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1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
d1d15184 11 (D) A deprecation (enabled by default).
00eb3f2b 12 (S) A severe warning (enabled by default).
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13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
75b44862 18The majority of messages from the first three classifications above
64977eb6 19(W, D & S) can be controlled using the C<warnings> pragma.
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20
21If a message can be controlled by the C<warnings> pragma, its warning
22category is included with the classification letter in the description
466416ed 23below. E.g. C<(W closed)> means a warning in the C<closed> category.
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24
25Optional warnings are enabled by using the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-w>
fa816bf3 26and B<-W> switches. Warnings may be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}>
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27to a reference to a routine that will be called on each warning instead
28of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
29
b7eceb5b 30Severe warnings are always enabled, unless they are explicitly disabled
e476b1b5 31with the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-X> switch.
4438c4b7 32
748a9306 33Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
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34L<perlfunc/eval>. In almost all cases, warnings may be selectively
35disabled or promoted to fatal errors using the C<warnings> pragma.
36See L<warnings>.
a0d0e21e 37
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38The messages are in alphabetical order, without regard to upper or
39lower-case. Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are
40denoted with a %s or other printf-style escape. These escapes are
41ignored by the alphabetical order, as are all characters other than
42letters. To look up your message, just ignore anything that is not a
43letter.
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44
45=over 4
46
6df41af2 47=item accept() on closed socket %s
33633739 48
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49(W closed) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget
50to check the return value of your socket() call? See
51L<perlfunc/accept>.
33633739 52
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53=item Aliasing via reference is experimental
54
55(S experimental::refaliasing) This warning is emitted if you use
56a reference constructor on the left-hand side of an assignment to
57alias one variable to another. Simply suppress the warning if you
58want to use the feature, but know that in doing so you are taking
59the risk of using an experimental feature which may change or be
60removed in a future Perl version:
61
62 no warnings "experimental::refaliasing";
63 use feature "refaliasing";
64 \$x = \$y;
65
de42a5a9 66=item Allocation too large: %x
a0d0e21e 67
6df41af2 68(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e 69
04f74579 70=item '%c' allowed only after types %s in %s
ef54e1a4 71
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72(F) The modifiers '!', '<' and '>' are allowed in pack() or unpack() only
73after certain types. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
ef54e1a4 74
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75=item alpha->numify() is lossy
76
77(W numeric) An alpha version can not be numified without losing
78information.
79
6df41af2 80=item Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
43192e07 81
75b44862 82(W ambiguous) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl
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83keyword, and you have used the name without qualification for calling
84one or the other. Perl decided to call the builtin because the
85subroutine is not imported.
43192e07 86
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87To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand
88before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.
89Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's
90imported with the C<use subs> pragma).
43192e07 91
6df41af2 92To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the C<CORE::> prefix
496a33f5 93on the operator (e.g. C<CORE::log($x)>) or declare the subroutine
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94to be an object method (see L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes"> or
95L<attributes>).
43192e07 96
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97=item Ambiguous range in transliteration operator
98
99(F) You wrote something like C<tr/a-z-0//> which doesn't mean anything at
100all. To include a C<-> character in a transliteration, put it either
101first or last. (In the past, C<tr/a-z-0//> was synonymous with
102C<tr/a-y//>, which was probably not what you would have expected.)
103
6df41af2 104=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
43192e07 105
7c7af292 106(S ambiguous) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
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107you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
108a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
a0d0e21e 109
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110=item Ambiguous use of -%s resolved as -&%s()
111
112(S ambiguous) You wrote something like C<-foo>, which might be the
113string C<"-foo">, or a call to the function C<foo>, negated. If you meant
114the string, just write C<"-foo">. If you meant the function call,
115write C<-foo()>.
116
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117=item Ambiguous use of %c resolved as operator %c
118
7c7af292 119(S ambiguous) C<%>, C<&>, and C<*> are both infix operators (modulus,
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120bitwise and, and multiplication) I<and> initial special characters
121(denoting hashes, subroutines and typeglobs), and you said something
122like C<*foo * foo> that might be interpreted as either of them. We
123assumed you meant the infix operator, but please try to make it more
124clear -- in the example given, you might write C<*foo * foo()> if you
125really meant to multiply a glob by the result of calling a function.
d8225693 126
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127=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s} resolved to %c%s
128
129(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<@{foo}>, which might be
130asking for the variable C<@foo>, or it might be calling a function
131named foo, and dereferencing it as an array reference. If you wanted
1cecf2c0 132the variable, you can just write C<@foo>. If you wanted to call the
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133function, write C<@{foo()}> ... or you could just not have a variable
134and a function with the same name, and save yourself a lot of trouble.
135
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136=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s[...]} resolved to %c%s[...]
137
138=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s{...}} resolved to %c%s{...}
4da60377 139
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140(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<${foo[2]}> (where foo represents
141the name of a Perl keyword), which might be looking for element number
1422 of the array named C<@foo>, in which case please write C<$foo[2]>, or you
143might have meant to pass an anonymous arrayref to the function named
144foo, and then do a scalar deref on the value it returns. If you meant
145that, write C<${foo([2])}>.
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146
147In regular expressions, the C<${foo[2]}> syntax is sometimes necessary
148to disambiguate between array subscripts and character classes.
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149C</$length[2345]/>, for instance, will be interpreted as C<$length> followed
150by the character class C<[2345]>. If an array subscript is what you
151want, you can avoid the warning by changing C</${length[2345]}/> to the
152unsightly C</${\$length[2345]}/>, by renaming your array to something
153that does not coincide with a built-in keyword, or by simply turning
154off warnings with C<no warnings 'ambiguous';>.
4da60377 155
6df41af2 156=item '|' and '<' may not both be specified on command line
a0d0e21e 157
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158(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
159redirection, and found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to
160redirect STDIN using '<'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
c9f97d15 161
6df41af2 162=item '|' and '>' may not both be specified on command line
1028017a 163
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164(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
165redirection, and thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and
166into a pipe to another command. You need to choose one or the other,
167though nothing's stopping you from piping into a program or Perl script
168which 'splits' output into two streams, such as
1028017a 169
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170 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
171 while (<STDIN>) {
172 print;
173 print OUT;
174 }
175 close OUT;
c9f97d15 176
6df41af2 177=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
eb6e2d6f 178
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179(W misc) The pattern match (C<//>), substitution (C<s///>), and
180transliteration (C<tr///>) operators work on scalar values. If you apply
be771a83 181one of them to an array or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to
ac036724 182a scalar value (the length of an array, or the population info of a
183hash) and then work on that scalar value. This is probably not what
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184you meant to do. See L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for
185alternatives.
eb6e2d6f 186
6df41af2 187=item Arg too short for msgsnd
76cd736e 188
6df41af2 189(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
76cd736e 190
f86702cc 191=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
a0d0e21e 192
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193(W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator
194that expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
195will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
a0d0e21e 196
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197Note that for the C<Inf> and C<NaN> (infinity and not-a-number) the
198definition of "numeric" is somewhat unusual: the strings themselves
199(like "Inf") are considered numeric, and anything following them is
200considered non-numeric.
201
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202=item Argument list not closed for PerlIO layer "%s"
203
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204(W layer) When pushing a layer with arguments onto the Perl I/O
205system you forgot the ) that closes the argument list. (Layers
206take care of transforming data between external and internal
207representations.) Perl stopped parsing the layer list at this
208point and did not attempt to push this layer. If your program
209didn't explicitly request the failing operation, it may be the
210result of the value of the environment variable PERLIO.
b4581f09 211
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212=item Argument "%s" treated as 0 in increment (++)
213
214(W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to the C<++>
215operator which expects either a number or a string matching
216C</^[a-zA-Z]*[0-9]*\z/>. See L<perlop/Auto-increment and
217Auto-decrement> for details.
218
637494ac 219=item Array passed to stat will be coerced to a scalar%s
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220
221(W syntax) You called stat() on an array, but the array will be
222coerced to a scalar - the number of elements in the array.
223
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224=item assertion botched: %s
225
21b5e840 226(X) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
a0d0e21e 227
0eacef8e 228=item Assertion %s failed: file "%s", line %d
a0d0e21e 229
21b5e840 230(X) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
a0d0e21e 231
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232=item Assigned value is not a reference
233
234(F) You tried to assign something that was not a reference to an lvalue
235reference (e.g., C<\$x = $y>). If you meant to make $x an alias to $y, use
236C<\$x = \$y>.
237
238=item Assigned value is not %s reference
239
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240(F) You tried to assign a reference to a reference constructor, but the
241two references were not of the same type. You cannot alias a scalar to
242an array, or an array to a hash; the two types must match.
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243
244 \$x = \@y; # error
245 \@x = \%y; # error
246 $y = [];
247 \$x = $y; # error; did you mean \$y?
248
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249=item Assigning non-zero to $[ is no longer possible
250
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251(F) When the "array_base" feature is disabled (e.g., under C<use v5.16;>)
252the special variable C<$[>, which is deprecated, is now a fixed zero value.
82122228 253
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254=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
255
256(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
257must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
258know which context to supply to the right side.
259
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260=item Assuming NOT a POSIX class since %s in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
261
262(W regexp) You had something like these:
263
264 [[:alnum]]
265 [[:digit:xyz]
266
267They look like they might have been meant to be the POSIX classes
268C<[:alnum:]> or C<[:digit:]>. If so, they should be written:
269
270 [[:alnum:]]
271 [[:digit:]xyz]
272
273Since these aren't legal POSIX class specifications, but are legal
274bracketed character classes, Perl treats them as the latter. In the
275first example, it matches the characters C<":">, C<"[">, C<"a">, C<"l">,
276C<"m">, C<"n">, and C<"u">.
277
278If these weren't meant to be POSIX classes, this warning message is
279spurious, and can be suppressed by reordering things, such as
280
281 [[al:num]]
282
283or
284
285 [[:munla]]
286
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287=item <> at require-statement should be quotes
288
289(F) You wrote C<< require <file> >> when you should have written
290C<require 'file'>.
291
2393f1b9 292=item Attempt to access disallowed key '%s' in a restricted hash
1b1f1335 293
49293501 294(F) The failing code has attempted to get or set a key which is not in
2393f1b9 295the current set of allowed keys of a restricted hash.
49293501 296
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297=item Attempt to bless into a freed package
298
299(F) You wrote C<bless $foo> with one argument after somehow causing
300the current package to be freed. Perl cannot figure out what to
301do, so it throws up in hands in despair.
302
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303=item Attempt to bless into a reference
304
305(F) The CLASSNAME argument to the bless() operator is expected to be
57dedab9 306the name of the package to bless the resulting object into. You've
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307supplied instead a reference to something: perhaps you wrote
308
309 bless $self, $proto;
310
311when you intended
312
313 bless $self, ref($proto) || $proto;
314
315If you actually want to bless into the stringified version
316of the reference supplied, you need to stringify it yourself, for
317example by:
318
319 bless $self, "$proto";
320
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321=item Attempt to clear deleted array
322
323(S debugging) An array was assigned to when it was being freed.
324Freed values are not supposed to be visible to Perl code. This
325can also happen if XS code calls C<av_clear> from a custom magic
326callback on the array.
327
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328=item Attempt to delete disallowed key '%s' from a restricted hash
329
330(F) The failing code attempted to delete from a restricted hash a key
331which is not in its key set.
332
333=item Attempt to delete readonly key '%s' from a restricted hash
334
335(F) The failing code attempted to delete a key whose value has been
336declared readonly from a restricted hash.
337
de42a5a9 338=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%x
a0d0e21e 339
f84fe999 340(S internal) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas
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341that will be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be
342outside any of those arenas.
a0d0e21e 343
12578ffb 344=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string '%s'%s
bbce6d69 345
f84fe999 346(S internal) Perl maintains a reference-counted internal table of
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347strings to optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other
348strings. This indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count
349of a string that can no longer be found in the table.
bbce6d69 350
7d5b40b4 351=item Attempt to free temp prematurely: SV 0x%x
a0d0e21e 352
f84fe999 353(S debugging) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the
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354free_tmps() routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the
355SV before the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the
356free_tmps() routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does
357try to free it.
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358
359=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
360
f84fe999 361(S internal) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
a0d0e21e 362
7d5b40b4 363=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar: SV 0x%x
a0d0e21e 364
8f7e4d2c 365(S internal) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to
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366see if it would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0
367earlier, and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed.
368This could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or
369that SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was
370mortalized when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been
371corrupted.
a0d0e21e 372
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373=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
374
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375(W pack) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
376function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
377means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
378invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
379literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
380avoid this warning.
84902520 381
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382=item Attempt to reload %s aborted.
383
384(F) You tried to load a file with C<use> or C<require> that failed to
385compile once already. Perl will not try to compile this file again
386unless you delete its entry from %INC. See L<perlfunc/require> and
387L<perlvar/%INC>.
388
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389=item Attempt to set length of freed array
390
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391(W misc) You tried to set the length of an array which has
392been freed. You can do this by storing a reference to the
393scalar representing the last index of an array and later
394assigning through that reference. For example
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395
396 $r = do {my @a; \$#a};
397 $$r = 503
398
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399=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
400
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401(W substr) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr()
402used as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
403dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
b7a902f4 404
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405=item Attribute "locked" is deprecated
406
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407(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragma to modify the
408"locked" attribute on a code reference. The :locked attribute is
409obsolete, has had no effect since 5005 threads were removed, and
410will be removed in a future release of Perl 5.
c32124fe 411
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412=item Attribute prototype(%s) discards earlier prototype attribute in same sub
413
414(W misc) A sub was declared as sub foo : prototype(A) : prototype(B) {}, for
415example. Since each sub can only have one prototype, the earlier
416declaration(s) are discarded while the last one is applied.
417
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418=item Attribute "unique" is deprecated
419
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420(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragma to modify
421the "unique" attribute on an array, hash or scalar reference.
422The :unique attribute has had no effect since Perl 5.8.8, and
423will be removed in a future release of Perl 5.
f1a3ce43 424
ccce04a4
FC
425=item av_reify called on tied array
426
427(S debugging) This indicates that something went wrong and Perl got I<very>
428confused about C<@_> or C<@DB::args> being tied.
429
de42a5a9 430=item Bad arg length for %s, is %u, should be %d
a0d0e21e 431
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432(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl()
433or shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 434S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
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435S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
436
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437=item Bad evalled substitution pattern
438
496a33f5 439(F) You've used the C</e> switch to evaluate the replacement for a
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440substitution, but perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate,
441most likely an unexpected right brace '}'.
442
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443=item Bad filehandle: %s
444
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445(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the
446symbol has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an
447open(), or did it in another package.
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448
449=item Bad free() ignored
450
be771a83 451(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had never
fa816bf3 452been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
9ea8bc6d 453setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 0.
33c8a3fe 454
9ea8bc6d 455This message can be seen quite often with DB_File on systems with "hard"
6903afa2 456dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of C<Berkeley DB>
be771a83 457which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving> system malloc().
a0d0e21e 458
aa689395
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459=item Bad hash
460
461(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
462
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463=item Badly placed ()'s
464
465(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
466of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
467Perl yourself.
468
a7cb8dae 469=item Bad name after %s
a0d0e21e 470
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471(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then
472didn't finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside
473of quotes, so
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474
475 $var = 'myvar';
476 $sym = mypack::$var;
477
478is not the same as
479
480 $var = 'myvar';
481 $sym = "mypack::$var";
482
88e1f1a2
JV
483=item Bad plugin affecting keyword '%s'
484
485(F) An extension using the keyword plugin mechanism violated the
486plugin API.
487
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488=item Bad realloc() ignored
489
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490(S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that
491had never been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can
492be disabled by setting the environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
4ad56ec9 493
a0d0e21e
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494=item Bad symbol for array
495
496(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
497wasn't a symbol table entry.
498
4df3f177
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499=item Bad symbol for dirhandle
500
501(P) An internal request asked to add a dirhandle entry to something
502that wasn't a symbol table entry.
503
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504=item Bad symbol for filehandle
505
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506(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something
507that wasn't a symbol table entry.
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508
509=item Bad symbol for hash
510
511(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
512wasn't a symbol table entry.
513
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FC
514=item Bad symbol for scalar
515
516(P) An internal request asked to add a scalar entry to something that
517wasn't a symbol table entry.
518
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519=item Bareword found in conditional
520
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521(W bareword) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a
522conditional, which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part
523of the last argument of the previous construct, for example:
34d09196
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524
525 open FOO || die;
526
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527It may also indicate a misspelled constant that has been interpreted as
528a bareword:
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529
530 use constant TYPO => 1;
531 if (TYOP) { print "foo" }
532
533The C<strict> pragma is useful in avoiding such errors.
534
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535=item Bareword in require contains "%s"
536
537=item Bareword in require maps to empty filename
538
539=item Bareword in require maps to disallowed filename "%s"
540
5bad2b39 541
a52f2cce
NC
542(F) The bareword form of require has been invoked with a filename which could
543not have been generated by a valid bareword permitted by the parser. You
544shouldn't be able to get this error from Perl code, but XS code may throw it
545if it passes an invalid module name to C<Perl_load_module>.
546
5bad2b39
DM
547=item Bareword in require must not start with a double-colon: "%s"
548
549(F) In C<require Bare::Word>, the bareword is not allowed to start with a
550double-colon. Write C<require ::Foo::Bar> as C<require Foo::Bar> instead.
551
6df41af2
GS
552=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
553
554(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
be771a83
GS
555subroutine identifier, in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>"
556symbol. Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
6df41af2
GS
557
558=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
559
be771a83
GS
560(W bareword) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but the
561compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point. Perhaps
562you need to predeclare a package?
6df41af2 563
a0d0e21e
LW
564=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
565
be771a83
GS
566(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN
567subroutine. Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is
568exited.
a0d0e21e 569
68dc0745
PP
570=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
571
572(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
be771a83
GS
573implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had already
574occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}> could not
575be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code likely
576depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
68dc0745 577
c782d7ee 578=item \%d better written as $%d
6df41af2 579
be771a83
GS
580(W syntax) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables.
581The use of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
582substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
583because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better if
584there are more than 9 backreferences.
6df41af2 585
252aa082
JH
586=item Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable
587
e476b1b5 588(W portable) The binary number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
589(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
590L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 591
69282e91 592=item bind() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 593
be771a83
GS
594(W closed) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to
595check the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
a0d0e21e 596
c289d2f7
JH
597=item binmode() on closed filehandle %s
598
599(W unopened) You tried binmode() on a filehandle that was never opened.
4dcecea4 600Check your control flow and number of arguments.
c289d2f7 601
c5a0f51a
JH
602=item Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
603
e476b1b5 604(W portable) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is non-portable.
c5a0f51a 605
043c750c 606=item Bizarre copy of %s
4633a7c4 607
be771a83 608(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not
ab830aa0 609copiable.
4633a7c4 610
5a25739d
FC
611=item Bizarre SvTYPE [%d]
612
434f489b 613(P) When starting a new thread or returning values from a thread, Perl
5a25739d
FC
614encountered an invalid data type.
615
b927b7e9 616=item Both or neither range ends should be Unicode in regex; marked by
6e8a73f2 617S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
b927b7e9
KW
618
619(W regexp) (only under C<S<use re 'strict'>> or within C<(?[...])>)
620
621In a bracketed character class in a regular expression pattern, you
622had a range which has exactly one end of it specified using C<\N{}>, and
623the other end is specified using a non-portable mechanism. Perl treats
624the range as a Unicode range, that is, all the characters in it are
625considered to be the Unicode characters, and which may be different code
626points on some platforms Perl runs on. For example, C<[\N{U+06}-\x08]>
627is treated as if you had instead said C<[\N{U+06}-\N{U+08}]>, that is it
628matches the characters whose code points in Unicode are 6, 7, and 8.
629But that C<\x08> might indicate that you meant something different, so
630the warning gets raised.
631
f675dbe5
CB
632=item Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
633
be771a83
GS
634(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. While Perl was preparing to
635iterate over %ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition
636which was too long, so it was truncated to the string shown.
f675dbe5 637
a0d0e21e
LW
638=item Callback called exit
639
4929bf7b 640(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via call_sv()
a0d0e21e
LW
641exited by calling exit.
642
6df41af2 643=item %s() called too early to check prototype
f675dbe5 644
be771a83
GS
645(W prototype) You've called a function that has a prototype before the
646parser saw a definition or declaration for it, and Perl could not check
647that the call conforms to the prototype. You need to either add an
648early prototype declaration for the subroutine in question, or move the
649subroutine definition ahead of the call to get proper prototype
650checking. Alternatively, if you are certain that you're calling the
651function correctly, you may put an ampersand before the name to avoid
652the warning. See L<perlsub>.
f675dbe5 653
56feebad
FC
654=item Calling POSIX::%s() is deprecated
655
656(D deprecated) You called a function whose use is deprecated. See
657the function's name in L<POSIX> for details.
658
0c7df902
JH
659=item Cannot chr %f
660
661(F) You passed an invalid number (like an infinity or not-a-number) to C<chr>.
662
5dee29d4 663=item Cannot compress %f in pack
0c7df902 664
5dee29d4
JH
665(F) You tried compressing an infinity or not-a-number as an unsigned
666integer with BER, which makes no sense.
0c7df902 667
49704364 668=item Cannot compress integer in pack
0258719b 669
717feafc
JH
670(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was too large to compress.
671The BER compressed integer format can only be used with positive
672integers, and you attempted to compress a very large number (> 1e308).
673See L<perlfunc/pack>.
0258719b 674
49704364 675=item Cannot compress negative numbers in pack
0258719b
NC
676
677(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was negative. The BER compressed integer
678format can only be used with positive integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
679
5c1f4d79
NC
680=item Cannot convert a reference to %s to typeglob
681
6903afa2
FC
682(F) You manipulated Perl's symbol table directly, stored a reference
683in it, then tried to access that symbol via conventional Perl syntax.
684The access triggers Perl to autovivify that typeglob, but it there is
685no legal conversion from that type of reference to a typeglob.
5c1f4d79 686
4040665a 687=item Cannot copy to %s
ba2fdce6
NC
688
689(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy a value to an internal type that cannot
4dcecea4 690be directly assigned to.
ba2fdce6 691
b5d97229
RGS
692=item Cannot find encoding "%s"
693
694(S io) You tried to apply an encoding that did not exist to a filehandle,
695either with open() or binmode().
696
0c7df902
JH
697=item Cannot pack %f with '%c'
698
5dee29d4 699(F) You tried converting an infinity or not-a-number to an integer,
0c7df902
JH
700which makes no sense.
701
702=item Cannot printf %f with '%c'
703
704(F) You tried printing an infinity or not-a-number as a character (%c),
705which makes no sense. Maybe you meant '%s', or just stringifying it?
706
7355df7e
FC
707=item Cannot set tied @DB::args
708
709(F) C<caller> tried to set C<@DB::args>, but found it tied. Tying C<@DB::args>
710is not supported. (Before this error was added, it used to crash.)
711
ce65bc73
FC
712=item Cannot tie unreifiable array
713
714(P) You somehow managed to call C<tie> on an array that does not
715keep a reference count on its arguments and cannot be made to
716do so. Such arrays are not even supposed to be accessible to
717Perl code, but are only used internally.
718
46e58bd2
AC
719=item Cannot yet reorder sv_catpvfn() arguments from va_list
720
721(F) Some XS code tried to use C<sv_catpvfn()> or a related function with a
722format string that specifies explicit indexes for some of the elements, and
723using a C-style variable-argument list (a C<va_list>). This is not currently
724supported. XS authors wanting to do this must instead construct a C array of
725C<SV*> scalars containing the arguments.
726
96ebfdd7
RK
727=item Can only compress unsigned integers in pack
728
729(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was not an integer. The BER compressed
730integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you attempted
731to compress something else. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
732
a0d0e21e
LW
733=item Can't bless non-reference value
734
735(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
736encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
737
dc57907a
RGS
738=item Can't "break" in a loop topicalizer
739
0d863452 740(F) You called C<break>, but you're in a C<foreach> block rather than
6903afa2 741a C<given> block. You probably meant to use C<next> or C<last>.
0d863452
RH
742
743=item Can't "break" outside a given block
dc57907a 744
0d863452
RH
745(F) You called C<break>, but you're not inside a C<given> block.
746
6df41af2
GS
747=item Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
748
749(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
750object reference or package name contains an undefined value. Something
751like this will reproduce the error:
6df41af2
GS
752
753 $BADREF = undef;
754 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
755 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
756
a0d0e21e
LW
757=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
758
54310121 759(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
be771a83
GS
760ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but you
761didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't an
762object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
763
764=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
765
766(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
767object reference or package name contains an expression that returns a
768defined value which is neither an object reference nor a package name.
72b5445b
GS
769Something like this will reproduce the error:
770
771 $BADREF = 42;
772 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
773 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
774
dfe378f1
FC
775=item Can't call mro_isa_changed_in() on anonymous symbol table
776
777(P) Perl got confused as to whether a hash was a plain hash or a
778symbol table hash when trying to update @ISA caches.
779
2bf7e7b2
FC
780=item Can't call mro_method_changed_in() on anonymous symbol table
781
782(F) An XS module tried to call C<mro_method_changed_in> on a hash that was
783not attached to the symbol table.
784
a0d0e21e
LW
785=item Can't chdir to %s
786
f703fc96 787(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but F</foo/bar> is not a directory
a0d0e21e
LW
788that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
789
0545a864 790=item Can't check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid
104d25b7 791
be771a83
GS
792(P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for
793nosuid.
104d25b7 794
22e74366 795=item Can't coerce %s to %s in %s
a0d0e21e
LW
796
797(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 798(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
a0d0e21e
LW
799say things like:
800
801 *foo += 1;
802
803You CAN say
804
805 $foo = *foo;
806 $foo += 1;
807
808but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
809
0d863452 810=item Can't "continue" outside a when block
dc57907a 811
0d863452
RH
812(F) You called C<continue>, but you're not inside a C<when>
813or C<default> block.
814
a0d0e21e
LW
815=item Can't create pipe mailbox
816
be771a83
GS
817(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted
818quotas or other plumbing problems.
a0d0e21e 819
eb64745e
GS
820=item Can't declare %s in "%s"
821
30c282f6
NC
822(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as "my", "our" or
823"state" variables. They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
a0d0e21e 824
fc7debfb
FC
825=item Can't "default" outside a topicalizer
826
827(F) You have used a C<default> block that is neither inside a
828C<foreach> loop nor a C<given> block. (Note that this error is
829issued on exit from the C<default> block, so you won't get the
830error if you use an explicit C<continue>.)
831
a2162cd9
FC
832=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
833
834(S inplace) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as
835a file in /dev, a FIFO or an uneditable directory. The file was ignored.
836
837=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
838
839(S inplace) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated
840reason.
841
842=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
843
844(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try
845reading from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say
846C<-i.bak>, or some such.
847
848=item Can't do inplace edit: %s would not be unique
849
850(S inplace) Your filesystem does not support filenames longer than 14
851characters and Perl was unable to create a unique filename during
852inplace editing with the B<-i> switch. The file was ignored.
853
ab0b796c
KW
854=item Can't do %s("%s") on non-UTF-8 locale; resolved to "%s".
855
856(W locale) You are 1) running under "C<use locale>"; 2) the current
857locale is not a UTF-8 one; 3) you tried to do the designated case-change
858operation on the specified Unicode character; and 4) the result of this
859operation would mix Unicode and locale rules, which likely conflict.
860Mixing of different rule types is forbidden, so the operation was not
861done; instead the result is the indicated value, which is the best
862available that uses entirely Unicode rules. That turns out to almost
863always be the original character, unchanged.
864
865It is generally a bad idea to mix non-UTF-8 locales and Unicode, and
866this issue is one of the reasons why. This warning is raised when
867Unicode rules would normally cause the result of this operation to
868contain a character that is in the range specified by the locale,
8690..255, and hence is subject to the locale's rules, not Unicode's.
870
871If you are using locale purely for its characteristics related to things
872like its numeric and time formatting (and not C<LC_CTYPE>), consider
873using a restricted form of the locale pragma (see L<perllocale/The "use
874locale" pragma>) like "S<C<use locale ':not_characters'>>".
875
876Note that failed case-changing operations done as a result of
877case-insensitive C</i> regular expression matching will show up in this
878warning as having the C<fc> operation (as that is what the regular
879expression engine calls behind the scenes.)
880
a0d0e21e
LW
881=item Can't do waitpid with flags
882
be771a83
GS
883(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only
884waitpid() without flags is emulated.
a0d0e21e 885
a0d0e21e
LW
886=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
887
be771a83
GS
888(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this
889point. For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #!
890line.
a0d0e21e 891
1109a392
MHM
892=item Can't %s %s-endian %ss on this platform
893
894(F) Your platform's byte-order is neither big-endian nor little-endian,
895or it has a very strange pointer size. Packing and unpacking big- or
896little-endian floating point values and pointers may not be possible.
897See L<perlfunc/pack>.
898
a0d0e21e
LW
899=item Can't exec "%s": %s
900
d1be9408 901(W exec) A system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the
be771a83
GS
902named program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the
903permissions were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in
904C<$ENV{PATH}>, the executable in question was compiled for another
905architecture, or the #! line in a script points to an interpreter that
906can't be run for similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support
907#! at all.)
a0d0e21e
LW
908
909=item Can't exec %s
910
be771a83
GS
911(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because
912that's what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may
913need to mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
a0d0e21e
LW
914
915=item Can't execute %s
916
be771a83
GS
917(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute
918found in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
2a92aaa0 919
6df41af2 920=item Can't find an opnumber for "%s"
2a92aaa0 921
be771a83
GS
922(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but there
923is no builtin with the name C<word>.
6df41af2
GS
924
925=item Can't find label %s
926
be771a83
GS
927(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's
928possible for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2a92aaa0
GS
929
930=item Can't find %s on PATH
931
be771a83
GS
932(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
933found in the PATH.
a0d0e21e 934
6df41af2 935=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
a0d0e21e 936
be771a83
GS
937(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
938found in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The
939script exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
a0d0e21e
LW
940
941=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
942
be771a83
GS
943(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means
944that the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count
945nesting levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
a0d0e21e 946
fb73857a
PP
947 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
948
97b3d10f 949If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have
b6b8cb97
FC
950included unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag or there
951may not be a linebreak after it. A good programmer's editor will have
952a way to help you find these characters (or lack of characters). See
953L<perlop> for the full details on here-documents.
a0d0e21e 954
660a4616
ST
955=item Can't find Unicode property definition "%s"
956
29f52644
KW
957=item Can't find Unicode property definition "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
958
959(F) The named property which you specified via C<\p> or C<\P> is not one
960known to Perl. Perhaps you misspelled the name? See
e1b711da 961L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
29f52644
KW
962for a complete list of available official
963properties. If it is a
964L<user-defined property|perlunicode/User-Defined Character Properties>
965it must have been defined by the time the regular expression is
966matched.
967
968If you didn't mean to use a Unicode property, escape the C<\p>, either
969by C<\\p> (just the C<\p>) or by C<\Q\p> (the rest of the string, or
5f8ad6b6 970until C<\E>).
660a4616 971
b3647a36 972=item Can't fork: %s
a0d0e21e 973
be771a83
GS
974(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a
975pipeline.
a0d0e21e 976
b3647a36
SR
977=item Can't fork, trying again in 5 seconds
978
c973c02e 979(W pipe) A fork in a piped open failed with EAGAIN and will be retried
b3647a36
SR
980after five seconds.
981
748a9306
LW
982=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
983
be771a83
GS
984(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference
985between access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes.
986Under VMS, access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in
987the stat buffer, so that ACLs and other protections can be taken into
988account. Unfortunately, Perl assumes that the stat buffer contains all
989the necessary information, and passes it, instead of the filespec, to
2fe2bdfd 990the access-checking routine. It will try to retrieve the filespec using
be771a83
GS
991the device name and FID present in the stat buffer, but this works only
992if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat() routine,
993because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
2fe2bdfd
FC
994appears, the name lookup failed, and the access-checking routine gave up
995and returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access-checking
be771a83
GS
996routine knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you
997shouldn't ever see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises
998only if some internal code takes stat buffers lightly.)
748a9306 999
a0d0e21e
LW
1000=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
1001
be771a83
GS
1002(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a
1003pipe, Perl can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
1004
1005=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
1006
748a9306
LW
1007(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
1008mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e 1009
6df41af2 1010=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
a0d0e21e 1011
be771a83
GS
1012(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a foreach
1013loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2
GS
1014
1015=item Can't "goto" out of a pseudo block
1016
be771a83
GS
1017(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look like
1018a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually occurs if
1019you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which is a no-no.
1020See L<perlfunc/goto>.
a0d0e21e 1021
5a25739d
FC
1022=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-%s
1023
1024(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval
1025"string" or block.
1026
9850bf21 1027=item Can't goto subroutine from a sort sub (or similar callback)
cd299c6e 1028
9850bf21
RH
1029(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of the
1030comparison sub for a sort(), or from a similar callback (such
1031as the reduce() function in List::Util).
1032
6df41af2
GS
1033=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
1034
be771a83
GS
1035(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one
1036subroutine call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole
1037cloth. In general you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD
1038routine anyway. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2 1039
0b5b802d
GS
1040=item Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default
1041
be771a83
GS
1042(W signal) Perl has detected that it is being run with the SIGCHLD
1043signal (sometimes known as SIGCLD) disabled. Since disabling this
1044signal will interfere with proper determination of exit status of child
1045processes, Perl has reset the signal to its default value. This
1046situation typically indicates that the parent program under which Perl
1047may be running (e.g. cron) is being very careless.
0b5b802d 1048
e2c0f81f
DG
1049=item Can't kill a non-numeric process ID
1050
1051(F) Process identifiers must be (signed) integers. It is a fatal error to
1052attempt to kill() an undefined, empty-string or otherwise non-numeric
1053process identifier.
1054
6df41af2 1055=item Can't "last" outside a loop block
4633a7c4 1056
6df41af2 1057(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
be771a83
GS
1058except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a current
1059block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a "loopish"
1060block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or grep(). You can
1061usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the
1062inner curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See
1063L<perlfunc/last>.
4633a7c4 1064
2c7d6b9c
RGS
1065=item Can't linearize anonymous symbol table
1066
1067(F) Perl tried to calculate the method resolution order (MRO) of a
1068package, but failed because the package stash has no name.
1069
b8170e59
JB
1070=item Can't load '%s' for module %s
1071
6903afa2
FC
1072(F) The module you tried to load failed to load a dynamic extension.
1073This may either mean that you upgraded your version of perl to one
1074that is incompatible with your old dynamic extensions (which is known
1075to happen between major versions of perl), or (more likely) that your
1076dynamic extension was built against an older version of the library
1077that is installed on your system. You may need to rebuild your old
1078dynamic extensions.
b8170e59 1079
748a9306
LW
1080=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
1081
2ba9eb46 1082(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
b7e4ecc1
FC
1083lexical variable using "my" or "state". This is not allowed. If you
1084want to localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with
1085the package name.
748a9306 1086
6df41af2 1087=item Can't localize through a reference
4727527e 1088
6df41af2
GS
1089(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
1090handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
be771a83 1091pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be sure
64977eb6 1092that $ref will still be a reference.
4727527e 1093
ea071790 1094=item Can't locate %s
ec889f3a 1095
fa816bf3
FC
1096(F) You said to C<do> (or C<require>, or C<use>) a file that couldn't be found.
1097Perl looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in @INC, unless
1098the file name included the full path to the file. Perhaps you need
1099to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where the
1100extra library is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name
be771a83
GS
1101to @INC. Or maybe you just misspelled the name of the file. See
1102L<perlfunc/require> and L<lib>.
a0d0e21e 1103
6df41af2
GS
1104=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
1105
be771a83
GS
1106(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows
1107autoload, but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes
1108are a misprint in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit>
1109the file, say, by doing C<make install>.
6df41af2 1110
b8170e59
JB
1111=item Can't locate loadable object for module %s in @INC
1112
1113(F) The module you loaded is trying to load an external library, like
d70d8e57 1114for example, F<foo.so> or F<bar.dll>, but the L<DynaLoader> module was
b8170e59
JB
1115unable to locate this library. See L<DynaLoader>.
1116
a0d0e21e
LW
1117=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
1118
1119(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
1120functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 1121method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e 1122
8af56b9d
FC
1123=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s" (perhaps you forgot
1124to load "%s"?)
1125
1126(F) You called a method on a class that did not exist, and the method
1127could not be found in UNIVERSAL. This often means that a method
1128requires a package that has not been loaded.
1129
a0d0e21e
LW
1130=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
1131
be771a83
GS
1132(W syntax) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that
1133doesn't seem to exist.
a0d0e21e 1134
2f7da168
RK
1135=item Can't locate PerlIO%s
1136
1137(F) You tried to use in open() a PerlIO layer that does not exist,
1138e.g. open(FH, ">:nosuchlayer", "somefile").
1139
f4ad53f4 1140=item Can't make list assignment to %ENV on this system
3e3baf6d 1141
be771a83
GS
1142(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably
1143VMS.
3e3baf6d 1144
cd40cd58
NC
1145=item Can't make loaded symbols global on this platform while loading %s
1146
ff9c1ae8 1147(S) A module passed the flag 0x01 to DynaLoader::dl_load_file() to request
cd40cd58
NC
1148that symbols from the stated file are made available globally within the
1149process, but that functionality is not available on this platform. Whilst
1150the module likely will still work, this may prevent the perl interpreter
1151from loading other XS-based extensions which need to link directly to
1152functions defined in the C or XS code in the stated file.
1153
a0d0e21e
LW
1154=item Can't modify %s in %s
1155
be771a83
GS
1156(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try
1157to change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 1158
54310121 1159=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
1160
1161(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
1162a NULL.
1163
0f948285 1164=item Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call of &%s
6df41af2
GS
1165
1166(F) Subroutines meant to be used in lvalue context should be declared as
2fe2bdfd 1167such. See L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
6df41af2 1168
cf6e1fa1
FC
1169=item Can't modify reference to %s in %s assignment
1170
1171(F) Only a limited number of constructs can be used as the argument to a
1172reference constructor on the left-hand side of an assignment, and what
1173you used was not one of them. See L<perlref/Assigning to References>.
1174
1175=item Can't modify reference to localized parenthesized array in list
1176assignment
1177
1178(F) Assigning to C<\local(@array)> or C<\(local @array)> is not supported, as
1179it is not clear exactly what it should do. If you meant to make @array
1180refer to some other array, use C<\@array = \@other_array>. If you want to
1181make the elements of @array aliases of the scalars referenced on the
1182right-hand side, use C<\(@array) = @scalar_refs>.
1183
1184=item Can't modify reference to parenthesized hash in list assignment
1185
1186(F) Assigning to C<\(%hash)> is not supported. If you meant to make %hash
1187refer to some other hash, use C<\%hash = \%other_hash>. If you want to
1188make the elements of %hash into aliases of the scalars referenced on the
1189right-hand side, use a hash slice: C<\@hash{@keys} = @those_scalar_refs>.
1190
5f05dabc 1191=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 1192
5f05dabc 1193(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
1194buffer.
1195
6df41af2
GS
1196=item Can't "next" outside a loop block
1197
1198(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
1199there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
be771a83
GS
1200count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or
1201grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1202though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that loops
1203once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
6df41af2 1204
a0d0e21e
LW
1205=item Can't open %s: %s
1206
c47ff5f1 1207(S inplace) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<< <> >>
08e9d68e 1208filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
46fa9b26
FC
1209switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually
1210this is because you don't have read permission for a file which
1211you named on the command line.
1212
1213(F) You tried to call perl with the B<-e> switch, but F</dev/null> (or
1214your operating system's equivalent) could not be opened.
a0d0e21e 1215
9a869a14
RGS
1216=item Can't open a reference
1217
1218(W io) You tried to open a scalar reference for reading or writing,
2fe2bdfd 1219using the 3-arg open() syntax:
9a869a14
RGS
1220
1221 open FH, '>', $ref;
1222
1223but your version of perl is compiled without perlio, and this form of
1224open is not supported.
1225
a0d0e21e
LW
1226=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
1227
be771a83
GS
1228(W pipe) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported.
1229You can try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such
1230as IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using
1231">", and then read it in under a different file handle.
a0d0e21e 1232
748a9306
LW
1233=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
1234
be771a83
GS
1235(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1236redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '2>' or '2>>' on
1237the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1238
1239=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
1240
be771a83
GS
1241(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1242redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '<' on the
1243command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
1244
1245=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
1246
be771a83
GS
1247(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1248redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '>' or '>>' on
1249the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1250
1251=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
1252
be771a83
GS
1253(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1254redirection, and couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined
1255for stdout.
748a9306 1256
3b1cf97d 1257=item Can't open perl script "%s": %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1258
1259(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
1260
fa3aa65a
JC
1261If you're debugging a script that uses #!, and normally relies on the
1262shell's $PATH search, the -S option causes perl to do that search, so
1263you don't have to type the path or C<`which $scriptname`>.
1264
6df41af2
GS
1265=item Can't read CRTL environ
1266
1267(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read an element of %ENV
1268from the CRTL's internal environment array and discovered the array was
1269missing. You need to figure out where your CRTL misplaced its environ
be771a83
GS
1270or define F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that environ is not
1271searched.
6df41af2 1272
f3106bc8
LM
1273=item Can't redeclare "%s" in "%s"
1274
1275(F) A "my", "our" or "state" declaration was found within another declaration,
1276such as C<my ($x, my($y), $z)> or C<our (my $x)>.
1277
6df41af2
GS
1278=item Can't "redo" outside a loop block
1279
1280(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
1281there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
1282count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map()
1283or grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1284though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that
1285loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
1286
64977eb6 1287=item Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file
10f9c03d 1288
be771a83
GS
1289(S inplace) You requested an inplace edit without creating a backup
1290file. Perl was unable to remove the original file to replace it with
1291the modified file. The file was left unmodified.
10f9c03d 1292
a0d0e21e
LW
1293=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
1294
e476b1b5 1295(S inplace) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason,
10f9c03d 1296probably because you don't have write permission to the directory.
a0d0e21e 1297
748a9306
LW
1298=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
1299
be771a83
GS
1300(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried
1301to reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
748a9306 1302
9415f659
KW
1303=item Can't represent character for Ox%X on this platform
1304
1305(F) There is a hard limit to how big a character code point can be due
1306to the fundamental properties of UTF-8, especially on EBCDIC
1307platforms. The given code point exceeds that. The only work-around is
1308to not use such a large code point.
1309
4f12ec0e
FC
1310=item Can't reset %ENV on this system
1311
1312(F) You called C<reset('E')> or similar, which tried to reset
1313all variables in the current package beginning with "E". In
1314the main package, that includes %ENV. Resetting %ENV is not
1315supported on some systems, notably VMS.
1316
fe13d51d 1317=item Can't resolve method "%s" overloading "%s" in package "%s"
6df41af2 1318
1fa582fa
FC
1319(F)(P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as
1320opposed to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the
1321package. If the method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
6df41af2 1322
cd06dffe
GS
1323=item Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine
1324
be771a83
GS
1325(F) Perl detected an attempt to return illegal lvalues (such as
1326temporary or readonly values) from a subroutine used as an lvalue. This
1327is not allowed.
cd06dffe 1328
96ebfdd7
RK
1329=item Can't return outside a subroutine
1330
1331(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
1332there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
1333
78f9721b
SM
1334=item Can't return %s to lvalue scalar context
1335
6903afa2
FC
1336(F) You tried to return a complete array or hash from an lvalue
1337subroutine, but you called the subroutine in a way that made Perl
1338think you meant to return only one value. You probably meant to
1339write parentheses around the call to the subroutine, which tell
1340Perl that the call should be in list context.
78f9721b 1341
a0d0e21e
LW
1342=item Can't stat script "%s"
1343
be771a83
GS
1344(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have it
1345open already. Bizarre.
a0d0e21e 1346
a0d0e21e
LW
1347=item Can't take log of %g
1348
fb73857a 1349(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
6903afa2 1350negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
be771a83
GS
1351standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for the
1352negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
1353
1354=item Can't take sqrt of %g
1355
1356(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a
PP
1357negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
1358with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
1359
1360=item Can't undef active subroutine
1361
1362(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
1363however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
1364redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
1365
c81225bc 1366=item Can't upgrade %s (%d) to %d
a0d0e21e 1367
be771a83
GS
1368(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making it
1369into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are so
1370specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This message
1371indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
a0d0e21e 1372
6651ba0b
FC
1373=item Can't use '%c' after -mname
1374
1375(F) You tried to call perl with the B<-m> switch, but you put something
1376other than "=" after the module name.
1377
1f1ec7b5
KW
1378=item Can't use a hash as a reference
1379
1380(F) You tried to use a hash as a reference, as in
66a1f5ec
FC
1381C<< %foo->{"bar"} >> or C<< %$ref->{"hello"} >>. Versions of perl
1382<= 5.22.0 used to allow this syntax, but shouldn't
1383have. This was deprecated in perl 5.6.1.
1f1ec7b5
KW
1384
1385=item Can't use an array as a reference
1386
1387(F) You tried to use an array as a reference, as in
66a1f5ec
FC
1388C<< @foo->[23] >> or C<< @$ref->[99] >>. Versions of perl <= 5.22.0
1389used to allow this syntax, but shouldn't have. This
1390was deprecated in perl 5.6.1.
1f1ec7b5 1391
1db89ea5
BS
1392=item Can't use anonymous symbol table for method lookup
1393
e27ad1f2 1394(F) The internal routine that does method lookup was handed a symbol
1db89ea5
BS
1395table that doesn't have a name. Symbol tables can become anonymous
1396for example by undefining stashes: C<undef %Some::Package::>.
1397
96ebfdd7
RK
1398=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
1399
1400(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
1401be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
1402
6df41af2
GS
1403=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
1404
be771a83
GS
1405(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1406references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 1407
90b75b61 1408=item Can't use %! because Errno.pm is not available
1d2dff63 1409
20561843 1410(F) The first time the C<%!> hash is used, perl automatically loads the
6903afa2 1411Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
1d2dff63
GS
1412provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
1413
1109a392
MHM
1414=item Can't use both '<' and '>' after type '%c' in %s
1415
1416(F) A type cannot be forced to have both big-endian and little-endian
1417byte-order at the same time, so this combination of modifiers is not
1418allowed. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1419
e35475de
KW
1420=item Can't use 'defined(@array)' (Maybe you should just omit the defined()?)
1421
1422(F) defined() is not useful on arrays because it
1423checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the
1424array is empty, just use C<if (@array) { # not empty }> for example.
1425
1426=item Can't use 'defined(%hash)' (Maybe you should just omit the defined()?)
1427
1428(F) C<defined()> is not usually right on hashes.
1429
1430Although C<defined %hash> is false on a plain not-yet-used hash, it
1431becomes true in several non-obvious circumstances, including iterators,
1432weak references, stash names, even remaining true after C<undef %hash>.
1433These things make C<defined %hash> fairly useless in practice, so it now
1434generates a fatal error.
1435
1436If a check for non-empty is what you wanted then just put it in boolean
1437context (see L<perldata/Scalar values>):
1438
1439 if (%hash) {
1440 # not empty
1441 }
1442
1443If you had C<defined %Foo::Bar::QUUX> to check whether such a package
1444variable exists then that's never really been reliable, and isn't
1445a good way to enquire about the features of a package, or whether
1446it's loaded, etc.
1447
6df41af2
GS
1448=item Can't use %s for loop variable
1449
c1f06047 1450(P) The parser got confused when trying to parse a C<foreach> loop.
6df41af2 1451
aab6a793 1452=item Can't use global %s in "%s"
6df41af2 1453
be771a83
GS
1454(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This
1455is not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location
1456(namely the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to
1457have variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
6df41af2
GS
1458weren't.
1459
6d3b25aa
RGS
1460=item Can't use '%c' in a group with different byte-order in %s
1461
1462(F) You attempted to force a different byte-order on a type
1463that is already inside a group with a byte-order modifier.
1464For example you cannot force little-endianness on a type that
1465is inside a big-endian group.
1466
c07a80fd
PP
1467=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
1468
1469(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
c47ff5f1 1470You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the <=> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd
PP
1471and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
1472Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
1473lexical variable.
1474
a0d0e21e
LW
1475=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
1476
1477(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
1478reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
1479test the type of the reference, if need be.
1480
748a9306 1481=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e 1482
5e634d20
FC
1483=item Can't use string ("%s"...) as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
1484
b41bf23f
FC
1485(F) You've told Perl to dereference a string, something which
1486C<use strict> blocks to prevent it happening accidentally. See
1487L<perlref/"Symbolic references">. This can be triggered by an C<@> or C<$>
1488in a double-quoted string immediately before interpolating a variable,
1489for example in C<"user @$twitter_id">, which says to treat the contents
1490of C<$twitter_id> as an array reference; use a C<\> to have a literal C<@>
1491symbol followed by the contents of C<$twitter_id>: C<"user \@$twitter_id">.
a0d0e21e 1492
748a9306
LW
1493=item Can't use subscript on %s
1494
1495(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
1496subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
209e7cf1 1497didn't look like a hash or array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
748a9306 1498
6df41af2
GS
1499=item Can't use \%c to mean $%c in expression
1500
75b44862
GS
1501(W syntax) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that
1502creates a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a
1503backreference to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular
be771a83
GS
1504expression pattern. Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a
1505value that prints out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form
1506instead.
6df41af2 1507
810b8aa5
GS
1508=item Can't weaken a nonreference
1509
1510(F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference. Only
1511references can be weakened.
1512
fc7debfb
FC
1513=item Can't "when" outside a topicalizer
1514
1515(F) You have used a when() block that is neither inside a C<foreach>
1516loop nor a C<given> block. (Note that this error is issued on exit
1517from the C<when> block, so you won't get the error if the match fails,
1518or if you use an explicit C<continue>.)
1519
5f05dabc 1520=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e 1521
be771a83
GS
1522(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value)
1523with an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
a0d0e21e
LW
1524Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
1525
a04e6aad 1526=item Character following "\c" must be printable ASCII
f9d13529 1527
7357bd17 1528(F) In C<\cI<X>>, I<X> must be a printable (non-control) ASCII character.
17a3df4c 1529
727b6379 1530Note that ASCII characters that don't map to control characters are
7357bd17 1531discouraged, and will generate the warning (when enabled)
727b6379 1532L</""\c%c" is more clearly written simply as "%s"">.
f9d13529 1533
163a633c
KW
1534=item Character following \%c must be '{' or a single-character Unicode property name in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1535
1536(F) (In the above the C<%c> is replaced by either C<p> or C<P>.) You
1537specified something that isn't a legal Unicode property name. Most
1538Unicode properties are specified by C<\p{...}>. But if the name is a
1539single character one, the braces may be omitted.
1540
f337b084 1541=item Character in 'C' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1542
1543(W pack) You said
1544
1545 pack("C", $x)
1546
1547where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255; the C<"C"> format is
1548only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1549and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1550
1551 pack("C", $x & 255)
1552
1553If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1554instead.
1555
f337b084 1556=item Character in 'c' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1557
1558(W pack) You said
1559
1560 pack("c", $x)
1561
1562where $x is either less than -128 or more than 127; the C<"c"> format
1563is only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1564and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1565
1566 pack("c", $x & 255);
1567
1568If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1569instead.
1570
f337b084
TH
1571=item Character in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1572
1573(W unpack) You tried something like
1574
1575 unpack("H", "\x{2a1}")
1576
1a147d38 1577where the format expects to process a byte (a character with a value
6903afa2
FC
1578below 256), but a higher value was provided instead. Perl uses the
1579value modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
f337b084
TH
1580
1581 unpack("H", "\x{a1}")
1582
5a25739d
FC
1583=item Character in 'W' format wrapped in pack
1584
1585(W pack) You said
1586
1587 pack("U0W", $x)
1588
1589where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255. However, C<U0>-mode
1590expects all values to fall in the interval [0, 255], so Perl behaved
1591as if you meant:
1592
1593 pack("U0W", $x & 255)
1594
f337b084
TH
1595=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in pack
1596
1597(W pack) You tried something like
1598
1599 pack("u", "\x{1f3}b")
1600
1a147d38 1601where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
6903afa2 1602value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1603uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1604
1605 pack("u", "\x{f3}b")
1606
1607=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1608
1609(W unpack) You tried something like
1610
1611 unpack("s", "\x{1f3}b")
1612
1a147d38 1613where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
6903afa2 1614value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1615uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1616
1617 unpack("s", "\x{f3}b")
1618
f51551f7
FC
1619=item charnames alias definitions may not contain a sequence of multiple spaces
1620
1621(F) You defined a character name which had multiple space characters
1622in a row. Change them to single spaces. Usually these names are
1623defined in the C<:alias> import argument to C<use charnames>, but they
1624could be defined by a translator installed into C<$^H{charnames}>. See
1625L<charnames/CUSTOM ALIASES>.
1626
1627=item charnames alias definitions may not contain trailing white-space
1628
1629(F) You defined a character name which ended in a space
1630character. Remove the trailing space(s). Usually these names are
1631defined in the C<:alias> import argument to C<use charnames>, but they
1632could be defined by a translator installed into C<$^H{charnames}>.
1633See L<charnames/CUSTOM ALIASES>.
1634
60121127
TC
1635=item chdir() on unopened filehandle %s
1636
1637(W unopened) You tried chdir() on a filehandle that was never opened.
1638
f866a7cd
FC
1639=item "\c%c" is more clearly written simply as "%s"
1640
1641(W syntax) The C<\cI<X>> construct is intended to be a way to specify
7ed0dd93
FC
1642non-printable characters. You used it for a printable one, which
1643is better written as simply itself, perhaps preceded by a backslash
1644for non-word characters. Doing it the way you did is not portable
1645between ASCII and EBCDIC platforms.
f866a7cd 1646
6651ba0b
FC
1647=item Cloning substitution context is unimplemented
1648
1649(F) Creating a new thread inside the C<s///> operator is not supported.
1650
abc7ecad
SP
1651=item closedir() attempted on invalid dirhandle %s
1652
1653(W io) The dirhandle you tried to close is either closed or not really
1654a dirhandle. Check your control flow.
1655
5a25739d
FC
1656=item close() on unopened filehandle %s
1657
1658(W unopened) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
1659
541ed3a9
FC
1660=item Closure prototype called
1661
1662(F) If a closure has attributes, the subroutine passed to an attribute
1663handler is the prototype that is cloned when a new closure is created.
1664This subroutine cannot be called.
1665
74d1b2e4
FC
1666=item \C no longer supported in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
1667
1668(F) The \C character class used to allow a match of single byte
1669within a multi-byte utf-8 character, but was removed in v5.24 as
1670it broke encapsulation and its implementation was extremely buggy.
1671If you really need to process the individual bytes, you probably
1672want to convert your string to one where each underlying byte is
1673stored as a character, with utf8::encode().
1674
49704364
LW
1675=item Code missing after '/'
1676
6903afa2
FC
1677(F) You had a (sub-)template that ends with a '/'. There must be
1678another template code following the slash. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
49704364 1679
c0236afe
KW
1680=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, and not portable
1681
1682(S non_unicode) You had a code point that has never been in any
1683standard, so it is likely that languages other than Perl will NOT
1684understand it. At one time, it was legal in some standards to have code
1685points up to 0x7FFF_FFFF, but not higher, and this code point is higher.
1686
1687Acceptance of these code points is a Perl extension, and you should
1688expect that nothing other than Perl can handle them; Perl itself on
1689EBCDIC platforms before v5.24 does not handle them.
1690
1691Code points above 0xFFFF_FFFF require larger than a 32 bit word.
1692
1693Perl also makes no guarantees that the representation of these code
1694points won't change at some point in the future, say when machines
1695become available that have larger than a 64-bit word. At that time,
1696files written by an older Perl would require conversion before being
1697readable by a newer Perl.
1698
5a25739d
FC
1699=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, may not be portable
1700
2d88a86a 1701(S non_unicode) You had a code point above the Unicode maximum
1b64326b
FC
1702of U+10FFFF.
1703
c0236afe
KW
1704Perl allows strings to contain a superset of Unicode code points, but
1705these may not be accepted by other languages/systems. Further, even if
1706these languages/systems accept these large code points, they may have
1707chosen a different representation for them than the UTF-8-like one that
1708Perl has, which would mean files are not exchangeable between them and
1709Perl.
1710
1711On EBCDIC platforms, code points above 0x3FFF_FFFF have a different
1712representation in Perl v5.24 than before, so any file containing these
1713that was written before that version will require conversion before
1714being readable by a later Perl.
0876b9a0 1715
6df41af2
GS
1716=item %s: Command not found
1717
a892b81a 1718(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> or another shell
66a1f5ec
FC
1719instead of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
1720Perl yourself. The #! line at the top of your file could look like
8f721816
MM
1721
1722 #!/usr/bin/perl -w
6df41af2 1723
7a2e2cd6
PP
1724=item Compilation failed in require
1725
1726(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
be771a83
GS
1727Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it
1728encountered were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
7a2e2cd6 1729
c3464db5
DD
1730=item Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
1731
be771a83
GS
1732(W regexp) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex
1733situations where back-tracking is required. Recursion depth is limited
1734to 32766, or perhaps less in architectures where the stack cannot grow
1735arbitrarily. ("Simple" and "medium" situations are handled without
1736recursion and are not subject to a limit.) Try shortening the string
1737under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with C<while>) rather than
1738in the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular expression so
c2e66d9e 1739that it is simpler or backtracks less. (See L<perlfaq2> for information
be771a83 1740on I<Mastering Regular Expressions>.)
c3464db5 1741
69282e91 1742=item connect() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1743
be771a83
GS
1744(W closed) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget
1745to check the return value of your socket() call? See
1746L<perlfunc/connect>.
a0d0e21e 1747
e21e7c6a
FC
1748=item Constant(%s): Call to &{$^H{%s}} did not return a defined value
1749
1750(F) The subroutine registered to handle constant overloading
1751(see L<overload>) or a custom charnames handler (see
1752L<charnames/CUSTOM TRANSLATORS>) returned an undefined value.
1753
1754=item Constant(%s): $^H{%s} is not defined
1755
1756(F) The parser found inconsistencies while attempting to define an
1757overloaded constant. Perhaps you forgot to load the corresponding
f738a371 1758L<overload> pragma?
e21e7c6a 1759
779c5bc9
GS
1760=item Constant is not %s reference
1761
1762(F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the C<use constant> pragma)
be771a83 1763is being dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference.
6903afa2 1764The message indicates the type of reference that was expected. This
be771a83 1765usually indicates a syntax error in dereferencing the constant value.
779c5bc9
GS
1766See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> and L<constant>.
1767
0ac016fc
FC
1768=item Constants from lexical variables potentially modified elsewhere are
1769deprecated
1770
1771(D deprecated) You wrote something like
1772
1773 my $var;
1774 $sub = sub () { $var };
1775
1776but $var is referenced elsewhere and could be modified after the C<sub>
1777expression is evaluated. Either it is explicitly modified elsewhere
1778(C<$var = 3>) or it is passed to a subroutine or to an operator like
1779C<printf> or C<map>, which may or may not modify the variable.
1780
1781Traditionally, Perl has captured the value of the variable at that
1782point and turned the subroutine into a constant eligible for inlining.
1783In those cases where the variable can be modified elsewhere, this
1784breaks the behavior of closures, in which the subroutine captures
1785the variable itself, rather than its value, so future changes to the
1786variable are reflected in the subroutine's return value.
1787
1788This usage is deprecated, because the behavior is likely to change
1789in a future version of Perl.
1790
1791If you intended for the subroutine to be eligible for inlining, then
1792make sure the variable is not referenced elsewhere, possibly by
1793copying it:
1794
1795 my $var2 = $var;
1796 $sub = sub () { $var2 };
1797
1798If you do want this subroutine to be a closure that reflects future
1799changes to the variable that it closes over, add an explicit C<return>:
1800
1801 my $var;
1802 $sub = sub () { return $var };
1803
4cee8e80
CS
1804=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
1805
aeb94125
FC
1806(W redefine)(S) You redefined a subroutine which had previously
1807been eligible for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions">
1808for commentary and workarounds.
4cee8e80 1809
9607fc9c
PP
1810=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
1811
be771a83
GS
1812(W misc) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible
1813for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1814workarounds.
9607fc9c 1815
5a25739d
FC
1816=item Constant(%s) unknown
1817
1818(F) The parser found inconsistencies either while attempting
1819to define an overloaded constant, or when trying to find the
1820character name specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you
3ee1a09c 1821forgot to load the corresponding L<overload> pragma?
5a25739d 1822
4a873d7a
FC
1823=item :const is experimental
1824
1825(S experimental::const_attr) The "const" attribute is experimental.
1826If you want to use the feature, disable the warning with C<no warnings
1827'experimental::const_attr'>, but know that in doing so you are taking
1828the risk that your code may break in a future Perl version.
1829
b77472f9
FC
1830=item :const is not permitted on named subroutines
1831
1832(F) The "const" attribute causes an anonymous subroutine to be run and
465068b9 1833its value captured at the time that it is cloned. Named subroutines are
b77472f9
FC
1834not cloned like this, so the attribute does not make sense on them.
1835
e7ea3e70
IZ
1836=item Copy method did not return a reference
1837
6903afa2 1838(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See
13a2d996 1839L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
e7ea3e70 1840
4aaa4757
FC
1841=item &CORE::%s cannot be called directly
1842
1843(F) You tried to call a subroutine in the C<CORE::> namespace
8d605c0d 1844with C<&foo> syntax or through a reference. Some subroutines
4aaa4757
FC
1845in this package cannot yet be called that way, but must be
1846called as barewords. Something like this will work:
1847
1848 BEGIN { *shove = \&CORE::push; }
1849 shove @array, 1,2,3; # pushes on to @array
1850
6798c92b
GS
1851=item CORE::%s is not a keyword
1852
1853(F) The CORE:: namespace is reserved for Perl keywords.
1854
675fa9ff
FC
1855=item Corrupted regexp opcode %d > %d
1856
1857(P) This is either an error in Perl, or, if you're using
1858one, your L<custom regular expression engine|perlreapi>. If not the
1859latter, report the problem through the L<perlbug> utility.
1860
a0d0e21e
LW
1861=item corrupted regexp pointers
1862
1863(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1864expression compiler gave it.
1865
1866=item corrupted regexp program
1867
be771a83
GS
1868(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without a
1869valid magic number.
a0d0e21e 1870
de42a5a9 1871=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%x at 0x%x
6df41af2
GS
1872
1873(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
1874
49704364
LW
1875=item Count after length/code in unpack
1876
1877(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string, but
1878you have also specified an explicit size for the string. See
1879L<perlfunc/pack>.
1880
f2cccb4c
KW
1881=for comment
1882The following are used in lib/diagnostics.t for testing two =items that
1883share the same description. Changes here need to be propagated to there
1884
6651ba0b
FC
1885=item Deep recursion on anonymous subroutine
1886
a0d0e21e
LW
1887=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
1888
be771a83
GS
1889(W recursion) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly)
1890100 times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an
1891infinite recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in
1892which case it indicates something else.
a0d0e21e 1893
aad1d01f
NC
1894This threshold can be changed from 100, by recompiling the F<perl> binary,
1895setting the C pre-processor macro C<PERL_SUB_DEPTH_WARN> to the desired value.
1896
e0e4a6e3
FC
1897=item (?(DEFINE)....) does not allow branches in regex; marked by
1898S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
bcb95744 1899
6903afa2 1900(F) You used something like C<(?(DEFINE)...|..)> which is illegal. The
bcb95744
FC
1901most likely cause of this error is that you left out a parenthesis inside
1902of the C<....> part.
1903
6e8a73f2 1904The S<<-- HERE> shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
bcb95744
FC
1905discovered.
1906
62658f4d
PM
1907=item %s defines neither package nor VERSION--version check failed
1908
1909(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but in the Module file
1910there are neither package declarations nor a C<$VERSION>.
1911
36447869
FC
1912=item delete argument is index/value array slice, use array slice
1913
1914(F) You used index/value array slice syntax (C<%array[...]>) as
1915the argument to C<delete>. You probably meant C<@array[...]> with
1916an @ symbol instead.
1917
1918=item delete argument is key/value hash slice, use hash slice
1919
1920(F) You used key/value hash slice syntax (C<%hash{...}>) as the argument to
1921C<delete>. You probably meant C<@hash{...}> with an @ symbol instead.
1922
0ffcbc25
FC
1923=item delete argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice
1924
4a0af295 1925(F) The argument to C<delete> must be either a hash or array element,
0ffcbc25
FC
1926such as:
1927
1928 $foo{$bar}
1929 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
1930
1931or a hash or array slice, such as:
1932
1933 @foo[$bar, $baz, $xyzzy]
1934 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
1935
fc36a67e
PP
1936=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1937
be771a83
GS
1938(F) In a here document construct like C<<<FOO>, the label C<FOO> is too
1939long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously twisted to write code
1940that triggers this error.
fc36a67e 1941
6d3b25aa
RGS
1942=item Deprecated use of my() in false conditional
1943
fa816bf3
FC
1944(D deprecated) You used a declaration similar to C<my $x if 0>. There
1945has been a long-standing bug in Perl that causes a lexical variable
6d3b25aa 1946not to be cleared at scope exit when its declaration includes a false
6903afa2 1947conditional. Some people have exploited this bug to achieve a kind of
fa816bf3 1948static variable. Since we intend to fix this bug, we don't want people
6903afa2 1949relying on this behavior. You can achieve a similar static effect by
6d3b25aa 1950declaring the variable in a separate block outside the function, eg
36fb85f3 1951
6d3b25aa
RGS
1952 sub f { my $x if 0; return $x++ }
1953
1954becomes
1955
1956 { my $x; sub f { return $x++ } }
1957
ea9d9ebc 1958Beginning with perl 5.10.0, you can also use C<state> variables to have
fa816bf3 1959lexicals that are initialized only once (see L<feature>):
36fb85f3
RGS
1960
1961 sub f { state $x; return $x++ }
1962
500ab966
RGS
1963=item DESTROY created new reference to dead object '%s'
1964
1965(F) A DESTROY() method created a new reference to the object which is
6903afa2
FC
1966just being DESTROYed. Perl is confused, and prefers to abort rather
1967than to create a dangling reference.
500ab966 1968
3cdd684c
TP
1969=item Did not produce a valid header
1970
1971See Server error.
1972
6df41af2
GS
1973=item %s did not return a true value
1974
1975(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
1976it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
1977traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
1978do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
1979
cc507455 1980=item (Did you mean &%s instead?)
4633a7c4 1981
413ff9f6
FC
1982(W misc) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or
1983some such.
4633a7c4 1984
cc507455 1985=item (Did you mean "local" instead of "our"?)
33633739 1986
be771a83
GS
1987(W misc) Remember that "our" does not localize the declared global
1988variable. You have declared it again in the same lexical scope, which
1989seems superfluous.
33633739 1990
cc507455 1991=item (Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?)
a0d0e21e 1992
be771a83
GS
1993(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or
1994@hash{@keys}. On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got
1995carried away.
748a9306 1996
7e1af8bc 1997=item Died
5f05dabc
PP
1998
1999(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
075b00aa 2000you called it with no args and C<$@> was empty.
5f05dabc 2001
3cdd684c
TP
2002=item Document contains no data
2003
2004See Server error.
2005
62658f4d
PM
2006=item %s does not define %s::VERSION--version check failed
2007
2008(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but the Module did not
943fc58e 2009define a C<$VERSION>.
62658f4d 2010
49704364
LW
2011=item '/' does not take a repeat count
2012
2013(F) You cannot put a repeat count of any kind right after the '/' code.
2014See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2015
95cb0d72
FC
2016=item Don't know how to get file name
2017
2018(P) C<PerlIO_getname>, a perl internal I/O function specific to VMS, was
2019somehow called on another platform. This should not happen.
2020
4021c788 2021=item Don't know how to handle magic of type \%o
a0d0e21e
LW
2022
2023(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
2024
2025=item do_study: out of memory
2026
2027(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
2028
6df41af2
GS
2029=item (Do you need to predeclare %s?)
2030
56da5a46
RGS
2031(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2032"%s found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
6df41af2
GS
2033name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
2034because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
be771a83
GS
2035"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're referencing
2036something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have to define the
2037subroutine or package before the current location. You can use an empty
2038"sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward" declaration.
6df41af2 2039
ac206dc8
RGS
2040=item dump() better written as CORE::dump()
2041
2042(W misc) You used the obsolescent C<dump()> built-in function, without fully
2043qualifying it as C<CORE::dump()>. Maybe it's a typo. See L<perlfunc/dump>.
2044
84d78eb7
YO
2045=item dump is not supported
2046
2047(F) Your machine doesn't support dump/undump.
2048
a0d0e21e
LW
2049=item Duplicate free() ignored
2050
be771a83
GS
2051(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had
2052already been freed.
a0d0e21e 2053
1109a392
MHM
2054=item Duplicate modifier '%c' after '%c' in %s
2055
35f0cd76
FC
2056(W unpack) You have applied the same modifier more than once after a
2057type in a pack template. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1109a392 2058
4633a7c4
LW
2059=item elseif should be elsif
2060
fa816bf3
FC
2061(S syntax) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks
2062it's ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method
2063named "elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
4633a7c4
LW
2064unlikely to be what you want.
2065
c30c479a
KW
2066=item Empty \%c in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
2067
e0e4a6e3 2068=item Empty \%c{} in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
ab13f0c7 2069
af6f566e 2070(F) C<\p> and C<\P> are used to introduce a named Unicode property, as
6903afa2 2071described in L<perlunicode> and L<perlre>. You used C<\p> or C<\P> in
af6f566e 2072a regular expression without specifying the property name.
ab13f0c7 2073
85ab1d1d 2074=item entering effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 2075
85ab1d1d 2076(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
2077effective uids or gids failed.
2078
c038024b
RGS
2079=item %ENV is aliased to %s
2080
2081(F) You're running under taint mode, and the C<%ENV> variable has been
2082aliased to another hash, so it doesn't reflect anymore the state of the
6903afa2 2083program's environment. This is potentially insecure.
c038024b 2084
748a9306
LW
2085=item Error converting file specification %s
2086
5f05dabc 2087(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306 2088specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
be771a83
GS
2089single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've passed
2090an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a case the
2091conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
748a9306 2092
ad19ef22 2093=item Eval-group in insecure regular expression
e4d48cc9 2094
be771a83
GS
2095(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
2096expression that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which
2097is unsafe. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
e4d48cc9 2098
ad19ef22 2099=item Eval-group not allowed at runtime, use re 'eval' in regex m/%s/
e4d48cc9 2100
be771a83
GS
2101(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the
2102C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the
f11307f5
FC
2103pattern contains interpolated values. Since that is a security risk,
2104it is not allowed. If you insist, you may still do this by using the
2105C<re 'eval'> pragma or by explicitly building the pattern from an
2106interpolated string at run time and using that in an eval(). See
2107L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
e4d48cc9 2108
ad19ef22 2109=item Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval' in regex m/%s/
6df41af2 2110
be771a83
GS
2111(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width
2112assertion, but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'>
2113pragma is in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
6df41af2 2114
e0e4a6e3
FC
2115=item EVAL without pos change exceeded limit in regex; marked by
2116S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
1a147d38
YO
2117
2118(F) You used a pattern that nested too many EVAL calls without consuming
6903afa2 2119any text. Restructure the pattern so that text is consumed.
1a147d38 2120
6e8a73f2 2121The S<<-- HERE> shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
1a147d38
YO
2122discovered.
2123
fc36a67e
PP
2124=item Excessively long <> operator
2125
2126(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
2127Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
2128filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
2129variable and glob that.
2130
ed9aa3b7
SG
2131=item exec? I'm not *that* kind of operating system
2132
af8bb25a 2133(F) The C<exec> function is not implemented on some systems, e.g., Symbian
6903afa2 2134OS. See L<perlport>.
ed9aa3b7 2135
fe13d51d 2136=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors.
a0d0e21e
LW
2137
2138(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
2139
0ffcbc25
FC
2140=item exists argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or a subroutine
2141
4a0af295 2142(F) The argument to C<exists> must be a hash or array element or a
0ffcbc25
FC
2143subroutine with an ampersand, such as:
2144
2145 $foo{$bar}
2146 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
2147 &do_something
2148
2149=item exists argument is not a subroutine name
2150
ccfc2567
FC
2151(F) The argument to C<exists> for C<exists &sub> must be a subroutine name,
2152and not a subroutine call. C<exists &sub()> will generate this error.
0ffcbc25 2153
a0d0e21e
LW
2154=item Exiting eval via %s
2155
be771a83
GS
2156(W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as a
2157goto, or a loop control statement.
e476b1b5
GS
2158
2159=item Exiting format via %s
2160
9a2ff54b 2161(W exiting) You are exiting a format by unconventional means, such as a
be771a83 2162goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 2163
0a753a76
PP
2164=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
2165
be771a83
GS
2166(W exiting) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a
2167sort block or subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a
2168loop control statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
0a753a76 2169
a0d0e21e
LW
2170=item Exiting subroutine via %s
2171
be771a83
GS
2172(W exiting) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such
2173as a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
2174
2175=item Exiting substitution via %s
2176
be771a83
GS
2177(W exiting) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such
2178as a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 2179
e0e4a6e3 2180=item Expecting close bracket in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
c608e803 2181
675fa9ff 2182(F) You wrote something like
c608e803
KW
2183
2184 (?13
2185
2186to denote a capturing group of the form
2187L<C<(?I<PARNO>)>|perlre/(?PARNO) (?-PARNO) (?+PARNO) (?R) (?0)>,
2188but omitted the C<")">.
2189
e0e4a6e3 2190=item Expecting '(?flags:(?[...' in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
27350048 2191
8b6fbf55
FC
2192(F) The C<(?[...])> extended character class regular expression construct
2193only allows character classes (including character class escapes like
2194C<\d>), operators, and parentheses. The one exception is C<(?flags:...)>
2195containing at least one flag and exactly one C<(?[...])> construct.
27350048
FC
2196This allows a regular expression containing just C<(?[...])> to be
2197interpolated. If you see this error message, then you probably
2198have some other C<(?...)> construct inside your character class. See
2199L<perlrecharclass/Extended Bracketed Character Classes>.
2200
baabe3fb 2201=item Experimental aliasing via reference not enabled
1f8155a2 2202
baabe3fb 2203(F) To do aliasing via references, you must first enable the feature:
1f8155a2 2204
baabe3fb
FC
2205 no warnings "experimental::refaliasing";
2206 use feature "refaliasing";
1f8155a2
FC
2207 \$x = \$y;
2208
74d1b2e4
FC
2209=item Experimental %s on scalar is now forbidden
2210
2211(F) An experimental feature added in Perl 5.14 allowed C<each>, C<keys>,
2212C<push>, C<pop>, C<shift>, C<splice>, C<unshift>, and C<values> to be called with a
2213scalar argument. This experiment is considered unsuccessful, and
2214has been removed. The C<postderef> feature may meet your needs better.
2215
30d9c59b
Z
2216=item Experimental subroutine signatures not enabled
2217
2218(F) To use subroutine signatures, you must first enable them:
2219
caa35032 2220 no warnings "experimental::signatures";
30d9c59b
Z
2221 use feature "signatures";
2222 sub foo ($left, $right) { ... }
2223
6da34ecb
FC
2224=item Experimental "%s" subs not enabled
2225
2226(F) To use lexical subs, you must first enable them:
2227
2228 no warnings 'experimental::lexical_subs';
2229 use feature 'lexical_subs';
2230 my sub foo { ... }
2231
7b8d334a
GS
2232=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
2233
be771a83
GS
2234(W misc) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
2235the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
2236usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target package,
2237e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');
7b8d334a 2238
6df41af2
GS
2239=item %s: Expression syntax
2240
be771a83
GS
2241(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
2242Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2
GS
2243
2244=item %s failed--call queue aborted
2245
3c10abe3
AG
2246(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a UNITCHECK,
2247CHECK, INIT, or END subroutine. Processing of the remainder of the
2248queue of such routines has been prematurely ended.
6df41af2 2249
502aca56
TC
2250=item Failed to close in-place edit file %s: %s
2251
2252(F) Closing an output file from in-place editing, as with the C<-i>
2253command-line switch, failed.
2254
e0e4a6e3 2255=item False [] range "%s" in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
73b437c8 2256
98d31c73 2257(W regexp)(F) A character class range must start and end at a literal
7253e4e3 2258character, not another character class like C<\d> or C<[:alpha:]>. The "-"
3c6ca74a
FC
2259in your false range is interpreted as a literal "-". In a C<(?[...])>
2260construct, this is an error, rather than a warning. Consider quoting
e0e4a6e3 2261the "-", "\-". The S<<-- HERE> shows whereabouts in the regular expression
3c6ca74a 2262the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
73b437c8 2263
1b1ee2ef 2264=item Fatal VMS error (status=%d) at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 2265
be771a83
GS
2266(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS
2267system service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more
2268details. The filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell
2269you which section of the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
2270
2271=item fcntl is not implemented
2272
2273(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
2274PDP-11 or something?
2275
22846ab4
AB
2276=item FETCHSIZE returned a negative value
2277
2278(F) A tied array claimed to have a negative number of elements, which
2279is not possible.
2280
f337b084
TH
2281=item Field too wide in 'u' format in pack
2282
d8b5cc61 2283(W pack) Each line in an uuencoded string starts with a length indicator
6903afa2
FC
2284which can't encode values above 63. So there is no point in asking for
2285a line length bigger than that. Perl will behave as if you specified
5c96f6f7 2286C<u63> as the format.
f337b084 2287
af8c498a 2288=item Filehandle %s opened only for input
a0d0e21e 2289
6c8d78fb
HS
2290(W io) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you intended
2291it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with "+<" or
2292"+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you intended only to
2293write the file, use ">" or ">>". See L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 2294
af8c498a 2295=item Filehandle %s opened only for output
a0d0e21e 2296
6c8d78fb
HS
2297(W io) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing, If
2298you intended it to be a read/write filehandle, you needed to open it
89a1bda8
FC
2299with "+<" or "+>" or "+>>" instead of with ">". If you intended only to
2300read from the file, use "<". See L<perlfunc/open>. Another possibility
2301is that you attempted to open filedescriptor 0 (also known as STDIN) for
2302output (maybe you closed STDIN earlier?).
97828cef
RGS
2303
2304=item Filehandle %s reopened as %s only for input
2305
2306(W io) You opened for reading a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
6903afa2 2307as STDOUT or STDERR. This occurred because you closed STDOUT or STDERR
97828cef
RGS
2308previously.
2309
2310=item Filehandle STDIN reopened as %s only for output
2311
2312(W io) You opened for writing a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
fa816bf3 2313as STDIN. This occurred because you closed STDIN previously.
a0d0e21e
LW
2314
2315=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
2316
2317(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
be771a83
GS
2318a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name that
2319happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or the
2320name.
a0d0e21e 2321
56e90b21
GS
2322=item flock() on closed filehandle %s
2323
be771a83 2324(W closed) The filehandle you're attempting to flock() got itself closed
c289d2f7 2325some time before now. Check your control flow. flock() operates on
be771a83
GS
2326filehandles. Are you attempting to call flock() on a dirhandle by the
2327same name?
56e90b21 2328
6df41af2
GS
2329=item Format not terminated
2330
2331(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
2332to the end of your file without finding such a line.
2333
a0d0e21e
LW
2334=item Format %s redefined
2335
e476b1b5 2336(W redefine) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
a0d0e21e
LW
2337
2338 {
271595cc 2339 no warnings 'redefine';
a0d0e21e
LW
2340 eval "format NAME =...";
2341 }
2342
a0d0e21e
LW
2343=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
2344
e476b1b5 2345(W syntax) You said
a0d0e21e
LW
2346
2347 if ($foo = 123)
2348
2349when you meant
2350
2351 if ($foo == 123)
2352
2353(or something like that).
2354
6df41af2
GS
2355=item %s found where operator expected
2356
56da5a46
RGS
2357(S syntax) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator.
2358If it sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an
be771a83
GS
2359operator, it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an
2360operator or delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
6df41af2 2361
a0d0e21e
LW
2362=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
2363
2364(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
2365
2366=item gethostent not implemented
2367
2368(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
2369because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
2370on the Internet.
2371
69282e91 2372=item get%sname() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2373
be771a83
GS
2374(W closed) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed
2375socket. Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
a0d0e21e 2376
748a9306
LW
2377=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
2378
2379(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
2380C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
2381
6df41af2
GS
2382=item getsockopt() on closed socket %s
2383
be771a83
GS
2384(W closed) You tried to get a socket option on a closed socket. Did you
2385forget to check the return value of your socket() call? See
6df41af2
GS
2386L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
2387
0f539b13
BF
2388=item given is experimental
2389
675fa9ff
FC
2390(S experimental::smartmatch) C<given> depends on smartmatch, which
2391is experimental, so its behavior may change or even be removed
2392in any future release of perl. See the explanation under
2393L<perlsyn/Experimental Details on given and when>.
0f539b13 2394
68567d27
FC
2395=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name (did you forget to
2396declare "my %s"?)
6df41af2 2397
a4edf47d 2398(F) You've said "use strict" or "use strict vars", which indicates
30c282f6 2399that all variables must either be lexically scoped (using "my" or "state"),
a4edf47d
GS
2400declared beforehand using "our", or explicitly qualified to say
2401which package the global variable is in (using "::").
6df41af2 2402
e476b1b5
GS
2403=item glob failed (%s)
2404
5ead438e 2405(S glob) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used
73c4e9dc
FC
2406for C<glob> and C<< <*.c> >>. Usually, this means that you supplied a C<glob>
2407pattern that caused the external program to fail and exit with a
be771a83 2408nonzero status. If the message indicates that the abnormal exit
73c4e9dc
FC
2409resulted in a coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C shell)
2410is broken. If so, you should change all of the csh-related variables
2411in config.sh: If you have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as
2412if it were csh (e.g. C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them
2413all empty (except that C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will
be771a83 2414think csh is missing. In either case, after editing config.sh, run
75b44862 2415C<./Configure -S> and rebuild Perl.
e476b1b5 2416
a0d0e21e
LW
2417=item Glob not terminated
2418
2419(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
be771a83
GS
2420a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and
2421not finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out
2422earlier in the line, and you really meant a "less than".
a0d0e21e 2423
b35b96b6
JH
2424=item gmtime(%f) failed
2425
2426(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with a number that it could not handle:
2427too large, too small, or NaN. The returned value is C<undef>.
2428
bcd05b94 2429=item gmtime(%f) too large
8b56d6ff 2430
e9200be3 2431(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with a number that was larger than
fc003d4b 2432it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong
6903afa2 2433date. This warning is also triggered with NaN (the special
fc003d4b
MS
2434not-a-number value).
2435
bcd05b94 2436=item gmtime(%f) too small
fc003d4b 2437
e9200be3 2438(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with a number that was smaller than
e7a1a147 2439it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong date.
8b56d6ff 2440
6df41af2 2441=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
a0d0e21e 2442
6df41af2
GS
2443(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
2444version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
a0d0e21e
LW
2445
2446=item goto must have label
2447
2448(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
2449unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2450
6651ba0b
FC
2451=item Goto undefined subroutine%s
2452
2453(F) You tried to call a subroutine with C<goto &sub> syntax, but
2454the indicated subroutine hasn't been defined, or if it was, it
2455has since been undefined.
2456
6fbc9859 2457=item Group name must start with a non-digit word character in regex; marked by
e0e4a6e3 2458S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
1f4f6bf1
YO
2459
2460(F) Group names must follow the rules for perl identifiers, meaning
f26c79ba
FC
2461they must start with a non-digit word character. A common cause of
2462this error is using (?&0) instead of (?0). See L<perlre>.
1f4f6bf1 2463
5a25739d
FC
2464=item ()-group starts with a count
2465
2466(F) A ()-group started with a count. A count is supposed to follow
2467something: a template character or a ()-group. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2468
fe13d51d 2469=item %s had compilation errors.
6df41af2
GS
2470
2471(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
2472
a0d0e21e
LW
2473=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
2474
be771a83
GS
2475(S internal) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought
2476to have existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be
2477created on an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
a0d0e21e 2478
6df41af2
GS
2479=item %s has too many errors
2480
2481(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
2482Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
2483
61e61fbc
JH
2484=item Hexadecimal float: exponent overflow
2485
d8f2b442 2486(W overflow) The hexadecimal floating point has a larger exponent
61e61fbc
JH
2487than the floating point supports.
2488
2489=item Hexadecimal float: exponent underflow
2490
d8f2b442 2491(W overflow) The hexadecimal floating point has a smaller exponent
61e61fbc
JH
2492than the floating point supports.
2493
5488d373 2494=item Hexadecimal float: internal error (%s)
cf4f6003
JH
2495
2496(F) Something went horribly bad in hexadecimal float handling.
2497
61e61fbc
JH
2498=item Hexadecimal float: mantissa overflow
2499
2500(W overflow) The hexadecimal floating point literal had more bits in
2501the mantissa (the part between the 0x and the exponent, also known as
2502the fraction or the significand) than the floating point supports.
2503
40bca5ae
JH
2504=item Hexadecimal float: precision loss
2505
2506(W overflow) The hexadecimal floating point had internally more
2507digits than could be output. This can be caused by unsupported
2508long double formats, or by 64-bit integers not being available
2509(needed to retrieve the digits under some configurations).
2510
2511=item Hexadecimal float: unsupported long double format
2512
2513(F) You have configured Perl to use long doubles but
d8f2b442 2514the internals of the long double format are unknown;
40bca5ae
JH
2515therefore the hexadecimal float output is impossible.
2516
252aa082
JH
2517=item Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
2518
e476b1b5 2519(W portable) The hexadecimal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
2520(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
2521L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 2522
8903cb82
PP
2523=item Identifier too long
2524
2525(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e 2526about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
be771a83
GS
2527names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future versions
2528of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 2529
e0e4a6e3
FC
2530=item Ignoring zero length \N{} in character class in regex; marked by
2531S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
fc8cd66c 2532
f3ba6905 2533(W regexp) Named Unicode character escapes (C<\N{...}>) may return a
0f44b2a5
FC
2534zero-length sequence. When such an escape is used in a character
2535class its behavior is not well defined. Check that the correct
2536escape has been used, and the correct charname handler is in scope.
fc8cd66c 2537
6df41af2 2538=item Illegal binary digit %s
f675dbe5 2539
6df41af2 2540(F) You used a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
f675dbe5 2541
6df41af2 2542=item Illegal binary digit %s ignored
a0d0e21e 2543
be771a83
GS
2544(W digit) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a
2545binary number. Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the
2546offending digit.
a0d0e21e 2547
6597eb22
FC
2548=item Illegal character after '_' in prototype for %s : %s
2549
e4d150f1
FC
2550(W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype
2551declaration. The '_' in a prototype must be followed by a ';',
2552indicating the rest of the parameters are optional, or one of '@'
2553or '%', since those two will accept 0 or more final parameters.
6597eb22 2554
78d0fecf 2555=item Illegal character \%o (carriage return)
4fdae800 2556
d5898338 2557(F) Perl normally treats carriage returns in the program text as it
be771a83
GS
2558would any other whitespace, which means you should never see this error
2559when Perl was built using standard options. For some reason, your
2560version of Perl appears to have been built without this support. Talk
2561to your Perl administrator.
4fdae800 2562
d37a9538
ST
2563=item Illegal character in prototype for %s : %s
2564
197afce1 2565(W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype declaration.
2e9cc7ef 2566Legal characters in prototypes are $, @, %, *, ;, [, ], &, \, and +.
30d9c59b
Z
2567Perhaps you were trying to write a subroutine signature but didn't enable
2568that feature first (C<use feature 'signatures'>), so your signature was
2569instead interpreted as a bad prototype.
d37a9538 2570
904d85c5
RGS
2571=item Illegal declaration of anonymous subroutine
2572
2573(F) When using the C<sub> keyword to construct an anonymous subroutine,
6903afa2 2574you must always specify a block of code. See L<perlsub>.
904d85c5 2575
8e742a20
MHM
2576=item Illegal declaration of subroutine %s
2577
6903afa2 2578(F) A subroutine was not declared correctly. See L<perlsub>.
8e742a20 2579
a0d0e21e
LW
2580=item Illegal division by zero
2581
be771a83
GS
2582(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in
2583your logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against
2584meaningless input.
a0d0e21e 2585
6df41af2
GS
2586=item Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
2587
be771a83
GS
2588(W digit) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or
2589A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal
2590number stopped before the illegal character.
6df41af2 2591
a0d0e21e
LW
2592=item Illegal modulus zero
2593
be771a83
GS
2594(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most
2595numbers don't take to this kindly.
a0d0e21e 2596
6df41af2 2597=item Illegal number of bits in vec
399388f4 2598
6df41af2
GS
2599(F) The number of bits in vec() (the third argument) must be a power of
2600two from 1 to 32 (or 64, if your platform supports that).
399388f4
GS
2601
2602=item Illegal octal digit %s
a0d0e21e 2603
d1be9408 2604(F) You used an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
a0d0e21e 2605
399388f4 2606=item Illegal octal digit %s ignored
748a9306 2607
d1be9408 2608(W digit) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
75b44862 2609Interpretation of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
748a9306 2610
e0e4a6e3 2611=item Illegal pattern in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
c608e803 2612
675fa9ff 2613(F) You wrote something like
c608e803
KW
2614
2615 (?+foo)
2616
2617The C<"+"> is valid only when followed by digits, indicating a
2618capturing group. See
2619L<C<(?I<PARNO>)>|perlre/(?PARNO) (?-PARNO) (?+PARNO) (?R) (?0)>.
2620
375ed12a
JH
2621=item Illegal suidscript
2622
2623(F) The script run under suidperl was somehow illegal.
2624
fe13d51d 2625=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: -%c
6ff81951 2626
6df41af2 2627(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
646ca9b2 2628following switches: B<-[CDIMUdmtw]>.
6ff81951 2629
4003ea29
KW
2630=item Illegal user-defined property name
2631
2632(F) You specified a Unicode-like property name in a regular expression
2633pattern (using C<\p{}> or C<\P{}>) that Perl knows isn't an official
2634Unicode property, and was likely meant to be a user-defined property
2635name, but it can't be one of those, as they must begin with either C<In>
2636or C<Is>. Check the spelling. See also
2637L</Can't find Unicode property definition "%s">.
2638
6df41af2 2639=item Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
81e118e0 2640
75b44862 2641(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the CRTL's
be771a83
GS
2642internal environ array, and encountered an element without the C<=>
2643delimiter used to separate keys from values. The element is ignored.
09bef843 2644
6df41af2 2645=item Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
54310121 2646
be771a83
GS
2647(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read a logical
2648name or CLI symbol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and
2649didn't see the expected delimiter between key and value, so the line was
2650ignored.
54310121 2651
6df41af2 2652=item (in cleanup) %s
9607fc9c 2653
be771a83
GS
2654(W misc) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised
2655the indicated exception. Since destructors are usually called by the
2656system at arbitrary points during execution, and often a vast number of
2657times, the warning is issued only once for any number of failures that
2658would otherwise result in the same message being repeated.
6df41af2 2659
be771a83
GS
2660Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the C<G_KEEPERR> flag could
2661also result in this warning. See L<perlcall/G_KEEPERR>.
9607fc9c 2662
e0e4a6e3
FC
2663=item Incomplete expression within '(?[ ])' in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE>
2664in m/%s/
0d0b4b3b 2665
675fa9ff 2666(F) There was a syntax error within the C<(?[ ])>. This can happen if the
0d0b4b3b
KW
2667expression inside the construct was completely empty, or if there are
2668too many or few operands for the number of operators. Perl is not smart
2669enough to give you a more precise indication as to what is wrong.
2670
6fbc9859
MH
2671=item Inconsistent hierarchy during C3 merge of class '%s': merging failed on
2672parent '%s'
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2673
2674(F) The method resolution order (MRO) of the given class is not
2675C3-consistent, and you have enabled the C3 MRO for this class. See the C3
2676documentation in L<mro> for more information.
2677
6a2ed79a 2678=item Infinite recursion in regex
1a147d38
YO
2679
2680(F) You used a pattern that references itself without consuming any input
6903afa2 2681text. You should check the pattern to ensure that recursive patterns
1a147d38
YO
2682either consume text or fail.
2683
6dbe9451
NC
2684=item Initialization of state variables in list context currently forbidden
2685
6903afa2
FC
2686(F) Currently the implementation of "state" only permits the
2687initialization of scalar variables in scalar context. Re-write
2688C<state ($a) = 42> as C<state $a = 42> to change from list to scalar
2689context. Constructions such as C<state (@a) = foo()> will be
2690supported in a future perl release.
6dbe9451 2691
2186f873
FC
2692=item %%s[%s] in scalar context better written as $%s[%s]
2693
2694(W syntax) In scalar context, you've used an array index/value slice
2695(indicated by %) to select a single element of an array. Generally
2696it's better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by $). The difference
2697is that C<$foo[&bar]> always behaves like a scalar, both in the value it
2698returns and when evaluating its argument, while C<%foo[&bar]> provides
2699a list context to its subscript, which can do weird things if you're
2700expecting only one subscript. When called in list context, it also
2701returns the index (what C<&bar> returns) in addition to the value.
2702
2703=item %%s{%s} in scalar context better written as $%s{%s}
2704
2705(W syntax) In scalar context, you've used a hash key/value slice
2706(indicated by %) to select a single element of a hash. Generally it's
2707better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by $). The difference
2708is that C<$foo{&bar}> always behaves like a scalar, both in the value
2709it returns and when evaluating its argument, while C<@foo{&bar}> and
2710provides a list context to its subscript, which can do weird things
2711if you're expecting only one subscript. When called in list context,
2712it also returns the key in addition to the value.
2713
a0d0e21e
LW
2714=item Insecure dependency in %s
2715
8b1a09fc 2716(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
be771a83
GS
2717The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or
2718setgid, or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The
2719tainting mechanism labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly
2720from the user, who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any
2721such data is used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See
2722L<perlsec> for more information.
a0d0e21e
LW
2723
2724=item Insecure directory in %s
2725
be771a83
GS
2726(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
2727setgid script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by
df98f984
RGS
2728the world. Also, the PATH must not contain any relative directory.
2729See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2730
62f468fc 2731=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2732
2733(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc 2734setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
332d5f78
SR
2735C<$ENV{ENV}>, C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> or C<$ENV{TERM}> are derived from data
2736supplied (or potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set
2737the path to a known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2738
0e9be77f
DM
2739=item Insecure user-defined property %s
2740
2741(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
2742expression that contains a call to a user-defined character property
2743function, i.e. C<\p{IsFoo}> or C<\p{InFoo}>.
2744See L<perlunicode/User-Defined Character Properties> and L<perlsec>.
2745
b9ef414d
FC
2746=item Integer overflow in format string for %s
2747
2748(F) The indexes and widths specified in the format string of C<printf()>
2749or C<sprintf()> are too large. The numbers must not overflow the size of
2750integers for your architecture.
2751
a7ae9550
GS
2752=item Integer overflow in %s number
2753
35928bc5 2754(S overflow) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have specified
be771a83
GS
2755either as a literal or as an argument to hex() or oct() is too big for
2756your architecture, and has been converted to a floating point number.
2757On a 32-bit architecture the largest hexadecimal, octal or binary number
9e24b6e2
JH
2758representable without overflow is 0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or
27590b11111111111111111111111111111111 respectively. Note that Perl
2760transparently promotes all numbers to a floating point representation
2761internally--subject to loss of precision errors in subsequent
2762operations.
bbce6d69 2763
fc89ca81
FC
2764=item Integer overflow in srand
2765
2766(S overflow) The number you have passed to srand is too big to fit
2767in your architecture's integer representation. The number has been
2768replaced with the largest integer supported (0xFFFFFFFF on 32-bit
2769architectures). This means you may be getting less randomness than
2770you expect, because different random seeds above the maximum will
2771return the same sequence of random numbers.
2772
46314c13
JP
2773=item Integer overflow in version
2774
18da5252
FC
2775=item Integer overflow in version %d
2776
784d71ed
FC
2777(W overflow) Some portion of a version initialization is too large for
2778the size of integers for your architecture. This is not a warning
f084e84f 2779because there is no rational reason for a version to try and use an
784d71ed
FC
2780element larger than typically 2**32. This is usually caused by trying
2781to use some odd mathematical operation as a version, like 100/9.
46314c13 2782
e0e4a6e3 2783=item Internal disaster in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2784
2785(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
e0e4a6e3 2786The S<<-- HERE> shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
b45f050a
JF
2787discovered.
2788
748a9306
LW
2789=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
2790
be771a83
GS
2791(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number of times
2792you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine whether the current call
2793to C<exec> should affect the current script or a subprocess (see
2794L<perlvms/"exec LIST">). Somehow, this count has become scrambled, so
2795Perl is making a guess and treating this C<exec> as a request to
2796terminate the Perl script and execute the specified command.
748a9306 2797
870978ae
FC
2798=item internal %<num>p might conflict with future printf extensions
2799
2800(S internal) Perl's internal routine that handles C<printf> and C<sprintf>
2801formatting follows a slightly different set of rules when called from
2802C or XS code. Specifically, formats consisting of digits followed
2803by "p" (e.g., "%7p") are reserved for future use. If you see this
2804message, then an XS module tried to call that routine with one such
2805reserved format.
2806
e0e4a6e3 2807=item Internal urp in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
b45f050a 2808
fa816bf3 2809(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser. The
e0e4a6e3 2810S<<-- HERE> shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
7253e4e3 2811discovered.
a0d0e21e 2812
6df41af2
GS
2813=item %s (...) interpreted as function
2814
75b44862 2815(W syntax) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator
be771a83 2816followed by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list
64977eb6 2817operators arguments found inside the parentheses. See
13a2d996 2818L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
6df41af2 2819
f51551f7
FC
2820=item In '(?...)', the '(' and '?' must be adjacent in regex;
2821marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
2822
2823(F) The two-character sequence C<"(?"> in this context in a regular
2824expression pattern should be an indivisible token, with nothing
2825intervening between the C<"("> and the C<"?">, but you separated them
2826with whitespace.
2827
09bef843
SB
2828=item Invalid %s attribute: %s
2829
a4a4c9e2 2830(F) The indicated attribute for a subroutine or variable was not recognized
09bef843
SB
2831by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
2832
2833=item Invalid %s attributes: %s
2834
a4a4c9e2 2835(F) The indicated attributes for a subroutine or variable were not
be771a83 2836recognized by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2837
e0e4a6e3
FC
2838=item Invalid character in charnames alias definition; marked by
2839S<<-- HERE> in '%s
225fb84f
KW
2840
2841(F) You tried to create a custom alias for a character name, with
2842the C<:alias> option to C<use charnames> and the specified character in
2843the indicated name isn't valid. See L<charnames/CUSTOM ALIASES>.
2844
c8028aa6
TC
2845=item Invalid \0 character in %s for %s: %s\0%s
2846
fa3234e3
FC
2847(W syscalls) Embedded \0 characters in pathnames or other system call
2848arguments produce a warning as of 5.20. The parts after the \0 were
2849formerly ignored by system calls.
c8028aa6 2850
e0e4a6e3 2851=item Invalid character in \N{...}; marked by S<<-- HERE> in \N{%s}
a690c7c4
FC
2852
2853(F) Only certain characters are valid for character names. The
2854indicated one isn't. See L<charnames/CUSTOM ALIASES>.
2855
c635e13b
PP
2856=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
2857
be771a83
GS
2858(W printf) Perl does not understand the given format conversion. See
2859L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
c635e13b 2860
e0e4a6e3
FC
2861=item Invalid escape in the specified encoding in regex; marked by
2862S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
9e08bc66 2863
98d31c73 2864(W regexp)(F) The numeric escape (for example C<\xHH>) of value < 256
9e08bc66
ST
2865didn't correspond to a single character through the conversion
2866from the encoding specified by the encoding pragma.
98d31c73
FC
2867The escape was replaced with REPLACEMENT CHARACTER (U+FFFD)
2868instead, except within S<C<(?[ ])>>, where it is a fatal error.
e0e4a6e3 2869The S<<-- HERE> shows whereabouts in the regular expression the
9e08bc66
ST
2870escape was discovered.
2871
8149aa9f
FC
2872=item Invalid hexadecimal number in \N{U+...}
2873
e0e4a6e3
FC
2874=item Invalid hexadecimal number in \N{U+...} in regex; marked by
2875S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
aec0ef10 2876
8149aa9f 2877(F) The character constant represented by C<...> is not a valid hexadecimal
74f8e9e3
FC
2878number. Either it is empty, or you tried to use a character other than
28790 - 9 or A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number.
8149aa9f 2880
6651ba0b
FC
2881=item Invalid module name %s with -%c option: contains single ':'
2882
2883(F) The module argument to perl's B<-m> and B<-M> command-line options
2884cannot contain single colons in the module name, but only in the
2885arguments after "=". In other words, B<-MFoo::Bar=:baz> is ok, but
2886B<-MFoo:Bar=baz> is not.
2887
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2888=item Invalid mro name: '%s'
2889
162a3e34
FC
2890(F) You tried to C<mro::set_mro("classname", "foo")> or C<use mro 'foo'>,
2891where C<foo> is not a valid method resolution order (MRO). Currently,
2892the only valid ones supported are C<dfs> and C<c3>, unless you have loaded
2893a module that is a MRO plugin. See L<mro> and L<perlmroapi>.
2c7d6b9c 2894
40e4140b
FC
2895=item Invalid negative number (%s) in chr
2896
2897(W utf8) You passed a negative number to C<chr>. Negative numbers are
abc0aa9d 2898not valid character numbers, so it returns the Unicode replacement
40e4140b
FC
2899character (U+FFFD).
2900
74d1b2e4
FC
2901=item Invalid number '%s' for -C option.
2902
2903(F) You supplied a number to the -C option that either has extra leading
2904zeroes or overflows perl's unsigned integer representation.
2905
6651ba0b
FC
2906=item invalid option -D%c, use -D'' to see choices
2907
8ff21bfe
FC
2908(S debugging) Perl was called with invalid debugger flags. Call perl
2909with the B<-D> option with no flags to see the list of acceptable values.
982c4ecb 2910See also L<perlrun/-Dletters>.
6651ba0b 2911
6e8a73f2 2912=item Invalid quantifier in {,} in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
35cd12d1
HS
2913
2914(F) The pattern looks like a {min,max} quantifier, but the min or max
2915could not be parsed as a valid number - either it has leading zeroes,
2916or it represents too big a number to cope with. The S<<-- HERE> shows
2917where in the regular expression the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
2918
e0e4a6e3 2919=item Invalid [] range "%s" in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2920
2921(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
7253e4e3
RK
2922greater than the maximum character. One possibility is that you forgot the
2923C<{}> from your ending C<\x{}> - C<\x> without the curly braces can go only
e0e4a6e3 2924up to C<ff>. The S<<-- HERE> shows whereabouts in the regular expression the
7253e4e3 2925problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 2926
d1573ac7 2927=item Invalid range "%s" in transliteration operator
c2e66d9e
GS
2928
2929(F) The range specified in the tr/// or y/// operator had a minimum
2930character greater than the maximum character. See L<perlop>.
2931
09bef843
SB
2932=item Invalid separator character %s in attribute list
2933
0120eecf 2934(F) Something other than a colon or whitespace was seen between the
be771a83
GS
2935elements of an attribute list. If the previous attribute had a
2936parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that list was terminated too soon.
2937See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2938
b4581f09
JH
2939=item Invalid separator character %s in PerlIO layer specification %s
2940
2bfc5f71
FC
2941(W layer) When pushing layers onto the Perl I/O system, something other
2942than a colon or whitespace was seen between the elements of a layer list.
b4581f09
JH
2943If the previous attribute had a parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that
2944list was terminated too soon.
2945
2c86d456
DG
2946=item Invalid strict version format (%s)
2947
fa816bf3 2948(F) A version number did not meet the "strict" criteria for versions.
2c86d456
DG
2949A "strict" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2950decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
2951v-string with a leading 'v' character and at least three components.
a6485a24 2952The parenthesized text indicates which criteria were not met.
2c86d456
DG
2953See the L<version> module for more details on allowed version formats.
2954
49704364 2955=item Invalid type '%s' in %s
96e4d5b1 2956
49704364
LW
2957(F) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type.
2958See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6728c851 2959
49704364 2960(W) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type but used to be
75b44862 2961silently ignored.
96e4d5b1 2962
2c86d456
DG
2963=item Invalid version format (%s)
2964
fa816bf3 2965(F) A version number did not meet the "lax" criteria for versions.
2c86d456
DG
2966A "lax" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2967decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
fa816bf3
FC
2968v-string. If the v-string has fewer than three components, it
2969must have a leading 'v' character. Otherwise, the leading 'v' is
2970optional. Both decimal and dotted-decimal versions may have a
2971trailing "alpha" component separated by an underscore character
2972after a fractional or dotted-decimal component. The parenthesized
2973text indicates which criteria were not met. See the L<version> module
2974for more details on allowed version formats.
46314c13 2975
798ae1b7
DG
2976=item Invalid version object
2977
fa816bf3
FC
2978(F) The internal structure of the version object was invalid.
2979Perhaps the internals were modified directly in some way or
2980an arbitrary reference was blessed into the "version" class.
798ae1b7 2981
cd209d9d 2982=item In '(*VERB...)', the '(' and '*' must be adjacent in regex;
e0e4a6e3 2983marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
675fa9ff 2984
cd209d9d 2985(F) The two-character sequence C<"(*"> in
675fa9ff
FC
2986this context in a regular expression pattern should be an
2987indivisible token, with nothing intervening between the C<"(">
cd209d9d 2988and the C<"*">, but you separated them.
675fa9ff 2989
a0d0e21e
LW
2990=item ioctl is not implemented
2991
2992(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
2993strange for a machine that supports C.
2994
c289d2f7
JH
2995=item ioctl() on unopened %s
2996
2997(W unopened) You tried ioctl() on a filehandle that was never opened.
34b6fd5e 2998Check your control flow and number of arguments.
c289d2f7 2999
fe13d51d 3000=item IO layers (like '%s') unavailable
363c40c4
SB
3001
3002(F) Your Perl has not been configured to have PerlIO, and therefore
34b6fd5e 3003you cannot use IO layers. To have PerlIO, Perl must be configured
363c40c4
SB
3004with 'useperlio'.
3005
80cbd5ad
JH
3006=item IO::Socket::atmark not implemented on this architecture
3007
3008(F) Your machine doesn't implement the sockatmark() functionality,
34b6fd5e 3009neither as a system call nor an ioctl call (SIOCATMARK).
80cbd5ad 3010
6e8a73f2 3011=item '%s' is an unknown bound type in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
64935bc6
KW
3012
3013(F) You used C<\b{...}> or C<\B{...}> and the C<...> is not known to
3014Perl. The current valid ones are given in
3015L<perlrebackslash/\b{}, \b, \B{}, \B>.
3016
74d1b2e4
FC
3017=item %s() is deprecated on :utf8 handles
3018
3019(W deprecated) The sysread(), recv(), syswrite() and send() operators are
3020deprecated on handles that have the C<:utf8> layer, either explicitly, or
3021implicitly, eg., with the C<:encoding(UTF-16LE)> layer.
3022
3023Both sysread() and recv() currently use only the C<:utf8> flag for the stream,
3024ignoring the actual layers. Since sysread() and recv() do no UTF-8
3025validation they can end up creating invalidly encoded scalars.
3026
3027Similarly, syswrite() and send() use only the C<:utf8> flag, otherwise ignoring
3028any layers. If the flag is set, both write the value UTF-8 encoded, even if
3029the layer is some different encoding, such as the example above.
3030
3031Ideally, all of these operators would completely ignore the C<:utf8> state,
3032working only with bytes, but this would result in silently breaking existing
3033code. To avoid this a future version of perl will throw an exception when
3034any of sysread(), recv(), syswrite() or send() are called on handle with the
3035C<:utf8> layer.
3036
6e8a73f2 3037=item "%s" is more clearly written simply as "%s" in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
acdfc3b6
KW
3038
3039(W regexp) (only under C<S<use re 'strict'>> or within C<(?[...])>)
3040
3041You specified a character that has the given plainer way of writing it,
3042and which is also portable to platforms running with different character
3043sets.
3044
4f650b80 3045=item $* is no longer supported
b4581f09 3046
4f650b80 3047(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$*>, deprecated in older
ea9d9ebc 3048perls, has been removed as of 5.10.0 and is no longer supported. In
4f650b80
NC
3049previous versions of perl the use of C<$*> enabled or disabled multi-line
3050matching within a string.
4fd19576
B
3051
3052Instead of using C<$*> you should use the C</m> (and maybe C</s>) regexp
6903afa2
FC
3053modifiers. You can enable C</m> for a lexical scope (even a whole file)
3054with C<use re '/m'>. (In older versions: when C<$*> was set to a true value
570dedd4 3055then all regular expressions behaved as if they were written using C</m>.)
b4581f09 3056
8ae1fe26
RGS
3057=item $# is no longer supported
3058
a58ac25e 3059(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$#>, deprecated in older
ea9d9ebc 3060perls, has been removed as of 5.10.0 and is no longer supported. You
a58ac25e 3061should use the printf/sprintf functions instead.
8ae1fe26 3062
ccf3535a 3063=item '%s' is not a code reference
6ad11d81 3064
6903afa2
FC
3065(W overload) The second (fourth, sixth, ...) argument of
3066overload::constant needs to be a code reference. Either
3067an anonymous subroutine, or a reference to a subroutine.
6ad11d81 3068
ccf3535a 3069=item '%s' is not an overloadable type
6ad11d81 3070
04a80ee0
RGS
3071(W overload) You tried to overload a constant type the overload package is
3072unaware of.
6ad11d81 3073
5a25739d
FC
3074=item -i used with no filenames on the command line, reading from STDIN
3075
3076(S inplace) The C<-i> option was passed on the command line, indicating
3077that the script is intended to edit files in place, but no files were
3078given. This is usually a mistake, since editing STDIN in place doesn't
3079make sense, and can be confusing because it can make perl look like
3080it is hanging when it is really just trying to read from STDIN. You
3081should either pass a filename to edit, or remove C<-i> from the command
3082line. See L<perlrun> for more details.
3083
aec0ef10 3084=item Junk on end of regexp in regex m/%s/
a0d0e21e
LW
3085
3086(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
3087
3088=item Label not found for "last %s"
3089
be771a83
GS
3090(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a loop
3091of that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
3092L<perlfunc/last>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3093
3094=item Label not found for "next %s"
3095
3096(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
3097that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
3098L<perlfunc/last>.
3099
3100=item Label not found for "redo %s"
3101
3102(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
3103that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
3104L<perlfunc/last>.
3105
85ab1d1d 3106=item leaving effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 3107
85ab1d1d 3108(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
3109effective uids or gids failed.
3110
49704364
LW
3111=item length/code after end of string in unpack
3112
d7f8936a 3113(F) While unpacking, the string buffer was already used up when an unpack
6903afa2
FC
3114length/code combination tried to obtain more data. This results in
3115an undefined value for the length. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
49704364 3116
25e26107 3117=item length() used on %s (did you mean "scalar(%s)"?)
e508c8a4 3118
0d46a4e7
FC
3119(W syntax) You used length() on either an array or a hash when you
3120probably wanted a count of the items.
e508c8a4
MH
3121
3122Array size can be obtained by doing:
3123
3124 scalar(@array);
3125
3126The number of items in a hash can be obtained by doing:
3127
3128 scalar(keys %hash);
3129
f0e67a1d
Z
3130=item Lexing code attempted to stuff non-Latin-1 character into Latin-1 input
3131
d4fe7078
RS
3132(F) An extension is attempting to insert text into the current parse
3133(using L<lex_stuff_pvn|perlapi/lex_stuff_pvn> or similar), but tried to insert a character that
3134couldn't be part of the current input. This is an inherent pitfall
3135of the stuffing mechanism, and one of the reasons to avoid it. Where
6903afa2 3136it is necessary to stuff, stuffing only plain ASCII is recommended.
f0e67a1d
Z
3137
3138=item Lexing code internal error (%s)
3139
3140(F) Lexing code supplied by an extension violated the lexer's API in a
3141detectable way.
3142
69282e91 3143=item listen() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 3144
be771a83
GS
3145(W closed) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget
3146to check the return value of your socket() call? See
3147L<perlfunc/listen>.
a0d0e21e 3148
6651ba0b
FC
3149=item List form of piped open not implemented
3150
3151(F) On some platforms, notably Windows, the three-or-more-arguments
3152form of C<open> does not support pipes, such as C<open($pipe, '|-', @args)>.
3153Use the two-argument C<open($pipe, '|prog arg1 arg2...')> form instead.
3154
dc6bb7ba
FC
3155=item %s: loadable library and perl binaries are mismatched (got handshake key %p, needed %p)
3156
3157(P) A dynamic loading library C<.so> or C<.dll> was being loaded into the
3158process that was built against a different build of perl than the
3159said library was compiled against. Reinstalling the XS module will
3160likely fix this error.
3161
8c6180a9
KW
3162=item Locale '%s' may not work well.%s
3163
780fcc9f 3164(W locale) You are using the named locale, which is a non-UTF-8 one, and
dae67c56
KW
3165which perl has determined is not fully compatible with what it can
3166handle. The second C<%s> gives a reason.
8c6180a9
KW
3167
3168By far the most common reason is that the locale has characters in it
3169that are represented by more than one byte. The only such locales that
3170Perl can handle are the UTF-8 locales. Most likely the specified locale
3171is a non-UTF-8 one for an East Asian language such as Chinese or
3172Japanese. If the locale is a superset of ASCII, the ASCII portion of it
780fcc9f 3173may work in Perl.
8c6180a9
KW
3174
3175Some essentially obsolete locales that aren't supersets of ASCII, mainly
3176those in ISO 646 or other 7-bit locales, such as ASMO 449, can also have
3177problems, depending on what portions of the ASCII character set get
3178changed by the locale and are also used by the program.
3179The warning message lists the determinable conflicting characters.
3180
780fcc9f
KW
3181Note that not all incompatibilities are found.
3182
3183If this happens to you, there's not much you can do except switch to use a
3184different locale or use L<Encode> to translate from the locale into
3185UTF-8; if that's impracticable, you have been warned that some things
3186may break.
3187
3188This message is output once each time a bad locale is switched into
3189within the scope of C<S<use locale>>, or on the first possibly-affected
3190operation if the C<S<use locale>> inherits a bad one. It is not raised
3191for any operations from the L<POSIX> module.
3192
a2162cd9
FC
3193=item localtime(%f) failed
3194
3195(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with a number that it could not handle:
3196too large, too small, or NaN. The returned value is C<undef>.
3197
3198=item localtime(%f) too large
3199
3200(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with a number that was larger
3201than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
3202wrong date. This warning is also triggered with NaN (the special
3203not-a-number value).
3204
3205=item localtime(%f) too small
3206
3207(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with a number that was smaller
3208than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
3209wrong date.
3210
58e23c8d 3211=item Lookbehind longer than %d not implemented in regex m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
3212
3213(F) There is currently a limit on the length of string which lookbehind can
6903afa2 3214handle. This restriction may be eased in a future release.
2e50fd82 3215
b88df990
NC
3216=item Lost precision when %s %f by 1
3217
e63e8a91
FC
3218(W imprecision) The value you attempted to increment or decrement by one
3219is too large for the underlying floating point representation to store
3220accurately, hence the target of C<++> or C<--> is unchanged. Perl issues this
3221warning because it has already switched from integers to floating point
3222when values are too large for integers, and now even floating point is
3223insufficient. You may wish to switch to using L<Math::BigInt> explicitly.
b88df990 3224
93fad930 3225=item lstat() on filehandle%s
2f7da168
RK
3226
3227(W io) You tried to do an lstat on a filehandle. What did you mean
3228by that? lstat() makes sense only on filenames. (Perl did a fstat()
3229instead on the filehandle.)
3230
345d70e3 3231=item lvalue attribute %s already-defined subroutine
bb3abb05 3232
345d70e3
FC
3233(W misc) Although L<attributes.pm|attributes> allows this, turning the lvalue
3234attribute on or off on a Perl subroutine that is already defined
3235does not always work properly. It may or may not do what you
3236want, depending on what code is inside the subroutine, with exact
3237details subject to change between Perl versions. Only do this
3238if you really know what you are doing.
bb3abb05 3239
885ef6f5
GG
3240=item lvalue attribute ignored after the subroutine has been defined
3241
345d70e3
FC
3242(W misc) Using the C<:lvalue> declarative syntax to make a Perl
3243subroutine an lvalue subroutine after it has been defined is
3244not permitted. To make the subroutine an lvalue subroutine,
3245add the lvalue attribute to the definition, or put the C<sub
3246foo :lvalue;> declaration before the definition.
3247
3248See also L<attributes.pm|attributes>.
885ef6f5 3249
6f1b3ab0
FC
3250=item Magical list constants are not supported
3251
3252(F) You assigned a magical array to a stash element, and then tried
3253to use the subroutine from the same slot. You are asking Perl to do
3254something it cannot do, details subject to change between Perl versions.
3255
2db62bbc 3256=item Malformed integer in [] in pack
49704364 3257
2db62bbc 3258(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
49704364
LW
3259are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3260
3261=item Malformed integer in [] in unpack
3262
2db62bbc 3263(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
49704364
LW
3264are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3265
6df41af2
GS
3266=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
3267
3268(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
3269
3270 prefix1;prefix2
3271
3272or
6df41af2
GS
3273 prefix1 prefix2
3274
be771a83
GS
3275with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix of
3276a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error may
3277appear if components are not found, or are too long. See
fecfaeb8 3278"PERLLIB_PREFIX" in L<perlos2>.
6df41af2 3279
2f758a16
ST
3280=item Malformed prototype for %s: %s
3281
d37a9538
ST
3282(F) You tried to use a function with a malformed prototype. The
3283syntax of function prototypes is given a brief compile-time check for
3284obvious errors like invalid characters. A more rigorous check is run
3285when the function is called.
30d9c59b
Z
3286Perhaps the function's author was trying to write a subroutine signature
3287but didn't enable that feature first (C<use feature 'signatures'>),
3288so the signature was instead interpreted as a bad prototype.
2f758a16 3289
ba210ebe
JH
3290=item Malformed UTF-8 character (%s)
3291
4d6f11e5 3292(S utf8)(F) Perl detected a string that didn't comply with UTF-8
2575c402 3293encoding rules, even though it had the UTF8 flag on.
ba210ebe 3294
2575c402
JW
3295One possible cause is that you set the UTF8 flag yourself for data that
3296you thought to be in UTF-8 but it wasn't (it was for example legacy
6903afa2 32978-bit data). To guard against this, you can use Encode::decode_utf8.
2575c402
JW
3298
3299If you use the C<:encoding(UTF-8)> PerlIO layer for input, invalid byte
3300sequences are handled gracefully, but if you use C<:utf8>, the flag is
3301set without validating the data, possibly resulting in this error
3302message.
3303
3304See also L<Encode/"Handling Malformed Data">.
901b21bf 3305
107160e2
KW
3306=item Malformed UTF-8 character immediately after '%s'
3307
3308(F) You said C<use utf8>, but the program file doesn't comply with UTF-8
3309encoding rules. The message prints out the properly encoded characters
3310just before the first bad one. If C<utf8> warnings are enabled, a
3311warning is generated that gives more details about the type of
3312malformation.
3313
bde9e88d 3314=item Malformed UTF-8 returned by \N{%s} immediately after '%s'
ff3f963a
KW
3315
3316(F) The charnames handler returned malformed UTF-8.
3317
4a5d3a93
FC
3318=item Malformed UTF-8 string in '%c' format in unpack
3319
3320(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
3321rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
3322
f337b084
TH
3323=item Malformed UTF-8 string in pack
3324
3325(F) You tried to pack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
3326rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
3327
3328=item Malformed UTF-8 string in unpack
3329
3330(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
3331rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
3332
4a5d3a93 3333=item Malformed UTF-16 surrogate
f337b084 3334
4a5d3a93
FC
3335(F) Perl thought it was reading UTF-16 encoded character data but while
3336doing it Perl met a malformed Unicode surrogate.
3337
30d9c59b
Z
3338=item Mandatory parameter follows optional parameter
3339
3340(F) In a subroutine signature, you wrote something like "$a = undef,
3341$b", making an earlier parameter optional and a later one mandatory.
3342Parameters are filled from left to right, so it's impossible for the
3343caller to omit an earlier one and pass a later one. If you want to act
3344as if the parameters are filled from right to left, declare the rightmost
3345optional and then shuffle the parameters around in the subroutine's body.
3346
2d88a86a
KW
3347=item Matched non-Unicode code point 0x%X against Unicode property; may
3348not be portable
3349
3350(S non_unicode) Perl allows strings to contain a superset of
3351Unicode code points; each code point may be as large as what is storable
3352in an unsigned integer on your system, but these may not be accepted by
3353other languages/systems. This message occurs when you matched a string
3354containing such a code point against a regular expression pattern, and
3355the code point was matched against a Unicode property, C<\p{...}> or
3356C<\P{...}>. Unicode properties are only defined on Unicode code points,
3357so the result of this match is undefined by Unicode, but Perl (starting
3358in v5.20) treats non-Unicode code points as if they were typical
3359unassigned Unicode ones, and matched this one accordingly. Whether a
3360given property matches these code points or not is specified in
3361L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>.
3362
3363This message is suppressed (unless it has been made fatal) if it is
3364immaterial to the results of the match if the code point is Unicode or
3365not. For example, the property C<\p{ASCII_Hex_Digit}> only can match
3366the 22 characters C<[0-9A-Fa-f]>, so obviously all other code points,
3367Unicode or not, won't match it. (And C<\P{ASCII_Hex_Digit}> will match
3368every code point except these 22.)
3369
3370Getting this message indicates that the outcome of the match arguably
3371should have been the opposite of what actually happened. If you think
3372that is the case, you may wish to make the C<non_unicode> warnings
3373category fatal; if you agree with Perl's decision, you may wish to turn
3374off this category.
3375
3376See L<perlunicode/Beyond Unicode code points> for more information.
3377
e0e4a6e3
FC
3378=item %s matches null string many times in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in
3379m/%s/
4a5d3a93
FC
3380
3381(W regexp) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
e0e4a6e3 3382regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. The S<<-- HERE>
9e3ec65c 3383shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was discovered.
4a5d3a93 3384See L<perlre>.
f337b084 3385
de42a5a9 3386=item Maximal count of pending signals (%u) exceeded
2563cec5 3387
6903afa2