of the scope or until all closure referents to it are
42destroyed.
43
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44=item "no" not allowed in expression
45
46(F) The "no" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and returns
47no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
48
49=item "use" not allowed in expression
50
51(F) The "use" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and returns
52no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
53
54=item % may only be used in unpack
55
5f05dabc 56(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
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57checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other
58way. See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
59
60=item %s (...) interpreted as function
61
62(W) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator followed
8b1a09fc 63by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list operators arguments
5f05dabc 64found inside the parentheses. See L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
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65
66=item %s argument is not a HASH element
67
5f05dabc 68(F) The argument to exists() must be a hash element, such as
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69
70 $foo{$bar}
71 $ref->[12]->{"susie"}
72
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73=item %s argument is not a HASH element or slice
74
75(F) The argument to delete() must be either a hash element, such as
76
77 $foo{$bar}
78 $ref->[12]->{"susie"}
79
80or a hash slice, such as
81
82 @foo{$bar, $baz, $xyzzy}
83 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
84
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85=item %s did not return a true value
86
87(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
88it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
89traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
90do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
91
92=item %s found where operator expected
93
94(S) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator. If it
95sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an operator,
96it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an operator or
97delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
98
f86702cc 99=item %s had compilation errors
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100
101(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
102
f86702cc 103=item %s has too many errors
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104
105(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
106Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
107
108=item %s matches null string many times
109
110(W) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
111regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. See L<perlre>.
112
113=item %s never introduced
114
115(S) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of scope
116before it could possibly have been used.
117
118=item %s syntax OK
119
120(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> succeeds.
121
f86702cc 122=item %s: Command not found
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123
124(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
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125of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
126Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 127
f86702cc 128=item %s: Expression syntax
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129
130(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
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131of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
132Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 133
f86702cc 134=item %s: Undefined variable
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135
136(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
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137of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
138Perl yourself.
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139
140=item %s: not found
141
8b1a09fc 142(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell
3a52c276 143instead of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script
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144into Perl yourself.
145
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146=item (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
147
148(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
149found where operator expected". Don't automatically put a semicolon on
150the previous line just because you saw this message.
151
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152=item B<-P> not allowed for setuid/setgid script
153
154(F) The script would have to be opened by the C preprocessor by name,
155which provides a race condition that breaks security.
156
157=item C<-T> and C<-B> not implemented on filehandles
158
159(F) Perl can't peek at the stdio buffer of filehandles when it doesn't
160know about your kind of stdio. You'll have to use a filename instead.
161
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162=item C<-p> destination: %s
163
164(F) An error occurred during the implicit output invoked by the C<-p>
165command-line switch. (This output goes to STDOUT unless you've
166redirected it with select().)
167
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168=item 500 Server error
169
170See Server error.
171
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172=item ?+* follows nothing in regexp
173
174(F) You started a regular expression with a quantifier. Backslash it
175if you meant it literally. See L<perlre>.
176
177=item @ outside of string
178
2ba9eb46 179(F) You had a pack template that specified an absolute position outside
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180the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
181
182=item accept() on closed fd
183
184(W) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
185the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/accept>.
186
187=item Allocation too large: %lx
188
54310121 189(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
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190
191=item Allocation too large
192
193(F) You can't allocate more than 2^31+"small amount" bytes.
a0d0e21e 194
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195=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
196
197(W) The pattern match (//), substitution (s///), and translation (tr///)
198operators work on scalar values. If you apply one of them to an array
199or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to a scalar value -- the
200length of an array, or the population info of a hash -- and then work on
201that scalar value. This is probably not what you meant to do. See
202L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for alternatives.
203
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204=item Arg too short for msgsnd
205
206(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
207
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208=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
209
210(W)(S) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
211you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
5f05dabc 212a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
748a9306 213
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214=item Args must match #! line
215
216(F) The setuid emulator requires that the arguments Perl was invoked
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217with match the arguments specified on the #! line. Since some systems
218impose a one-argument limit on the #! line, try combining switches;
219for example, turn C<-w -U> into C<-wU>.
a0d0e21e 220
f86702cc 221=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
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222
223(W) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator that
224expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
225will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
226
227=item Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
228
229(D) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some spots. This
230is now heavily deprecated.
231
232=item assertion botched: %s
233
234(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
235
236=item Assertion failed: file "%s"
237
238(P) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
239
240=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
241
242(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
243must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
244know which context to supply to the right side.
245
246=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%lx
247
248(P) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas that will
249be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be outside any
250of those arenas.
251
54310121 252=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string
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253
254(P) Perl maintains a reference counted internal table of strings to
255optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other strings. This
256indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count of a string
257that can no longer be found in the table.
258
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259=item Attempt to free temp prematurely
260
261(W) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the free_tmps()
262routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the SV before
263the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the free_tmps()
264routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does try to free
265it.
266
267=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
268
269(P) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
270
271=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar
272
273(W) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to see if it
274would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0 earlier,
275and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed. This
276could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or that
277SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was mortalized
278when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been corrupted.
279
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280=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
281
282(W) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
283function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
284means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
285invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
286literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
287avoid this warning.
288
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289=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
290
291(W) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr() used
8b1a09fc 292as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
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293dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
294
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295=item Bad arg length for %s, is %d, should be %d
296
297(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl() or
2ba9eb46 298shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 299S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
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300S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
301
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302=item Bad filehandle: %s
303
304(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the symbol
305has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an open(), or
306did it in another package.
307
308=item Bad free() ignored
309
310(S) An internal routine called free() on something that had never been
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311malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
312setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
313
314This message can be quite often seen with DB_File on systems with
315"hard" dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of
316C<Berkeley DB> which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving>
317system malloc().
a0d0e21e 318
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319=item Bad hash
320
321(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
322
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323=item Bad name after %s::
324
325(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then didn't
326finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside of quotes,
327so
328
329 $var = 'myvar';
330 $sym = mypack::$var;
331
332is not the same as
333
334 $var = 'myvar';
335 $sym = "mypack::$var";
336
337=item Bad symbol for array
338
339(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
340wasn't a symbol table entry.
341
342=item Bad symbol for filehandle
343
344(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something that
345wasn't a symbol table entry.
346
347=item Bad symbol for hash
348
349(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
350wasn't a symbol table entry.
351
8b1a09fc 352=item Badly placed ()'s
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353
354(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
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355of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
356Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 357
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358=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
359
360(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
361subroutine identifier, in curly braces or to the left of the "=>" symbol.
54310121 362Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
3fe9a6f1 363
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364=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
365
366(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN subroutine.
367Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is exited.
368
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369=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
370
371(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
372implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had
373already occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}>
374could not be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code
375likely depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
376
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377=item bind() on closed fd
378
379(W) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
380the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
381
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382=item Bizarre copy of %s in %s
383
384(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not copiable.
385
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386=item Callback called exit
387
388(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via perl_call_sv()
389exited by calling exit.
390
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391=item Can't "goto" outside a block
392
393(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look
394like a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually
395occurs if you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which
396is a no-no. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
397
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398=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
399
400(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a
401foreach loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
402
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403=item Can't "last" outside a block
404
405(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
406except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a
407current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a
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408"loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(). You can usually double
409the curlies to get the same effect though, because the inner curlies
410will be considered a block that loops once. See L<perlfunc/last>.
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411
412=item Can't "next" outside a block
413
414(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
415there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
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416count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(). You can
417usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the inner
54310121 418curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
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419
420=item Can't "redo" outside a block
421
422(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
423there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
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424count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(). You can
425usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the inner
54310121 426curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
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427
428=item Can't bless non-reference value
429
430(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
431encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
432
433=item Can't break at that line
434
54310121 435(S) A warning intended to only be printed while running within the debugger, indicating
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436the line number specified wasn't the location of a statement that could
437be stopped at.
438
439=item Can't call method "%s" in empty package "%s"
440
441(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
442functioning as a class, but that package doesn't have ANYTHING defined
443in it, let alone methods. See L<perlobj>.
444
445=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
446
54310121 447(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
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448ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but
449you didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't
450an object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
451
452=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
453
454(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
455object reference or package name contains an expression that returns
456neither an object reference nor a package name. (Perhaps it's null?)
457Something like this will reproduce the error:
458
459 $BADREF = undef;
460 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
461 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
462
463=item Can't chdir to %s
464
465(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but C</foo/bar> is not a directory
466that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
467
468=item Can't coerce %s to integer in %s
469
470(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 471(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
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472say things like:
473
474 *foo += 1;
475
476You CAN say
477
478 $foo = *foo;
479 $foo += 1;
480
481but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
482
483=item Can't coerce %s to number in %s
484
485(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 486(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
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487
488=item Can't coerce %s to string in %s
489
490(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 491(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
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492
493=item Can't create pipe mailbox
494
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495(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted quotas
496or other plumbing problems.
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497
498=item Can't declare %s in my
499
5f05dabc 500(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as lexical variables.
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501They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
502
503=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
504
505(S) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated reason.
506
54310121 507=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
a0d0e21e 508
54310121 509(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try reading
3fe9a6f1 510from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say C<-i.bak>, or some
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511such.
512
8b1a09fc 513=item Can't do inplace edit: %s E<gt> 14 characters
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514
515(S) There isn't enough room in the filename to make a backup name for the file.
516
517=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
518
519(S) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as a file in
520/dev, or a FIFO. The file was ignored.
521
522=item Can't do setegid!
523
524(P) The setegid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator
525of suidperl.
526
527=item Can't do seteuid!
528
529(P) The setuid emulator of suidperl failed for some reason.
530
531=item Can't do setuid
532
533(F) This typically means that ordinary perl tried to exec suidperl to
534do setuid emulation, but couldn't exec it. It looks for a name of the
535form sperl5.000 in the same directory that the perl executable resides
536under the name perl5.000, typically /usr/local/bin on Unix machines.
537If the file is there, check the execute permissions. If it isn't, ask
538your sysadmin why he and/or she removed it.
539
540=item Can't do waitpid with flags
541
542(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only waitpid()
543without flags is emulated.
544
8b1a09fc 545=item Can't do {n,m} with n E<gt> m
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546
547(F) Minima must be less than or equal to maxima. If you really want
548your regexp to match something 0 times, just put {0}. See L<perlre>.
549
550=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
551
552(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this point.
553For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #! line.
554
555=item Can't exec "%s": %s
556
5f05dabc 557(W) An system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the named
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558program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the permissions
559were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in C<$ENV{PATH}>, the
560executable in question was compiled for another architecture, or the
561#! line in a script points to an interpreter that can't be run for
562similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support #! at all.)
563
564=item Can't exec %s
565
566(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because that's
567what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may need to
568mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
569
570=item Can't execute %s
571
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572(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute found
573in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
574
575=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
576
577(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be found
578in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The script
579exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
580
581=item Can't find %s on PATH
582
a0d0e21e 583(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be found
2a92aaa0 584in the PATH.
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585
586=item Can't find label %s
587
588(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's possible
589for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
590
591=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
592
593(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means that
5f05dabc 594the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count nesting
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595levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
596
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PP
597 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
598
599If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have
600included unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag. A good
601programmer's editor will have a way to help you find these characters.
a0d0e21e
LW
602
603=item Can't fork
604
605(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a pipeline.
606
748a9306
LW
607=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
608
609(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference between
610access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes. Under VMS,
611access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in the stat buffer, so
612that ACLs and other protections can be taken into account. Unfortunately, Perl
613assumes that the stat buffer contains all the necessary information, and passes
614it, instead of the filespec, to the access checking routine. It will try to
615retrieve the filespec using the device name and FID present in the stat buffer,
616but this works only if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat()
5f05dabc 617routine, because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
748a9306
LW
618appears, the name lookup failed, and the access checking routine gave up and
619returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access checking routine
620knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you shouldn't ever
621see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises only if some internal
622code takes stat buffers lightly.)
623
a0d0e21e
LW
624=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
625
748a9306
LW
626(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a pipe, Perl
627can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
628
629=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
630
748a9306
LW
631(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
632mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e
LW
633
634=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
635
636(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one subroutine
637call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole cloth. In general
5f05dabc 638you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD routine anyway. See
a0d0e21e
LW
639L<perlfunc/goto>.
640
706a304b 641=item Can't localize through a reference
4633a7c4 642
706a304b
SM
643(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
644handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
645pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be
646sure that $ref will still be a reference.
4633a7c4 647
748a9306
LW
648=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
649
2ba9eb46 650(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
748a9306
LW
651lexical variable using "my". This is not allowed. If you want to
652localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with the
653package name.
654
4727527e
IZ
655=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
656
657(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows autoload,
658but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes are a misprint
659in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit> the file, say, by
660doing C<make install>.
661
a0d0e21e
LW
662=item Can't locate %s in @INC
663
7a2e2cd6 664(F) You said to do (or require, or use) a file that couldn't be found
54310121
PP
665in any of the libraries mentioned in @INC. Perhaps you need to set the
666PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where the extra library
667is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name to @INC. Or maybe
a0d0e21e
LW
668you just misspelled the name of the file. See L<perlfunc/require>.
669
670=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
671
672(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
673functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 674method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
675
676=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
677
678(W) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that doesn't seem
679to exist.
680
3e3baf6d
TB
681=item Can't make list assignment to \%ENV on this system
682
683(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably VMS.
684
a0d0e21e
LW
685=item Can't mktemp()
686
687(F) The mktemp() routine failed for some reason while trying to process
688a B<-e> switch. Maybe your /tmp partition is full, or clobbered.
689
690=item Can't modify %s in %s
691
692(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try to
5f05dabc 693change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 694
54310121 695=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
696
697(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
698a NULL.
699
5f05dabc 700=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 701
5f05dabc 702(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
703buffer.
704
705=item Can't open %s: %s
706
08e9d68e
DD
707(S) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<E<lt>E<gt>>
708filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
709switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually this
710is because you don't have read permission for a file which you named
711on the command line.
a0d0e21e
LW
712
713=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
714
715(W) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported. You can
716try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such as
7e1af8bc 717IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using "E<gt>",
a0d0e21e
LW
718and then read it in under a different file handle.
719
748a9306
LW
720=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
721
722(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
8b1a09fc
PP
723couldn't open the file specified after '2E<gt>' or '2E<gt>E<gt>' on the
724command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
725
726=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
727
728(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
8b1a09fc 729couldn't open the file specified after 'E<lt>' on the command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
730
731=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
732
733(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
8b1a09fc
PP
734couldn't open the file specified after 'E<gt>' or 'E<gt>E<gt>' on the command
735line for writing.
748a9306
LW
736
737=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
738
739(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
740couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined for stdout.
741
a0d0e21e
LW
742=item Can't open perl script "%s": %s
743
744(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
745
7bac28a0
PP
746=item Can't redefine active sort subroutine %s
747
748(F) Perl optimizes the internal handling of sort subroutines and keeps
749pointers into them. You tried to redefine one such sort subroutine when it
750was currently active, which is not allowed. If you really want to do
751this, you should write C<sort { &func } @x> instead of C<sort func @x>.
752
a0d0e21e
LW
753=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
754
755(S) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason, probably because
756you don't have write permission to the directory.
757
748a9306
LW
758=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
759
760(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried to
761reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
762
a0d0e21e
LW
763=item Can't reswap uid and euid
764
765(P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator
766of suidperl.
767
768=item Can't return outside a subroutine
769
770(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
771there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
772
773=item Can't stat script "%s"
774
775(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have
776it open already. Bizarre.
777
778=item Can't swap uid and euid
779
780(P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator
781of suidperl.
782
783=item Can't take log of %g
784
fb73857a
PP
785(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
786negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
787standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for
788the negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
789
790=item Can't take sqrt of %g
791
792(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a
PP
793negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
794with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
795
796=item Can't undef active subroutine
797
798(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
799however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
800redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
801
802=item Can't unshift
803
804(F) You tried to unshift an "unreal" array that can't be unshifted, such
805as the main Perl stack.
806
807=item Can't upgrade that kind of scalar
808
809(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making
810it into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are
811so specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This
812message indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
813
814=item Can't upgrade to undef
815
816(P) The undefined SV is the bottom of the totem pole, in the scheme
817of upgradability. Upgrading to undef indicates an error in the
818code calling sv_upgrade.
819
c07a80fd
PP
820=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
821
822(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
8b1a09fc 823You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the E<lt>=E<gt> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd
PP
824and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
825Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
826lexical variable.
827
a0d0e21e
LW
828=item Can't use %s for loop variable
829
830(F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a foreach.
831
832=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
833
834(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
835reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
836test the type of the reference, if need be.
837
748a9306
LW
838=item Can't use \1 to mean $1 in expression
839
840(W) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that creates
841a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a backreference
5f05dabc 842to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular expression pattern.
748a9306
LW
843Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a value that prints
844out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form instead.
845
44a8e56a
PP
846=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while \"strict refs\" in use
847
848(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic references
849are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
850
748a9306 851=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e
LW
852
853(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic references
854are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
855
856=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
857
858(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
54310121 859be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
a0d0e21e 860
a0d0e21e
LW
861=item Can't use global %s in "my"
862
863(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This is
5f05dabc 864not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location (namely
a0d0e21e
LW
865the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to have
866variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
867weren't.
868
748a9306
LW
869=item Can't use subscript on %s
870
871(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
872subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
873didn't look like an array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
874
a0d0e21e
LW
875=item Can't write to temp file for B<-e>: %s
876
877(F) The write routine failed for some reason while trying to process
878a B<-e> switch. Maybe your /tmp partition is full, or clobbered.
879
5f05dabc 880=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e
LW
881
882(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value) with
883an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
884Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
885
b6c543e3
IZ
886=item Cannot find an opnumber for "%s"
887
888(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but
889there is no builtin with the name C<word>.
890
a0d0e21e
LW
891=item Cannot open temporary file
892
8b1a09fc 893(F) The create routine failed for some reason while trying to process
a0d0e21e
LW
894a B<-e> switch. Maybe your /tmp partition is full, or clobbered.
895
e7ea3e70
IZ
896=item Cannot resolve method `%s' overloading `%s' in package `%s'
897
898(F|P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as
899opposed to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the
900package. If method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
901
4599a1de
JH
902=item Character class syntax [. .] is reserved for future extensions
903
904(W) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax beginning
905with "[." and ending with ".]" is reserved for future extensions.
906If you need to represent those character sequences inside a regular
907expression character class, just quote the square brackets with the
908backslash: "\[." and ".\]".
909
910=item Character class syntax [: :] is reserved for future extensions
911
912(W) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax beginning
913with "[:" and ending with ":]" is reserved for future extensions.
914If you need to represent those character sequences inside a regular
915expression character class, just quote the square brackets with the
916backslash: "\[:" and ":\]".
917
918=item Character class syntax [= =] is reserved for future extensions
919
920(W) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax
921beginning with "[=" and ending with "=]" is reserved for future extensions.
922If you need to represent those character sequences inside a regular
923expression character class, just quote the square brackets with the
924backslash: "\[=" and "=\]".
925
a0d0e21e
LW
926=item chmod: mode argument is missing initial 0
927
928(W) A novice will sometimes say
929
930 chmod 777, $filename
931
932not realizing that 777 will be interpreted as a decimal number, equivalent
933to 01411. Octal constants are introduced with a leading 0 in Perl, as in C.
934
8b1a09fc 935=item Close on unopened file E<lt>%sE<gt>
a0d0e21e
LW
936
937(W) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
938
7a2e2cd6
PP
939=item Compilation failed in require
940
941(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
942Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it encountered
943were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
944
a0d0e21e
LW
945=item connect() on closed fd
946
947(W) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
948the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/connect>.
949
4cee8e80
CS
950=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
951
952(S) You redefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible for
953inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
954workarounds.
955
9607fc9c
PP
956=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
957
958(S) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible for
959inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
960workarounds.
961
e7ea3e70
IZ
962=item Copy method did not return a reference
963
964(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
965
a0d0e21e
LW
966=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%lx at 0x%lx
967
968(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
969
970=item corrupted regexp pointers
971
972(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
973expression compiler gave it.
974
975=item corrupted regexp program
976
977(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without
978a valid magic number.
979
980=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
981
982(W) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly) 100
3e3baf6d 983times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an infinite
a0d0e21e
LW
984recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in which
985case it indicates something else.
986
fc36a67e
PP
987=item Delimiter for here document is too long
988
989(F) In a here document construct like C<E<lt>E<lt>FOO>, the label
990C<FOO> is too long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously
991twisted to write code that triggers this error.
992
4633a7c4
LW
993=item Did you mean &%s instead?
994
995(W) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or some such.
996
748a9306 997=item Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?
a0d0e21e 998
748a9306
LW
999(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or @hash{@keys}.
1000On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got carried away.
1001
7e1af8bc 1002=item Died
5f05dabc
PP
1003
1004(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
1005you called it with no args and both C<$@> and C<$_> were empty.
1006
54310121 1007=item Do you need to predeclare %s?
748a9306
LW
1008
1009(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
1010found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
1011name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
1012because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
1013"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're
1014referencing something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have
1015to define the subroutine or package before the current location. You
1016can use an empty "sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward"
1017declaration.
a0d0e21e
LW
1018
1019=item Don't know how to handle magic of type '%s'
1020
1021(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
1022
1023=item do_study: out of memory
1024
1025(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
1026
1027=item Duplicate free() ignored
1028
1029(S) An internal routine called free() on something that had already
1030been freed.
1031
4633a7c4
LW
1032=item elseif should be elsif
1033
1034(S) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks it's
1035ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method
1036named "elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
1037unlikely to be what you want.
1038
a0d0e21e
LW
1039=item END failed--cleanup aborted
1040
1041(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing an END subroutine.
1042The interpreter is immediately exited.
1043
748a9306
LW
1044=item Error converting file specification %s
1045
5f05dabc 1046(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306
LW
1047specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
1048single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've
1049passed an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a
1050case the conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
1051
fc36a67e
PP
1052=item Excessively long <> operator
1053
1054(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
1055Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
1056filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
1057variable and glob that.
1058
f86702cc 1059=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors
a0d0e21e
LW
1060
1061(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
1062
1063=item Exiting eval via %s
1064
8b1a09fc 1065(W) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as
a0d0e21e
LW
1066a goto, or a loop control statement.
1067
0a753a76
PP
1068=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
1069
1070(W) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a sort block or
1071subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a loop control
1072statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
1073
a0d0e21e
LW
1074=item Exiting subroutine via %s
1075
8b1a09fc 1076(W) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such as
a0d0e21e
LW
1077a goto, or a loop control statement.
1078
1079=item Exiting substitution via %s
1080
8b1a09fc 1081(W) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such as
a0d0e21e
LW
1082a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
1083
748a9306 1084=item Fatal VMS error at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 1085
748a9306
LW
1086(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS system
1087service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more details. The
1088filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell you which section of
1089the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
1090
1091=item fcntl is not implemented
1092
1093(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
1094PDP-11 or something?
1095
1096=item Filehandle %s never opened
1097
1098(W) An I/O operation was attempted on a filehandle that was never initialized.
1099You need to do an open() or a socket() call, or call a constructor from
1100the FileHandle package.
1101
5f05dabc 1102=item Filehandle %s opened for only input
a0d0e21e
LW
1103
1104(W) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you
1105intended it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with
8b1a09fc 1106"+E<lt>" or "+E<gt>" or "+E<gt>E<gt>" instead of with "E<lt>" or nothing. If
5f05dabc 1107you intended only to write the file, use "E<gt>" or "E<gt>E<gt>". See
8b1a09fc 1108L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 1109
5f05dabc 1110=item Filehandle opened for only input
a0d0e21e
LW
1111
1112(W) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you
1113intended it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with
8b1a09fc 1114"+E<lt>" or "+E<gt>" or "+E<gt>E<gt>" instead of with "E<lt>" or nothing. If
5f05dabc 1115you intended only to write the file, use "E<gt>" or "E<gt>E<gt>". See
8b1a09fc 1116L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1117
1118=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
1119
1120(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
1121a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name
1122that happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or
1123the name.
1124
1125=item Final @ should be \@ or @name
1126
1127(F) You must now decide whether the final @ in a string was meant to be
1128a literal "at" sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name
1129that happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or
1130the name.
1131
1132=item Format %s redefined
1133
1134(W) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
1135
1136 {
1137 local $^W = 0;
1138 eval "format NAME =...";
1139 }
1140
1141=item Format not terminated
1142
1143(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
1144to the end of your file without finding such a line.
1145
1146=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
1147
1148(W) You said
1149
1150 if ($foo = 123)
1151
1152when you meant
1153
1154 if ($foo == 123)
1155
1156(or something like that).
1157
1158=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
1159
1160(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
1161
1162=item gethostent not implemented
1163
1164(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
1165because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
1166on the Internet.
1167
1168=item get{sock,peer}name() on closed fd
1169
1170(W) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed socket.
1171Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
1172
748a9306
LW
1173=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
1174
1175(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
1176C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
1177
1178
a0d0e21e
LW
1179=item Glob not terminated
1180
1181(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
1182a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and not
1183finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out earlier in
1184the line, and you really meant a "less than".
1185
1186=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
1187
68dc0745
PP
1188(F) You've said "use strict vars", which indicates that all variables
1189must either be lexically scoped (using "my"), or explicitly qualified to
a0d0e21e
LW
1190say which package the global variable is in (using "::").
1191
1192=item goto must have label
1193
1194(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
1195unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
1196
1197=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
1198
1199(S) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought to have
1200existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be created on
1201an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
1202
1203=item Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
1204
1205(D) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some spots. This
1206is now heavily deprecated.
1207
8903cb82
PP
1208=item Identifier too long
1209
1210(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e
PP
1211about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
1212names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future
1213versions of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 1214
8b1a09fc 1215=item Ill-formed logical name |%s| in prime_env_iter
a0d0e21e 1216
8b1a09fc
PP
1217(W) A warning peculiar to VMS. A logical name was encountered when preparing
1218to iterate over %ENV which violates the syntactic rules governing logical
5f05dabc
PP
1219names. Because it cannot be translated normally, it is skipped, and will not
1220appear in %ENV. This may be a benign occurrence, as some software packages
54310121 1221might directly modify logical name tables and introduce nonstandard names,
8b1a09fc 1222or it may indicate that a logical name table has been corrupted.
a0d0e21e 1223
4fdae800
PP
1224=item Illegal character %s (carriage return)
1225
1226(F) A carriage return character was found in the input. This is an
1227error, and not a warning, because carriage return characters can break
54310121
PP
1228multi-line strings, including here documents (e.g., C<print E<lt>E<lt>EOF;>).
1229
1230Under Unix, this error is usually caused by executing Perl code --
68dc0745 1231either the main program, a module, or an eval'd string -- that was
54310121 1232transferred over a network connection from a non-Unix system without
68dc0745
PP
1233properly converting the text file format.
1234
1235Under systems that use something other than '\n' to delimit lines of
1236text, this error can also be caused by reading Perl code from a file
1237handle that is in binary mode (as set by the C<binmode> operator).
1238
1239In either case, the Perl code in question will probably need to be
1240converted with something like C<s/\x0D\x0A?/\n/g> before it can be
1241executed.
4fdae800 1242
a0d0e21e
LW
1243=item Illegal division by zero
1244
1245(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in your
1246logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against meaningless input.
1247
1248=item Illegal modulus zero
1249
1250(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most numbers
1251don't take to this kindly.
1252
1253=item Illegal octal digit
1254
1255(F) You used an 8 or 9 in a octal number.
1256
748a9306
LW
1257=item Illegal octal digit ignored
1258
1259(W) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in a octal number. Interpretation
1260of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
1261
54310121
PP
1262=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: %s
1263
1264(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
1265following switches: B<-[DIMUdmw]>.
1266
9607fc9c
PP
1267=item In string, @%s now must be written as \@%s
1268
1269(F) It used to be that Perl would try to guess whether you wanted an
1270array interpolated or a literal @. It did this when the string was first
1271used at runtime. Now strings are parsed at compile time, and ambiguous
1272instances of @ must be disambiguated, either by prepending a backslash to
1273indicate a literal, or by declaring (or using) the array within the
1274program before the string (lexically). (Someday it will simply assume
1275that an unbackslashed @ interpolates an array.)
1276
a0d0e21e
LW
1277=item Insecure dependency in %s
1278
8b1a09fc 1279(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
a0d0e21e
LW
1280The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or setgid,
1281or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The tainting mechanism
1282labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly from the user,
1283who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any such data is
1284used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See L<perlsec>
1285for more information.
1286
1287=item Insecure directory in %s
1288
1289(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or setgid
8b1a09fc 1290script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by the world.
a0d0e21e
LW
1291See L<perlsec>.
1292
1293=item Insecure PATH
1294
1295(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
8b1a09fc 1296setgid script if C<$ENV{PATH}> is derived from data supplied (or
a0d0e21e
LW
1297potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set the path to a
1298known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
1299
bbce6d69
PP
1300=item Integer overflow in hex number
1301
1302(S) The literal hex number you have specified is too big for your
1303architecture. On a 32-bit architecture the largest hex literal is
13040xFFFFFFFF.
1305
1306=item Integer overflow in octal number
1307
1308(S) The literal octal number you have specified is too big for your
1309architecture. On a 32-bit architecture the largest octal literal is
1310037777777777.
1311
748a9306
LW
1312=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
1313
1314(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number
5f05dabc 1315of times you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine
2ba9eb46 1316whether the current call to C<exec> should affect the current
748a9306
LW
1317script or a subprocess (see L<perlvms/exec>). Somehow, this count
1318has become scrambled, so Perl is making a guess and treating
1319this C<exec> as a request to terminate the Perl script
1320and execute the specified command.
1321
a0d0e21e
LW
1322=item internal disaster in regexp
1323
1324(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
1325
5cd24f17
PP
1326=item internal error: glob failed
1327
1328(P) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used for C<glob>
1329and C<E<lt>*.cE<gt>>. This may mean that your csh (C shell) is
1330broken. If so, you should change all of the csh-related variables in
1331config.sh: If you have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as if it
1332were csh (e.g. C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them all
1333empty (except that C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will
1334think csh is missing. In either case, after editing config.sh, run
1335C<./Configure -S> and rebuild Perl.
1336
a0d0e21e
LW
1337=item internal urp in regexp at /%s/
1338
1339(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser.
1340
1341=item invalid [] range in regexp
1342
1343(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
1344greater than the maximum character. See L<perlre>.
1345
c635e13b
PP
1346=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
1347
878e08df 1348(W) Perl does not understand the given format conversion.
c635e13b
PP
1349See L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
1350
96e4d5b1
PP
1351=item Invalid type in pack: '%s'
1352
8903cb82 1353(F) The given character is not a valid pack type. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
fb73857a
PP
1354(W) The given character is not a valid pack type but used to be silently
1355ignored.
96e4d5b1
PP
1356
1357=item Invalid type in unpack: '%s'
1358
8903cb82 1359(F) The given character is not a valid unpack type. See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
fb73857a
PP
1360(W) The given character is not a valid unpack type but used to be silently
1361ignored.
96e4d5b1 1362
a0d0e21e
LW
1363=item ioctl is not implemented
1364
1365(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
1366strange for a machine that supports C.
1367
1368=item junk on end of regexp
1369
1370(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
1371
1372=item Label not found for "last %s"
1373
1374(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a
1375loop of that name, not even if you count where you were called from.
1376See L<perlfunc/last>.
1377
1378=item Label not found for "next %s"
1379
1380(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
1381that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
1382L<perlfunc/last>.
1383
1384=item Label not found for "redo %s"
1385
1386(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
1387that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
1388L<perlfunc/last>.
1389
1390=item listen() on closed fd
1391
1392(W) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
1393the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/listen>.
1394
a0d0e21e
LW
1395=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
1396
1397(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
e7ea3e70 1398doesn't resolve to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1399
1400=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
1401
1402(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
1403by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
1404ended earlier on the current line.
1405
1406=item Misplaced _ in number
1407
1408(W) An underline in a decimal constant wasn't on a 3-digit boundary.
1409
1410=item Missing $ on loop variable
1411
8b1a09fc
PP
1412(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables are always
1413mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it can vary from
a0d0e21e
LW
1414one line to the next.
1415
1416=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
1417
1418(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
1419"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
1420
748a9306
LW
1421=item Missing operator before %s?
1422
1423(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
1424found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
1425
a0d0e21e
LW
1426=item Missing right bracket
1427
1428(F) The lexer counted more opening curly brackets (braces) than closing ones.
1429As a general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place you were last
1430editing.
1431
a0d0e21e
LW
1432=item Modification of a read-only value attempted
1433
1434(F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
5f05dabc 1435constant. You didn't, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
a0d0e21e
LW
1436catches that. But an easy way to do the same thing is:
1437
1438 sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
1439 mod(2);
1440
1441Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.
1442
54310121 1443=item Modification of noncreatable array value attempted, subscript %d
a0d0e21e
LW
1444
1445(F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
1446subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the array
1447backwards.
1448
54310121 1449=item Modification of noncreatable hash value attempted, subscript "%s"
a0d0e21e
LW
1450
1451(F) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it couldn't
1452be created for some peculiar reason.
1453
1454=item Module name must be constant
1455
1456(F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".
1457
1458=item msg%s not implemented
1459
1460(F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.
1461
1462=item Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
1463
8b1a09fc
PP
1464(W) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like C<$foo[1,2,3]>. They're written
1465like C<$foo[1][2][3]>, as in C.
1466
1467=item Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
1468
68dc0745
PP
1469(W) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable names.
1470If you had a good reason for having a unique name, then just mention
1471it again somehow to suppress the message. The C<use vars> pragma is
1472provided for just this purpose.
a0d0e21e
LW
1473
1474=item Negative length
1475
1476(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer length
1477that is less than 0. This is difficult to imagine.
1478
1479=item nested *?+ in regexp
1480
5f05dabc 1481(F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses. So
a0d0e21e
LW
1482things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal.
1483
5f05dabc 1484Note, however, that the minimal matching quantifiers, C<*?>, C<+?>, and C<??> appear
a0d0e21e
LW
1485to be nested quantifiers, but aren't. See L<perlre>.
1486
1487=item No #! line
1488
1489(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
1490even on machines that don't support the #! construct.
1491
1492=item No %s allowed while running setuid
1493
1494(F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or setgid
1495script to even be allowed to attempt. Generally speaking there will be
1496another way to do what you want that is, if not secure, at least securable.
1497See L<perlsec>.
1498
1499=item No B<-e> allowed in setuid scripts
1500
1501(F) A setuid script can't be specified by the user.
1502
1503=item No comma allowed after %s
1504
1505(F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is not
1506allowed to have a comma between that and the following arguments.
1507Otherwise it'd be just another one of the arguments.
1508
0a753a76
PP
1509One possible cause for this is that you expected to have imported a
1510constant to your name space with B<use> or B<import> while no such
1511importing took place, it may for example be that your operating system
1512does not support that particular constant. Hopefully you did use an
1513explicit import list for the constants you expect to see, please see
1514L<perlfunc/use> and L<perlfunc/import>. While an explicit import list
1515would probably have caught this error earlier it naturally does not
1516remedy the fact that your operating system still does not support that
1517constant. Maybe you have a typo in the constants of the symbol import
1518list of B<use> or B<import> or in the constant name at the line where
1519this error was triggered?
1520
748a9306
LW
1521=item No command into which to pipe on command line
1522
1523(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
54310121 1524and found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it doesn't know where you
748a9306
LW
1525want to pipe the output from this command.
1526
a0d0e21e
LW
1527=item No DB::DB routine defined
1528
1529(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch,
1530but for some reason the perl5db.pl file (or some facsimile thereof)
1531didn't define a routine to be called at the beginning of each
1532statement. Which is odd, because the file should have been required
1533automatically, and should have blown up the require if it didn't parse
1534right.
1535
1536=item No dbm on this machine
1537
1538(P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine should
5f05dabc 1539supply dbm nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM. See L<SDBM_File>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1540
1541=item No DBsub routine
1542
1543(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch,
1544but for some reason the perl5db.pl file (or some facsimile thereof)
1545didn't define a DB::sub routine to be called at the beginning of each
1546ordinary subroutine call.
1547
8b1a09fc 1548=item No error file after 2E<gt> or 2E<gt>E<gt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1549
1550(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc
PP
1551and found a '2E<gt>' or a '2E<gt>E<gt>' on the command line, but can't find
1552the name of the file to which to write data destined for stderr.
748a9306 1553
8b1a09fc 1554=item No input file after E<lt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1555
1556(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc
PP
1557and found a 'E<lt>' on the command line, but can't find the name of the file
1558from which to read data for stdin.
748a9306 1559
8b1a09fc 1560=item No output file after E<gt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1561
1562(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc 1563and found a lone 'E<gt>' at the end of the command line, so it doesn't know
54310121 1564where you wanted to redirect stdout.
748a9306 1565
8b1a09fc 1566=item No output file after E<gt> or E<gt>E<gt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1567
1568(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc
PP
1569and found a 'E<gt>' or a 'E<gt>E<gt>' on the command line, but can't find the
1570name of the file to which to write data destined for stdout.
748a9306 1571
a0d0e21e
LW
1572=item No Perl script found in input
1573
1574(F) You called C<perl -x>, but no line was found in the file beginning
1575with #! and containing the word "perl".
1576
1577=item No setregid available
1578
1579(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setregid() call for
1580your system.
1581
1582=item No setreuid available
1583
1584(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setreuid() call for
1585your system.
1586
1587=item No space allowed after B<-I>
1588
1589(F) The argument to B<-I> must follow the B<-I> immediately with no
1590intervening space.
1591
748a9306
LW
1592=item No such pipe open
1593
1594(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The internal routine my_pclose() tried to
1595close a pipe which hadn't been opened. This should have been caught earlier as
1596an attempt to close an unopened filehandle.
1597
a0d0e21e
LW
1598=item No such signal: SIG%s
1599
1600(W) You specified a signal name as a subscript to %SIG that was not recognized.
1601Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal names on your system.
1602
1603=item Not a CODE reference
1604
1605(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
1606subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
1607use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was.
1608See also L<perlref>.
1609
1610=item Not a format reference
1611
1612(F) I'm not sure how you managed to generate a reference to an anonymous
1613format, but this indicates you did, and that it didn't exist.
1614
1615=item Not a GLOB reference
1616
55497cff 1617(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a "typeglob" (that is,
a0d0e21e
LW
1618a symbol table entry that looks like C<*foo>), but found a reference to
1619something else instead. You can use the ref() function to find out
1620what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
1621
1622=item Not a HASH reference
1623
1624(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a hash value, but
1625found a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref()
1626function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
1627
1628=item Not a perl script
1629
1630(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
1631even on machines that don't support the #! construct. The line must
1632mention perl.
1633
1634=item Not a SCALAR reference
1635
1636(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a scalar value, but
1637found a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref()
1638function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
1639
1640=item Not a subroutine reference
1641
1642(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
1643subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
1644use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was.
1645See also L<perlref>.
1646
e7ea3e70 1647=item Not a subroutine reference in overload table
a0d0e21e
LW
1648
1649(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
8b1a09fc 1650doesn't somehow point to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1651
1652=item Not an ARRAY reference
1653
1654(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to an array value, but
1655found a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref()
1656function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
1657
1658=item Not enough arguments for %s
1659
1660(F) The function requires more arguments than you specified.
1661
1662=item Not enough format arguments
1663
1664(W) A format specified more picture fields than the next line supplied.
1665See L<perlform>.
1666
1667=item Null filename used
1668
5f05dabc 1669(F) You can't require the null filename, especially because on many machines
a0d0e21e
LW
1670that means the current directory! See L<perlfunc/require>.
1671
55497cff
PP
1672=item Null picture in formline
1673
1674(F) The first argument to formline must be a valid format picture
1675specification. It was found to be empty, which probably means you
1676supplied it an uninitialized value. See L<perlform>.
1677
a0d0e21e
LW
1678=item NULL OP IN RUN
1679
1680(P) Some internal routine called run() with a null opcode pointer.
1681
1682=item Null realloc
1683
1684(P) An attempt was made to realloc NULL.
1685
1686=item NULL regexp argument
1687
5f05dabc 1688(P) The internal pattern matching routines blew it big time.
a0d0e21e
LW
1689
1690=item NULL regexp parameter
1691
1692(P) The internal pattern matching routines are out of their gourd.
1693
fc36a67e
PP
1694=item Number too long
1695
1696(F) Perl limits the representation of decimal numbers in programs to about
1697about 250 characters. You've exceeded that length. Future versions of
1698Perl are likely to eliminate this arbitrary limitation. In the meantime,
1699try using scientific notation (e.g. "1e6" instead of "1_000_000").
1700
a0d0e21e
LW
1701=item Odd number of elements in hash list
1702
1703(S) You specified an odd number of elements to a hash list, which is odd,
5f05dabc 1704because hash lists come in key/value pairs.
a0d0e21e 1705
bbce6d69
PP
1706=item Offset outside string
1707
1708(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with an offset
1709pointing outside the buffer. This is difficult to imagine.
1710The sole exception to this is that C<sysread()>ing past the buffer
1711will extend the buffer and zero pad the new area.
1712
a0d0e21e
LW
1713=item oops: oopsAV
1714
1715(S) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
1716
1717=item oops: oopsHV
1718
1719(S) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
1720
e7ea3e70 1721=item Operation `%s': no method found,%s
44a8e56a 1722
e7ea3e70
IZ
1723(F) An attempt was made to perform an overloaded operation for which
1724no handler was defined. While some handlers can be autogenerated in
1725terms of other handlers, there is no default handler for any
1726operation, unless C<fallback> overloading key is specified to be
1727true. See L<overload>.
44a8e56a 1728
748a9306
LW
1729=item Operator or semicolon missing before %s
1730
1731(S) You used a variable or subroutine call where the parser was
1732expecting an operator. The parser has assumed you really meant
1733to use an operator, but this is highly likely to be incorrect.
1734For example, if you say "*foo *foo" it will be interpreted as
1735if you said "*foo * 'foo'".
1736
a0d0e21e
LW
1737=item Out of memory for yacc stack
1738
1739(F) The yacc parser wanted to grow its stack so it could continue parsing,
1740but realloc() wouldn't give it more memory, virtual or otherwise.
1741
1742=item Out of memory!
1743
55497cff 1744(X|F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
54310121 1745remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request.
eff9c6e2
CS
1746
1747The request was judged to be small, so the possibility to trap it
1748depends on the way perl was compiled. By default it is not trappable.
1749However, if compiled for this, Perl may use the contents of C<$^M> as
1750an emergency pool after die()ing with this message. In this case the
55497cff
PP
1751error is trappable I<once>.
1752
1753=item Out of memory during request for %s
1754
1755(F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
1756remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. However,
1757the request was judged large enough (compile-time default is 64K), so
1758a possibility to shut down by trapping this error is granted.
1759
a0d0e21e
LW
1760=item page overflow
1761
1762(W) A single call to write() produced more lines than can fit on a page.
1763See L<perlform>.
1764
1765=item panic: ck_grep
1766
1767(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a grep.
1768
1769=item panic: ck_split
1770
1771(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a split.
1772
1773=item panic: corrupt saved stack index
1774
1775(P) The savestack was requested to restore more localized values than there
1776are in the savestack.
1777
1778=item panic: die %s
1779
1780(P) We popped the context stack to an eval context, and then discovered
1781it wasn't an eval context.
1782
1783=item panic: do_match
1784
1785(P) The internal pp_match() routine was called with invalid operational data.
1786
1787=item panic: do_split
1788
1789(P) Something terrible went wrong in setting up for the split.
1790
1791=item panic: do_subst
1792
1793(P) The internal pp_subst() routine was called with invalid operational data.
1794
1795=item panic: do_trans
1796
1797(P) The internal do_trans() routine was called with invalid operational data.
1798
c635e13b
PP
1799=item panic: frexp
1800
1801(P) The library function frexp() failed, making printf("%f") impossible.
1802
a0d0e21e
LW
1803=item panic: goto
1804
1805(P) We popped the context stack to a context with the specified label,
1806and then discovered it wasn't a context we know how to do a goto in.
1807
1808=item panic: INTERPCASEMOD
1809
1810(P) The lexer got into a bad state at a case modifier.
1811
1812=item panic: INTERPCONCAT
1813
1814(P) The lexer got into a bad state parsing a string with brackets.
1815
1816=item panic: last
1817
1818(P) We popped the context stack to a block context, and then discovered
1819it wasn't a block context.
1820
1821=item panic: leave_scope clearsv
1822
5f05dabc 1823(P) A writable lexical variable became read-only somehow within the scope.
a0d0e21e
LW
1824
1825=item panic: leave_scope inconsistency
1826
1827(P) The savestack probably got out of sync. At least, there was an
1828invalid enum on the top of it.
1829
1830=item panic: malloc
1831
1832(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of malloc.
1833
1834=item panic: mapstart
1835
1836(P) The compiler is screwed up with respect to the map() function.
1837
1838=item panic: null array
1839
1840(P) One of the internal array routines was passed a null AV pointer.
1841
1842=item panic: pad_alloc
1843
1844(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
1845and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
1846
1847=item panic: pad_free curpad
1848
1849(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
1850and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
1851
1852=item panic: pad_free po
1853
1854(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
1855
1856=item panic: pad_reset curpad
1857
1858(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
1859and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
1860
1861=item panic: pad_sv po
1862
1863(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
1864
1865=item panic: pad_swipe curpad
1866
1867(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
1868and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
1869
1870=item panic: pad_swipe po
1871
1872(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
1873
1874=item panic: pp_iter
1875
1876(P) The foreach iterator got called in a non-loop context frame.
1877
1878=item panic: realloc
1879
1880(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of realloc.
1881
1882=item panic: restartop
1883
1884(P) Some internal routine requested a goto (or something like it), and
1885didn't supply the destination.
1886
1887=item panic: return
1888
1889(P) We popped the context stack to a subroutine or eval context, and
1890then discovered it wasn't a subroutine or eval context.
1891
1892=item panic: scan_num
1893
1894(P) scan_num() got called on something that wasn't a number.
1895
1896=item panic: sv_insert
1897
1898(P) The sv_insert() routine was told to remove more string than there
1899was string.
1900
1901=item panic: top_env
1902
1903(P) The compiler attempted to do a goto, or something weird like that.
1904
1905=item panic: yylex
1906
1907(P) The lexer got into a bad state while processing a case modifier.
1908
5f05dabc 1909=item Pareneses missing around "%s" list
a0d0e21e
LW
1910
1911(W) You said something like
1912
1913 my $foo, $bar = @_;
1914
1915when you meant
1916
1917 my ($foo, $bar) = @_;
1918
1919Remember that "my" and "local" bind closer than comma.
1920
1921=item Perl %3.3f required--this is only version %s, stopped
1922
1923(F) The module in question uses features of a version of Perl more recent
1924than the currently running version. How long has it been since you upgraded,
1925anyway? See L<perlfunc/require>.
1926
1927=item Permission denied
1928
1929(F) The setuid emulator in suidperl decided you were up to no good.
1930
748a9306
LW
1931=item pid %d not a child
1932
1933(W) A warning peculiar to VMS. Waitpid() was asked to wait for a process which
1934isn't a subprocess of the current process. While this is fine from VMS'
1935perspective, it's probably not what you intended.
1936
a0d0e21e
LW
1937=item POSIX getpgrp can't take an argument
1938
1939(F) Your C compiler uses POSIX getpgrp(), which takes no argument, unlike
1940the BSD version, which takes a pid.
1941
bbce6d69
PP
1942=item Possible attempt to put comments in qw() list
1943
774d564b
PP
1944(W) qw() lists contain items separated by whitespace; as with literal
1945strings, comment characters are not ignored, but are instead treated
1946as literal data. (You may have used different delimiters than the
1947exclamation marks parentheses shown here; braces are also frequently
1948used.)
bbce6d69 1949
774d564b
PP
1950You probably wrote something like this:
1951
54310121 1952 @list = qw(
774d564b 1953 a # a comment
bbce6d69 1954 b # another comment
774d564b 1955 );
bbce6d69
PP
1956
1957when you should have written this:
1958
774d564b 1959 @list = qw(
54310121
PP
1960 a
1961 b
774d564b
PP
1962 );
1963
1964If you really want comments, build your list the
1965old-fashioned way, with quotes and commas:
1966
1967 @list = (
1968 'a', # a comment
1969 'b', # another comment
1970 );
bbce6d69
PP
1971
1972=item Possible attempt to separate words with commas
1973
774d564b 1974(W) qw() lists contain items separated by whitespace; therefore commas
68dc0745 1975aren't needed to separate the items. (You may have used different
774d564b
PP
1976delimiters than the parentheses shown here; braces are also frequently
1977used.)
bbce6d69 1978
54310121 1979You probably wrote something like this:
bbce6d69 1980
774d564b
PP
1981 qw! a, b, c !;
1982
1983which puts literal commas into some of the list items. Write it without
1984commas if you don't want them to appear in your data:
bbce6d69 1985
774d564b 1986 qw! a b c !;
bbce6d69 1987
a0d0e21e
LW
1988=item Possible memory corruption: %s overflowed 3rd argument
1989
1990(F) An ioctl() or fcntl() returned more than Perl was bargaining for.
1991Perl guesses a reasonable buffer size, but puts a sentinel byte at the
1992end of the buffer just in case. This sentinel byte got clobbered, and
1993Perl assumes that memory is now corrupted. See L<perlfunc/ioctl>.
1994
1995=item Precedence problem: open %s should be open(%s)
1996
1997(S) The old irregular construct
cb1a09d0 1998
a0d0e21e
LW
1999 open FOO || die;
2000
2001is now misinterpreted as
2002
2003 open(FOO || die);
2004
68dc0745
PP
2005because of the strict regularization of Perl 5's grammar into unary
2006and list operators. (The old open was a little of both.) You must
2007put parentheses around the filehandle, or use the new "or" operator
2008instead of "||".
a0d0e21e
LW
2009
2010=item print on closed filehandle %s
2011
2012(W) The filehandle you're printing on got itself closed sometime before now.
2013Check your logic flow.
2014
2015=item printf on closed filehandle %s
2016
2017(W) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime before now.
2018Check your logic flow.
2019
2020=item Probable precedence problem on %s
2021
54310121 2022(W) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a conditional,
a0d0e21e
LW
2023which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part of the
2024last argument of the previous construct, for example:
2025
2026 open FOO || die;
2027
3fe9a6f1 2028=item Prototype mismatch: %s vs %s
4633a7c4 2029
3fe9a6f1
PP
2030(S) The subroutine being declared or defined had previously been declared
2031or defined with a different function prototype.
4633a7c4 2032
8b1a09fc 2033=item Read on closed filehandle E<lt>%sE<gt>
a0d0e21e
LW
2034
2035(W) The filehandle you're reading from got itself closed sometime before now.
2036Check your logic flow.
2037
2038=item Reallocation too large: %lx
2039
54310121 2040(F) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e
LW
2041
2042=item Recompile perl with B<-D>DEBUGGING to use B<-D> switch
2043
2044(F) You can't use the B<-D> option unless the code to produce the
2045desired output is compiled into Perl, which entails some overhead,
2046which is why it's currently left out of your copy.
2047
2048=item Recursive inheritance detected
2049
2050(F) More than 100 levels of inheritance were used. Probably indicates
2051an unintended loop in your inheritance hierarchy.
2052
2053=item Reference miscount in sv_replace()
2054
2055(W) The internal sv_replace() function was handed a new SV with a
2056reference count of other than 1.
2057
fb73857a
PP
2058=item regexp *+ operand could be empty
2059
2060(F) The part of the regexp subject to either the * or + quantifier
2061could match an empty string.
2062
a0d0e21e
LW
2063=item regexp memory corruption
2064
2065(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
2066expression compiler gave it.
2067
2068=item regexp out of space
2069
2070(P) A "can't happen" error, because safemalloc() should have caught it earlier.
2071
2072=item regexp too big
2073
2ba9eb46 2074(F) The current implementation of regular expressions uses shorts as
a0d0e21e
LW
2075address offsets within a string. Unfortunately this means that if
2076the regular expression compiles to longer than 32767, it'll blow up.
2077Usually when you want a regular expression this big, there is a better
2078way to do it with multiple statements. See L<perlre>.
2079
2080=item Reversed %s= operator
2081
2082(W) You wrote your assignment operator backwards. The = must always
2083comes last, to avoid ambiguity with subsequent unary operators.
2084
2085=item Runaway format
2086
2087(F) Your format contained the ~~ repeat-until-blank sequence, but it
2088produced 200 lines at once, and the 200th line looked exactly like the
2089199th line. Apparently you didn't arrange for the arguments to exhaust
2090themselves, either by using ^ instead of @ (for scalar variables), or by
2091shifting or popping (for array variables). See L<perlform>.
2092
2093=item Scalar value @%s[%s] better written as $%s[%s]
2094
a6006777 2095(W) You've used an array slice (indicated by @) to select a single element of
a0d0e21e 2096an array. Generally it's better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by $).
8b1a09fc
PP
2097The difference is that C<$foo[&bar]> always behaves like a scalar, both when
2098assigning to it and when evaluating its argument, while C<@foo[&bar]> behaves
a0d0e21e 2099like a list when you assign to it, and provides a list context to its
5f05dabc 2100subscript, which can do weird things if you're expecting only one subscript.
a0d0e21e 2101
748a9306 2102On the other hand, if you were actually hoping to treat the array
5f05dabc 2103element as a list, you need to look into how references work, because
748a9306
LW
2104Perl will not magically convert between scalars and lists for you. See
2105L<perlref>.
2106
a6006777
PP
2107=item Scalar value @%s{%s} better written as $%s{%s}
2108
2109(W) You've used a hash slice (indicated by @) to select a single element of
2110a hash. Generally it's better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by $).
2111The difference is that C<$foo{&bar}> always behaves like a scalar, both when
2112assigning to it and when evaluating its argument, while C<@foo{&bar}> behaves
2113like a list when you assign to it, and provides a list context to its
2114subscript, which can do weird things if you're expecting only one subscript.
2115
2116On the other hand, if you were actually hoping to treat the hash
2117element as a list, you need to look into how references work, because
2118Perl will not magically convert between scalars and lists for you. See
2119L<perlref>.
2120
a0d0e21e
LW
2121=item Script is not setuid/setgid in suidperl
2122
54310121
PP
2123(F) Oddly, the suidperl program was invoked on a script without a setuid
2124or setgid bit set. This doesn't make much sense.
a0d0e21e
LW
2125
2126=item Search pattern not terminated
2127
2128(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a // or m{}
2129construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 2130Missing the leading C<$> from a variable C<$m> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e 2131
96e4d5b1 2132=item %sseek() on unopened file
a0d0e21e 2133
96e4d5b1
PP
2134(W) You tried to use the seek() or sysseek() function on a filehandle that
2135was either never opened or has since been closed.
a0d0e21e
LW
2136
2137=item select not implemented
2138
2139(F) This machine doesn't implement the select() system call.
2140
2141=item sem%s not implemented
2142
2143(F) You don't have System V semaphore IPC on your system.
2144
2145=item semi-panic: attempt to dup freed string
2146
2147(S) The internal newSVsv() routine was called to duplicate a scalar
2148that had previously been marked as free.
2149
2150=item Semicolon seems to be missing
2151
2152(W) A nearby syntax error was probably caused by a missing semicolon,
2153or possibly some other missing operator, such as a comma.
2154
2155=item Send on closed socket
2156
2157(W) The filehandle you're sending to got itself closed sometime before now.
2158Check your logic flow.
2159
1b1626e4
G
2160=item Sequence (? incomplete
2161(F) A regular expression ended with an incomplete extension (?.
2162See L<perlre>.
2163
a0d0e21e
LW
2164=item Sequence (?#... not terminated
2165
2166(F) A regular expression comment must be terminated by a closing
5f05dabc 2167parenthesis. Embedded parentheses aren't allowed. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2168
2169=item Sequence (?%s...) not implemented
2170
2171(F) A proposed regular expression extension has the character reserved
2172but has not yet been written. See L<perlre>.
2173
2174=item Sequence (?%s...) not recognized
2175
2176(F) You used a regular expression extension that doesn't make sense.
2177See L<perlre>.
2178
a5f75d66
AD
2179=item Server error
2180
9607fc9c
PP
2181Also known as "500 Server error".
2182
2183B<This is a CGI error, not a Perl error>.
2184
2185You need to make sure your script is executable, is accessible by the user
2186CGI is running the script under (which is probably not the user account you
2187tested it under), does not rely on any environment variables (like PATH)
2188from the user it isn't running under, and isn't in a location where the CGI
2189server can't find it, basically, more or less. Please see the following
2190for more information:
2191
2192 http://www.perl.com/perl/faq/idiots-guide.html
2193 http://www.perl.com/perl/faq/perl-cgi-faq.html
2194 ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/www/cgi-faq
2195 http://hoohoo.ncsa.uiuc.edu/cgi/interface.html
2196 http://www-genome.wi.mit.edu/WWW/faqs/www-security-faq.html
a5f75d66 2197
a0d0e21e
LW
2198=item setegid() not implemented
2199
8b1a09fc 2200(F) You tried to assign to C<$)>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2201the setegid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2202think so.
2203
2204=item seteuid() not implemented
2205
8b1a09fc 2206(F) You tried to assign to C<$E<gt>>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2207the seteuid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2208think so.
2209
2210=item setrgid() not implemented
2211
8b1a09fc 2212(F) You tried to assign to C<$(>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2213the setrgid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2214think so.
2215
2216=item setruid() not implemented
2217
1f8d2005 2218(F) You tried to assign to C<$E<lt>>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2219the setruid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2220think so.
2221
2222=item Setuid/gid script is writable by world
2223
2224(F) The setuid emulator won't run a script that is writable by the world,
2225because the world might have written on it already.
2226
2227=item shm%s not implemented
2228
2229(F) You don't have System V shared memory IPC on your system.
2230
2231=item shutdown() on closed fd
2232
2233(W) You tried to do a shutdown on a closed socket. Seems a bit superfluous.
2234
f86702cc 2235=item SIG%s handler "%s" not defined
a0d0e21e
LW
2236
2237(W) The signal handler named in %SIG doesn't, in fact, exist. Perhaps you
2238put it into the wrong package?
2239
2240=item sort is now a reserved word
2241
2242(F) An ancient error message that almost nobody ever runs into anymore.
2243But before sort was a keyword, people sometimes used it as a filehandle.
2244
2245=item Sort subroutine didn't return a numeric value
2246
2247(F) A sort comparison routine must return a number. You probably blew
4633a7c4 2248it by not using C<E<lt>=E<gt>> or C<cmp>, or by not using them correctly.
a0d0e21e
LW
2249See L<perlfunc/sort>.
2250
2251=item Sort subroutine didn't return single value
2252
2253(F) A sort comparison subroutine may not return a list value with more
2254or less than one element. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
2255
2256=item Split loop
2257
2258(P) The split was looping infinitely. (Obviously, a split shouldn't iterate
2259more times than there are characters of input, which is what happened.)
2260See L<perlfunc/split>.
2261
8b1a09fc 2262=item Stat on unopened file E<lt>%sE<gt>
a0d0e21e
LW
2263
2264(W) You tried to use the stat() function (or an equivalent file test)
54310121 2265on a filehandle that was either never opened or has since been closed.
a0d0e21e
LW
2266
2267=item Statement unlikely to be reached
2268
2269(W) You did an exec() with some statement after it other than a die().
2270This is almost always an error, because exec() never returns unless
2271there was a failure. You probably wanted to use system() instead,
2272which does return. To suppress this warning, put the exec() in a block
2273by itself.
2274
e7ea3e70
IZ
2275=item Stub found while resolving method `%s' overloading `%s' in package `%s'
2276
2277(P) Overloading resolution over @ISA tree may be broken by importation stubs.
2278Stubs should never be implicitely created, but explicit calls to C<can>
2279may break this.
2280
a0d0e21e
LW
2281=item Subroutine %s redefined
2282
2283(W) You redefined a subroutine. To suppress this warning, say
2284
2285 {
2286 local $^W = 0;
2287 eval "sub name { ... }";
2288 }
2289
2290=item Substitution loop
2291
2292(P) The substitution was looping infinitely. (Obviously, a
2293substitution shouldn't iterate more times than there are characters of
68dc0745 2294input, which is what happened.) See the discussion of substitution in
5f05dabc 2295L<perlop/"Quote and Quote-like Operators">.
a0d0e21e
LW
2296
2297=item Substitution pattern not terminated
2298
2299(F) The lexer couldn't find the interior delimiter of a s/// or s{}{}
2300construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 2301Missing the leading C<$> from variable C<$s> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e
LW
2302
2303=item Substitution replacement not terminated
2304
2305(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a s/// or s{}{}
2306construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 2307Missing the leading C<$> from variable C<$s> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e
LW
2308
2309=item substr outside of string
2310
3e3baf6d
TB
2311(S),(W) You tried to reference a substr() that pointed outside of a
2312string. That is, the absolute value of the offset was larger than the
2313length of the string. See L<perlfunc/substr>. This warning is
2314mandatory if substr is used in an lvalue context (as the left hand side
2315of an assignment or as a subroutine argument for example).
a0d0e21e 2316
f86702cc 2317=item suidperl is no longer needed since %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2318
2319(F) Your Perl was compiled with B<-D>SETUID_SCRIPTS_ARE_SECURE_NOW, but a
2320version of the setuid emulator somehow got run anyway.
2321
2322=item syntax error
2323
2324(F) Probably means you had a syntax error. Common reasons include:
2325
2326 A keyword is misspelled.
2327 A semicolon is missing.
2328 A comma is missing.
2329 An opening or closing parenthesis is missing.
2330 An opening or closing brace is missing.
2331 A closing quote is missing.
2332
2333Often there will be another error message associated with the syntax
2334error giving more information. (Sometimes it helps to turn on B<-w>.)
2335The error message itself often tells you where it was in the line when
2336it decided to give up. Sometimes the actual error is several tokens
5f05dabc 2337before this, because Perl is good at understanding random input.
a0d0e21e
LW
2338Occasionally the line number may be misleading, and once in a blue moon
2339the only way to figure out what's triggering the error is to call
2340C<perl -c> repeatedly, chopping away half the program each time to see
2341if the error went away. Sort of the cybernetic version of S<20 questions>.
2342
cb1a09d0
AD
2343=item syntax error at line %d: `%s' unexpected
2344
8b1a09fc 2345(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell
3a52c276 2346instead of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script
cb1a09d0
AD
2347into Perl yourself.
2348
a0d0e21e
LW
2349=item System V IPC is not implemented on this machine
2350
5f05dabc 2351(F) You tried to do something with a function beginning with "sem", "shm",
a0d0e21e
LW
2352or "msg". See L<perlfunc/semctl>, for example.
2353
2354=item Syswrite on closed filehandle
2355
2356(W) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime before now.
2357Check your logic flow.
2358
fc36a67e
PP
2359=item Target of goto is too deeply nested
2360
2361(F) You tried to use C<goto> to reach a label that was too deeply
2362nested for Perl to reach. Perl is doing you a favor by refusing.
2363
8903cb82 2364=item tell() on unopened file
a0d0e21e 2365
8903cb82
PP
2366(W) You tried to use the tell() function on a filehandle that was either
2367never opened or has since been closed.
a0d0e21e 2368
8b1a09fc 2369=item Test on unopened file E<lt>%sE<gt>
a0d0e21e
LW
2370
2371(W) You tried to invoke a file test operator on a filehandle that isn't
2372open. Check your logic. See also L<perlfunc/-X>.
2373
2374=item That use of $[ is unsupported
2375
8b1a09fc 2376(F) Assignment to C<$[> is now strictly circumscribed, and interpreted as
5f05dabc 2377a compiler directive. You may say only one of
a0d0e21e
LW
2378
2379 $[ = 0;
2380 $[ = 1;
2381 ...
2382 local $[ = 0;
2383 local $[ = 1;
2384 ...
2385
2386This is to prevent the problem of one module changing the array base
2387out from under another module inadvertently. See L<perlvar/$[>.
2388
2389=item The %s function is unimplemented
2390
2391The function indicated isn't implemented on this architecture, according
2392to the probings of Configure.
2393
f86702cc 2394=item The crypt() function is unimplemented due to excessive paranoia
a0d0e21e
LW
2395
2396(F) Configure couldn't find the crypt() function on your machine,
2397probably because your vendor didn't supply it, probably because they
8b1a09fc 2398think the U.S. Government thinks it's a secret, or at least that they
a0d0e21e
LW
2399will continue to pretend that it is. And if you quote me on that, I
2400will deny it.
2401
2402=item The stat preceding C<-l _> wasn't an lstat
2403
2404(F) It makes no sense to test the current stat buffer for symbolic linkhood
2405if the last stat that wrote to the stat buffer already went past
2406the symlink to get to the real file. Use an actual filename instead.
2407
2408=item times not implemented
2409
2410(F) Your version of the C library apparently doesn't do times(). I suspect
2411you're not running on Unix.
2412
2413=item Too few args to syscall
2414
2415(F) There has to be at least one argument to syscall() to specify the
2416system call to call, silly dilly.
2417
9607fc9c
PP
2418=item Too late for "B<-T>" option
2419
2420(X) The #! line (or local equivalent) in a Perl script contains the
8cc95fdb
PP
2421B<-T> option, but Perl was not invoked with B<-T> in its command line.
2422This is an error because, by the time Perl discovers a B<-T> in a
2423script, it's too late to properly taint everything from the environment.
2424So Perl gives up.
f86702cc 2425
9607fc9c
PP
2426If the Perl script is being executed as a command using the #!
2427mechanism (or its local equivalent), this error can usually be fixed
2428by editing the #! line so that the B<-T> option is a part of Perl's
2429first argument: e.g. change C<perl -n -T> to C<perl -T -n>.
f86702cc 2430
9607fc9c
PP
2431If the Perl script is being executed as C<perl scriptname>, then the
2432B<-T> option must appear on the command line: C<perl -T scriptname>.
f86702cc 2433
8cc95fdb
PP
2434=item Too late for "-%s" option
2435
2436(X) The #! line (or local equivalent) in a Perl script contains the
2437B<-M> or B<-m> option. This is an error because B<-M> and B<-m> options
2438are not intended for use inside scripts. Use the C<use> pragma instead.
2439
cb1a09d0
AD
2440=item Too many ('s
2441
2442=item Too many )'s
2443
2444(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
3a52c276
CS
2445of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
2446Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 2447
a0d0e21e
LW
2448=item Too many args to syscall
2449
5f05dabc 2450(F) Perl supports a maximum of only 14 args to syscall().
a0d0e21e
LW
2451
2452=item Too many arguments for %s
2453
2454(F) The function requires fewer arguments than you specified.
2455
2456=item trailing \ in regexp
2457
2458(F) The regular expression ends with an unbackslashed backslash. Backslash
2459it. See L<perlre>.
2460
2461=item Translation pattern not terminated
2462
2463(F) The lexer couldn't find the interior delimiter of a tr/// or tr[][]
fb73857a
PP
2464or y/// or y[][] construct. Missing the leading C<$> from variables
2465C<$tr> or C<$y> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e
LW
2466
2467=item Translation replacement not terminated
2468
2469(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a tr/// or tr[][]
2470construct.
2471
2472=item truncate not implemented
2473
2474(F) Your machine doesn't implement a file truncation mechanism that
2475Configure knows about.
2476
2477=item Type of arg %d to %s must be %s (not %s)
2478
2479(F) This function requires the argument in that position to be of a
8b1a09fc
PP
2480certain type. Arrays must be @NAME or C<@{EXPR}>. Hashes must be
2481%NAME or C<%{EXPR}>. No implicit dereferencing is allowed--use the
a0d0e21e
LW
2482{EXPR} forms as an explicit dereference. See L<perlref>.
2483
2484=item umask: argument is missing initial 0
2485
5f05dabc 2486(W) A umask of 222 is incorrect. It should be 0222, because octal literals
a0d0e21e
LW
2487always start with 0 in Perl, as in C.
2488
4633a7c4
LW
2489=item Unable to create sub named "%s"
2490
2491(F) You attempted to create or access a subroutine with an illegal name.
2492
a0d0e21e
LW
2493=item Unbalanced context: %d more PUSHes than POPs
2494
2495(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many execution
2496contexts were entered and left.
2497
2498=item Unbalanced saves: %d more saves than restores
2499
2500(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many
2501values were temporarily localized.
2502
2503=item Unbalanced scopes: %d more ENTERs than LEAVEs
2504
2505(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many blocks
2506were entered and left.
2507
2508=item Unbalanced tmps: %d more allocs than frees
2509
2510(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many mortal
2511scalars were allocated and freed.
2512
2513=item Undefined format "%s" called
2514
2515(F) The format indicated doesn't seem to exist. Perhaps it's really in
2516another package? See L<perlform>.
2517
2518=item Undefined sort subroutine "%s" called
2519
2520(F) The sort comparison routine specified doesn't seem to exist. Perhaps
2521it's in a different package? See L<perlfunc/sort>.
2522
2523=item Undefined subroutine &%s called
2524
2525(F) The subroutine indicated hasn't been defined, or if it was, it
2526has since been undefined.
2527
2528=item Undefined subroutine called
2529
2530(F) The anonymous subroutine you're trying to call hasn't been defined,
2531or if it was, it has since been undefined.
2532
2533=item Undefined subroutine in sort
2534
2535(F) The sort comparison routine specified is declared but doesn't seem to
2536have been defined yet. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
2537
4633a7c4
LW
2538=item Undefined top format "%s" called
2539
2540(F) The format indicated doesn't seem to exist. Perhaps it's really in
2541another package? See L<perlform>.
2542
a0d0e21e
LW
2543=item unexec of %s into %s failed!
2544
2545(F) The unexec() routine failed for some reason. See your local FSF
2546representative, who probably put it there in the first place.
2547
2548=item Unknown BYTEORDER
2549
5f05dabc 2550(F) There are no byte-swapping functions for a machine with this byte order.
a0d0e21e
LW
2551
2552=item unmatched () in regexp
2553
2554(F) Unbackslashed parentheses must always be balanced in regular
2555expressions. If you're a vi user, the % key is valuable for finding
5f05dabc 2556the matching parenthesis. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2557
2558=item Unmatched right bracket
2559
2560(F) The lexer counted more closing curly brackets (braces) than opening
2561ones, so you're probably missing an opening bracket. As a general
2562rule, you'll find the missing one (so to speak) near the place you were
2563last editing.
2564
2565=item unmatched [] in regexp
2566
2567(F) The brackets around a character class must match. If you wish to
2568include a closing bracket in a character class, backslash it or put it first.
2569See L<perlre>.
2570
2571=item Unquoted string "%s" may clash with future reserved word
2572
54310121 2573(W) You used a bareword that might someday be claimed as a reserved word.
a0d0e21e
LW
2574It's best to put such a word in quotes, or capitalize it somehow, or insert
2575an underbar into it. You might also declare it as a subroutine.
2576
54310121 2577=item Unrecognized character %s
a0d0e21e 2578
54310121
PP
2579(F) The Perl parser has no idea what to do with the specified character
2580in your Perl script (or eval). Perhaps you tried to run a compressed
2581script, a binary program, or a directory as a Perl program.
a0d0e21e
LW
2582
2583=item Unrecognized signal name "%s"
2584
2585(F) You specified a signal name to the kill() function that was not recognized.
2586Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal names on your system.
2587
90248788 2588=item Unrecognized switch: -%s (-h will show valid options)
a0d0e21e
LW
2589
2590(F) You specified an illegal option to Perl. Don't do that.
2591(If you think you didn't do that, check the #! line to see if it's
2592supplying the bad switch on your behalf.)
2593
2594=item Unsuccessful %s on filename containing newline
2595
2596(W) A file operation was attempted on a filename, and that operation
2597failed, PROBABLY because the filename contained a newline, PROBABLY
54310121 2598because you forgot to chop() or chomp() it off. See L<perlfunc/chomp>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2599
2600=item Unsupported directory function "%s" called
2601
2602(F) Your machine doesn't support opendir() and readdir().
2603
54310121
PP
2604=item Unsupported function fork
2605
2606(F) Your version of executable does not support forking.
2607
2608Note that under some systems, like OS/2, there may be different flavors of
2609Perl executables, some of which may support fork, some not. Try changing
2610the name you call Perl by to C<perl_>, C<perl__>, and so on.
2611
a0d0e21e
LW
2612=item Unsupported function %s
2613
2614(F) This machines doesn't implement the indicated function, apparently.
2615At least, Configure doesn't think so.
2616
2617=item Unsupported socket function "%s" called
2618
2619(F) Your machine doesn't support the Berkeley socket mechanism, or at
2620least that's what Configure thought.
2621
8b1a09fc 2622=item Unterminated E<lt>E<gt> operator
a0d0e21e
LW
2623
2624(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
2625a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and not
2626finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out earlier in
2627the line, and you really meant a "less than".
2628
5cd24f17
PP
2629=item Use of "$$<digit>" to mean "${$}<digit>" is deprecated
2630
2631(D) Perl versions before 5.004 misinterpreted any type marker followed
2632by "$" and a digit. For example, "$$0" was incorrectly taken to mean
2633"${$}0" instead of "${$0}". This bug is (mostly) fixed in Perl 5.004.
2634
2635However, the developers of Perl 5.004 could not fix this bug completely,
2636because at least two widely-used modules depend on the old meaning of
2637"$$0" in a string. So Perl 5.004 still interprets "$$<digit>" in the
2638old (broken) way inside strings; but it generates this message as a
2639warning. And in Perl 5.005, this special treatment will cease.
2640
a0d0e21e
LW
2641=item Use of $# is deprecated
2642
8b1a09fc 2643(D) This was an ill-advised attempt to emulate a poorly defined B<awk> feature.
a0d0e21e
LW
2644Use an explicit printf() or sprintf() instead.
2645
2646=item Use of $* is deprecated
2647
4a6725af 2648(D) This variable magically turned on multi-line pattern matching, both for
a0d0e21e
LW
2649you and for any luckless subroutine that you happen to call. You should
2650use the new C<//m> and C<//s> modifiers now to do that without the dangerous
2651action-at-a-distance effects of C<$*>.
2652
748a9306
LW
2653=item Use of %s in printf format not supported
2654
5f05dabc
PP
2655(F) You attempted to use a feature of printf that is accessible from
2656only C. This usually means there's a better way to do it in Perl.
748a9306 2657
8b1a09fc 2658=item Use of bare E<lt>E<lt> to mean E<lt>E<lt>"" is deprecated
4633a7c4
LW
2659
2660(D) You are now encouraged to use the explicitly quoted form if you
3fe9a6f1 2661wish to use an empty line as the terminator of the here-document.
4633a7c4 2662
a0d0e21e
LW
2663=item Use of implicit split to @_ is deprecated
2664
2665(D) It makes a lot of work for the compiler when you clobber a
2666subroutine's argument list, so it's better if you assign the results of
2667a split() explicitly to an array (or list).
2668
dc848c6f
PP
2669=item Use of inherited AUTOLOAD for non-method %s() is deprecated
2670
5cd24f17
PP
2671(D) As an (ahem) accidental feature, C<AUTOLOAD> subroutines are looked
2672up as methods (using the C<@ISA> hierarchy) even when the subroutines to
2673be autoloaded were called as plain functions (e.g. C<Foo::bar()>), not
2674as methods (e.g. C<Foo->bar()> or C<$obj->bar()>).
dc848c6f
PP
2675
2676This bug will be rectified in Perl 5.005, which will use method lookup
2677only for methods' C<AUTOLOAD>s. However, there is a significant base
2678of existing code that may be using the old behavior. So, as an
2679interim step, Perl 5.004 issues an optional warning when non-methods
2680use inherited C<AUTOLOAD>s.
2681
2682The simple rule is: Inheritance will not work when autoloading
2683non-methods. The simple fix for old code is: In any module that used to
2684depend on inheriting C<AUTOLOAD> for non-methods from a base class named
2685C<BaseClass>, execute C<*AUTOLOAD = \&BaseClass::AUTOLOAD> during startup.
2686
fb73857a
PP
2687In code that currently says C<use AutoLoader; @ISA = qw(AutoLoader);> you
2688should remove AutoLoader from @ISA and change C<use AutoLoader;> to
2689C<C<use AutoLoader 'AUTOLOAD';>.
2690
dc848c6f
PP
2691=item Use of %s is deprecated
2692
2693(D) The construct indicated is no longer recommended for use, generally
2694because there's a better way to do it, and also because the old way has
2695bad side effects.
2696
a0d0e21e
LW
2697=item Use of uninitialized value
2698
2699(W) An undefined value was used as if it were already defined. It was
2700interpreted as a "" or a 0, but maybe it was a mistake. To suppress this
2701warning assign an initial value to your variables.
2702
2703=item Useless use of %s in void context
2704
2705(W) You did something without a side effect in a context that does nothing
2706with the return value, such as a statement that doesn't return a value
2707from a block, or the left side of a scalar comma operator. Very often
2708this points not to stupidity on your part, but a failure of Perl to parse
2709your program the way you thought it would. For example, you'd get this
2710if you mixed up your C precedence with Python precedence and said
2711
2712 $one, $two = 1, 2;
2713
2714when you meant to say
2715
2716 ($one, $two) = (1, 2);
2717
748a9306
LW
2718Another common error is to use ordinary parentheses to construct a list
2719reference when you should be using square or curly brackets, for
2720example, if you say
2721
2722 $array = (1,2);
2723
2724when you should have said
2725
2726 $array = [1,2];
2727
2728The square brackets explicitly turn a list value into a scalar value,
2729while parentheses do not. So when a parenthesized list is evaluated in
2730a scalar context, the comma is treated like C's comma operator, which
2731throws away the left argument, which is not what you want. See
2732L<perlref> for more on this.
2733
55497cff
PP
2734=item untie attempted while %d inner references still exist
2735
2736(W) A copy of the object returned from C<tie> (or C<tied>) was still
2737valid when C<untie> was called.
2738
68dc0745 2739=item Value of %s can be "0"; test with defined()
a6006777 2740
68dc0745
PP
2741(W) In a conditional expression, you used <HANDLE>, <*> (glob), C<each()>,
2742or C<readdir()> as a boolean value. Each of these constructs can return a
2743value of "0"; that would make the conditional expression false, which is
2744probably not what you intended. When using these constructs in conditional
2745expressions, test their values with the C<defined> operator.
a6006777 2746
9607fc9c 2747=item Variable "%s" is not imported%s
4633a7c4
LW
2748
2749(F) While "use strict" in effect, you referred to a global variable
2750that you apparently thought was imported from another module, because
2751something else of the same name (usually a subroutine) is exported
2752by that module. It usually means you put the wrong funny character
2753on the front of your variable.
2754
44a8e56a
PP
2755=item Variable "%s" may be unavailable
2756
2757(W) An inner (nested) I<anonymous> subroutine is inside a I<named>
2758subroutine, and outside that is another subroutine; and the anonymous
2759(innermost) subroutine is referencing a lexical variable defined in
2760the outermost subroutine. For example:
2761
2762 sub outermost { my $a; sub middle { sub { $a } } }
2763
2764If the anonymous subroutine is called or referenced (directly or
2765indirectly) from the outermost subroutine, it will share the variable
2766as you would expect. But if the anonymous subroutine is called or
2767referenced when the outermost subroutine is not active, it will see
2768the value of the shared variable as it was before and during the
2769*first* call to the outermost subroutine, which is probably not what
2770you want.
2771
2772In these circumstances, it is usually best to make the middle
2773subroutine anonymous, using the C<sub {}> syntax. Perl has specific
2774support for shared variables in nested anonymous subroutines; a named
2775subroutine in between interferes with this feature.
2776
2777=item Variable "%s" will not stay shared
2778
2779(W) An inner (nested) I<named> subroutine is referencing a lexical
2780variable defined in an outer subroutine.
2781
2782When the inner subroutine is called, it will probably see the value of
2783the outer subroutine's variable as it was before and during the
2784*first* call to the outer subroutine; in this case, after the first
2785call to the outer subroutine is complete, the inner and outer
2786subroutines will no longer share a common value for the variable. In
2787other words, the variable will no longer be shared.
2788
2789Furthermore, if the outer subroutine is anonymous and references a
2790lexical variable outside itself, then the outer and inner subroutines
2791will I<never> share the given variable.
2792
2793This problem can usually be solved by making the inner subroutine
2794anonymous, using the C<sub {}> syntax. When inner anonymous subs that
2795reference variables in outer subroutines are called or referenced,
54310121 2796they are automatically rebound to the current values of such
44a8e56a
PP
2797variables.
2798
f86702cc 2799=item Variable syntax
cb1a09d0
AD
2800
2801(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
3a52c276
CS
2802of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
2803Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 2804
7e1af8bc 2805=item Warning: something's wrong
5f05dabc
PP
2806
2807(W) You passed warn() an empty string (the equivalent of C<warn "">) or
2808you called it with no args and C<$_> was empty.
2809
f86702cc 2810=item Warning: unable to close filehandle %s properly
a0d0e21e 2811
8b1a09fc 2812(S) The implicit close() done by an open() got an error indication on the
5f05dabc 2813close(). This usually indicates your file system ran out of disk space.
a0d0e21e 2814
5f05dabc 2815=item Warning: Use of "%s" without parentheses is ambiguous
a0d0e21e
LW
2816
2817(S) You wrote a unary operator followed by something that looks like a
2818binary operator that could also have been interpreted as a term or
2819unary operator. For instance, if you know that the rand function
2820has a default argument of 1.0, and you write
2821
2822 rand + 5;
2823
2824you may THINK you wrote the same thing as
2825
2826 rand() + 5;
2827
2828but in actual fact, you got
2829
2830 rand(+5);
2831
5f05dabc 2832So put in parentheses to say what you really mean.
a0d0e21e
LW
2833
2834=item Write on closed filehandle
2835
2836(W) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime before now.
2837Check your logic flow.
2838
2839=item X outside of string
2840
2841(F) You had a pack template that specified a relative position before
2842the beginning of the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2843
2844=item x outside of string
2845
2846(F) You had a pack template that specified a relative position after
2847the end of the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2848
2849=item Xsub "%s" called in sort
2850
2851(F) The use of an external subroutine as a sort comparison is not yet supported.
2852
2853=item Xsub called in sort
2854
2855(F) The use of an external subroutine as a sort comparison is not yet supported.
2856
2857=item You can't use C<-l> on a filehandle
2858
2859(F) A filehandle represents an opened file, and when you opened the file it
2860already went past any symlink you are presumably trying to look for.
2861Use a filename instead.
2862
2863=item YOU HAVEN'T DISABLED SET-ID SCRIPTS IN THE KERNEL YET!
2864
5f05dabc 2865(F) And you probably never will, because you probably don't have the
a0d0e21e
LW
2866sources to your kernel, and your vendor probably doesn't give a rip
2867about what you want. Your best bet is to use the wrapsuid script in
2868the eg directory to put a setuid C wrapper around your script.
2869
2870=item You need to quote "%s"
2871
2872(W) You assigned a bareword as a signal handler name. Unfortunately, you
2873already have a subroutine of that name declared, which means that Perl 5
2874will try to call the subroutine when the assignment is executed, which is
2875probably not what you want. (If it IS what you want, put an & in front.)
2876
2877=item [gs]etsockopt() on closed fd
2878
2879(W) You tried to get or set a socket option on a closed socket.
2880Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
2881See L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
2882
2883=item \1 better written as $1
2884
2885(W) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables. The use
5f05dabc 2886of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
a0d0e21e
LW
2887substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
2888because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better
2889if there are more than 9 backreferences.
2890
8b1a09fc 2891=item '|' and 'E<lt>' may not both be specified on command line
748a9306
LW
2892
2893(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
2894found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to redirect STDIN using
8b1a09fc 2895'E<lt>'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
748a9306 2896
8b1a09fc 2897=item '|' and 'E<gt>' may not both be specified on command line
748a9306
LW
2898
2899(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
2900thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and into a pipe to another
2901command. You need to choose one or the other, though nothing's stopping you
2902from piping into a program or Perl script which 'splits' output into two
2903streams, such as
2904
2905 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
2906 while (<STDIN>) {
2907 print;
2908 print OUT;
2909 }
2910 close OUT;
2911
774d564b 2912=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
33c8a3fe 2913
774d564b
PP
2914(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
2915version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
33c8a3fe
IZ
2916
2917=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
2918
dc848c6f 2919(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
33c8a3fe
IZ
2920
2921 prefix1;prefix2
2922
2923or
2924
2925 prefix1 prefix2
2926
dc848c6f
PP
2927with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix
2928of a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error
2929may appear if components are not found, or are too long. See
2930"PERLLIB_PREFIX" in F<README.os2>.
33c8a3fe
IZ
2931
2932=item PERL_SH_DIR too long
2933
54310121 2934(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERL_SH_DIR is the directory to find the
dc848c6f 2935C<sh>-shell in. See "PERL_SH_DIR" in F<README.os2>.
33c8a3fe
IZ
2936
2937=item Process terminated by SIG%s
2938
2939(W) This is a standard message issued by OS/2 applications, while *nix
dc848c6f
PP
2940applications die in silence. It is considered a feature of the OS/2
2941port. One can easily disable this by appropriate sighandlers, see
2942L<perlipc/"Signals">. See also "Process terminated by SIGTERM/SIGINT"
2943in F<README.os2>.
33c8a3fe 2944
a0d0e21e
LW
2945=back
2946